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Attiiur  Purdy 
20  Feb.    1914 


I     I 




.-•..     "V    A»b    '    .'*'.• 


By  M0H4JJ  LAL,  Esq., 

Kmgit  of  the  Pernaa  Order  of  the  Lum  and  Sm ;  lately  attached  to 
the  Miaiion  at  KaM, 


Wm.     H.     ALLEN    &    Co., 


rv.  . .  .'^ 



:    .:iV 

« "59333 

*  O 

•  »      •  •  • 

Printed  by  J.  &  H.  COX,  BROTHERS  (lats  COX  &  SONS), 
74  &  75,  Great  Queen-iitreet,  LincolnVInn  Relda. 



8fc.  Sfc.  Sfc. 

This  volume  is  inscribed  as  a  proof  of  my  heart- 
felt gratitude, :isqi9p6<^,- and |t^0^  to  a  friend  to 
whom  I  am  indebted  .for  .all  .*•  enjoy  in  the  world : 
who,  besides  educating  J9(^e  ia^outh,  early  associated 
me  with  himself;  taught  me  to  think  and  to  act  as  a 
man,  when  most  of  my  companions  were  still  engaged 
in  their  education  in  the  class  established  by  him, 
and  who  afterwards  expressed  his  satisfaction  towards 
me  in  the  following  words :  ^*  I  feel  now  that  the 
favourable  opinion  which  I  formed  of  you  when  a 
boy,  and  which  subsequently  led  me  to  select  you  to 
accompany  Sir  Alexander  Bumes  on  his  journey,  has 
been  fully  justified  by  the  result,  and  it  is  satisfactory 
to  me  to  think  that  I  have  been  the  means  of  ena- 
bling you  to  commence  an  useful  and  honourable 



London,  1st  Marchy  1846. 

••  •«•  •  •   •••  •••  • 

€       •     ••         •  •• 


In  presenting  to  the  public  the  following  journal 
of  my  travels,  I  feel  it  incumbent  on  me  to  state 
that  my  course  of  instruction  in  the  English  language 
was  not  of  a  long  duration,  and  therefore  I  hope 
that  errors  of  idiom,  and  the  use  of  terms  not  strictly 
proper,  will  be  oyerlooked  by  candid  readers.  Even 
in  that  short  period  of  my  tuition,  I  was  not  able  to 
attend  the  college  regularly,  and  pay  close  atten- 
tion to  my  studies,  owing  to  the  sudden  change 
from  highly  comfortable  and  adequate  means,  my 
predecessors  having  been  deprived  of  respectable 
estates  by  Government.* 

Part  of  this  Journal,  which  I  kept  during  my 

*  During  this  distressed  state  of  my  mind  and  cironmstanoes, 
I  was  supported  by  Mr.  C.  E.  TreTelyan  with  many  friendly  and 
encouraging  speeches,  and  sometimes  with  pocket-money,  for 
which,  though  at  present  in  a  more  prosperous  condition,  I  feel 
deeply  gratefuL  He  gave  me  some  lessons  before  he  sent  me  to 
College,  and  also  a  document  promising  to  promote  my  success 
in  the  world  as  far  as  lay  in  his  power. 



travels  in  Turkistan  with  the  late  Sir  Alexander 
Bumes,  was  published  by  me  in  India,  but  as  not  a 
single  copy  of  it  was  left  unsold,  and  scarcely  one 
was  to  be  found  in  England,  I  thought  it  best  to 
add  it  to  the  entirely  new  account  of  my  travels  in 
the  Mazari  country,  and  the  commercial  reports  of 
the  different  marts  on  the  Indus. 

The  reader  will,  perhaps,  be  surprised  to  find  that 
this  volume  contains  nothing  whatever  concerning 
our  disasters  in  Afghanistan.  A  narrative  of  those 
yet  unexplained  transactions  will  appear  in  another 
work,  which  is  now  in  preparation. 

I  have  abridged  a  great  deal  of  that  part  of  my 
Journal  formerly  printed,  and  Mr.  Trevelyan  has 
likewise  made  alterations  and  abridgments  in  the 
Memoir.  There  were  many  statements  in  both 
which  were  quite  uninteresting.  The  map  of  my 
route  contains  parts  which  I  surveyed  myself,  and 
were  never  before  traversed. 

I  have  mentioned  the  names  of  some  gentlemen 
and  ladies,  and  quoted  their  letters,  and  I  have 
expressed  the  sentiments  of  heartfelt  gratitude 
which  I  owe  them.  This  I  have  done  with  the 
view  that  the  people  of  Asia  might  read  them, 
and  be  thereby  assured   of  receiving  kindness  in 

PBEFACE.  vii 

this  civilized  and  hospitable  country,  and  discard 
the  most  unjost  idea,  that  strangers  are  neither 
protected  nor  respected  in  Europe. 

4,  George'gtreei,  Manchester-Bquare, 
London,  Ut  Marehy  1846. 




a  E.  TREVELYAN,  Esq. 

Originally  publisked  at  Caieuiia,  m  the  year  1834,  as  a  Pr^aee  to  Mohan 

Lai* 9  Narrative  of  kit  Travels  to  Bokhara,  Sfc,  in  company 

with  the  late  Sir  Alexander  Barnes. 

Mohan  Lal  is  the  son  of  Rae  Budh  Singh,  the 
son  of  Raja  Mani  Ram,  of  Kashmir,  who  held  a  high 
rank,  with  a  considerable  estate,  at  the  court  of 
the  late  emperors  of  Delhi.  His  father,  the  Rae, 
was  a  resident  of  that  ancient  metropolis,  and  he 
accompanied  the  Honourable  Mountstuart  Elphin- 
stone  to  Peshawer,  in  the  capacity  of  Persian  secre- 
tary, from  which  association  the  subject  of  this 
Memoir  began  even  from  early  childhood  to  take  an 
interest  in  the  affairs  of  that  quarter.  After  receiving 
the  ordinary  Persian  education  at  home,  Mohan  Lal 
was  introduced  to  me  by  his  lather,  who  had  learned, 
from  a  short  residence  at  Calcutta,  the  advantages 
of  an  English  education,  and  willingly  agreed  to 
send  his  son  to  join  an  English  class  which  had  just 
been  established  in  the  Persian  College  at  Delhi. 

Let  no  one  despise  the  day  of  small  things.  This 
little   class,  which  was  formed  amid  the  scoffe  of 


the  learned  inhabitants  of  Delhi,  and  the  pradential 
objections  of  not  a  few  of  the  European  residents ; 
and  which  consisted,  for  several  weeks  after  its  first 
establishment,  of  only  six  individuals,  was  the  nu- 
cleus of  a  system  which,  to  all  appearances,  is 
destined  to  change  the  moral  aspect  of  the  whole 
of  Upper  India.  Only  five  years  have  passed  since 
that  period,  and  an  annually  increasing  body  of  the 
most  intelligent  and  aspiring  youths  of  the  upper 
and  middle  classes,  amounting  at  present  to  at  least 
three  hundred,  is  zealously  pursuing  the  study  of 
English ;  and  in  a  few  years,  such  a  number  of  advo- 
cates and  teachers  of  the  new  learning  will  have 
been  raised  up^  that  the  system  must  obtain  a  de* 
eided  predominance.  Except  among  a  few  adherents 
to  ancient  systems,  who  foresee  the  inevitable  con^ 
sequences  of  the  process  whidi  is  going  on,  pr^ 
judices  have  been  disarmed ;  and  the  movement  haa 
become  so  decidedly  national,  that  Indians  of  rank 
and  influence^  no  longer  willing  that  the  exchx-* 
sive  direction  should  remain  with  the  Europeans, 
have  begun  to  take  the  matter  into  their  own 
hands,  and  they  are  at  this  moment  engaged  in 
devising  the  means  of  establishing  a  separate  col* 
lege  for  the  young  nobility  of  that  quarter,  in  which 
their  children  may  receive  a  good  English  educa-^ 
tion,  without  associating  with  the  other  elssseB  of 
the  community- 

^  The  importance  of  this  change  cannot  be  appre- 
ciated unless  we   reeoUect   that  Delhi  wafi  of  all 


places  the  least  promising  field  for  trying  a  great 
experiment  of  this  kifld.  It  was  justly  considered 
the  stronghold  of  Mohammedan  bigotry.  The  coun- 
tenance and  authority  of  the  king»  the  large  body 
of  learned  ^^maulavis  and  hakims,"*  thie  numerous 
mosques  and  public  ceremonials,  and  abo¥e  all, 
the  hereditary  associations  of  respect  and  esteem 
with  which  the  Mohammedan  system  was  viewed 
in  the  Mohammedan  capital,  seemed  to  render  such 
an  attempt  hopeless;  yet  a  more  flourishing  tree 
never  sprung  up  even  in  the  best  of  soils.  English 
learning  has  now  become  so  well  and  firmly  esta- 
blished, that,  in  the  course  of  years,  by  the  mere 
accumulation  of  existing  means,  without  any  new 
effort,  it  must  displace  every  other  system.  After 
what  has  taken  place  at  Delhi,  we  need  not  despair 
of  success  in  any  quarter,  provided  the  efforts  made 
are  sustained  by  zeal,  and  directed  by  good  sense. 
"^We  do  not  think  our  readers  will  blame  us  for 
shewing  the  connection  which  exists  between 
Mohan  Lai's  history  and  the  commencement  of 
one  of  the  greatest  moral  changes  that  has  ever 
taken  place  on  the  face  of  the  globe.  Mohan  Lai 
is  among  the  first-fruits  of  the  new  sjrstem,  and  he 
has  done  it  no  small  credit.  He  was  one  of  the  little 
class  of  six  students  above  referred  to,  whose 
memory  will  be  cherished  when  the  professors  of 
the  new  literature,  and  of  the  new  system  of  morals 

*  Theologians  and  medical  men. 


and  science  embodied  in  it,  will  be  numbered  by 
millions,  and  when  it  will  be  narrated  as  a  striking 
instance  of  the  superintending  providence  of  God, 
that  so  mighty  a  change  was  accomplished  by  means 
apparently  so  weak  and  contemptible.  Shahamat 
All,*  who  is  imparting  gratuitous  instruction  in  the 
English  language  to  the  youth  of  Lodiana,  and  amus- 
ing the  people  of  Calcutta  with  the  interesting 
news  of  that  quarter,  is  another  of  the  six ;  as  are 
also  Ramkrishan  Jewahir  Lai,  and  Sheoparshad, 
now  teachers  in  the  parent  Institution  at  Delhi. 
Although  less  known  to  fame,  Ramkrishan  made 
the  earliest  and  greatest  progress  of  all  his  fellows, 
and  is  now  looked  up  to  by  his  old  associates  with 
feelings  of  sincere  respect  and  affection. 
^The  increase  of  the  numbers  of  the  English  class 
attached  to  the  Persian  College  led  to  the  formation 
of  a  separate  English  College,  among  the  students  of 
which,  Mohan  Lai  and  his  associates  held,  of  course, 
the  first  rank.  The  hero  of  our  tale  pursued  his 
studies  here  for  nearly  two  years,  during  which  he 
was  principally  distinguished  for  his  amiable  and 
gentle  disposition,  and  unassuming  deportment. 
Ramkrishan  always  kept  somewhat  in  adyance  of 
him  in  the  intellectual  race,  but  none  made  such  an 
impression  upon  the  hearts  of  all  who  knew  them  as 
Mohan  Lai.  Other  students  might  command  in  a 
greater  degree  the  respect  of  visitors  to  the  college, 

'    *  Now  chief  Persian  Secretary  (Mir  Munshi)  to  the  Political 
Rodent  at  Indore. 


but  Mohan  Lai  won  their  affections ;  and  the  natural 
grace  of  his  simple  and  unaffected  manners  made 
him  an  universal  favourite. 

*^  At  this  period  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  of  the  civil  service, 
now  unhappily  no  more,  arrived  at  Delhi.  He 
visited  the  college,  and  a  congeniality  of  disposition 
soon  led  him  and  Mohan  Lai  to  become  frequent 
associates.  It  was  in  his  house  Mohan  Lai  first 
became  acquainted  with  Lieutenant  Bumes,*  who 
soon  became  sensible  of  his  peculiar  qualifications, 
and  proposed  to  the  late  Lord  William  Bentinck, 
to  take  him  as  his  companion  and  Persian  secretary 
in  the  journey  which  he  was  about  to  undertake 
through  Central  Asia.  ^ 

This  was  the  commencement  of  what  may  be 
called  Mohan  Lai's  official  career;  and  since  that 
period  he  has  been  so  constantly  before  the  public, 
that  there  is  no  occasion  for  me  to  trace  minutely 
the  steps  of  his  progress.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that 
wherever  he  has  been  employed,  he  has  left  behind 
him  a  favourable  impression.  The  natives  of  those 
distant  countries  expected,  as  a  matter  of  course,  to 
find  superior  qualifications  in  the  gentlemen  who 
composed  the  European  portion  of  the  party ;  iJieir 
learning  and  accomplishments  created  no  astonish- 
ment ;  but  to  see  Mohan  Lai,  a  young  inhabitant 
of  Delhi,  who  had  never  before  left  his  native 
country,  well  stored  with  interesting  information, 

*  The  late  Sir  Alexander  Burnes. 


and  demeaning  himself  as  one  who  was  consciona 
of  his  own  worth,  at  the  same  time  that  he  wa» 
particularly  unassuming  in  his  mauners-*^this  was 
indeed  a  matter  of  surprise  to  them.  They  beheld 
an  indiyidual  raised  at  onoe  by  the  simple  in- 
fluence of  an  European  education  to  associate  in 
the  highest  society ;  and  a  person  who,  under  other 
circumstances,  would  not  have  been  distiuguished 
from  the  crowd,  courted  and  beloved  for  the  ex- 
tent of  his  information  (which  to  them  appeared 
almost  boundless),  the  agreeable  manner  in  which 
he  communicated  it  to  them  in  their  own  language, 
and  the  general  attraction  of  his  manners.  This 
was,  indeed,  a  triumph  of  our  nation,  which  does  us 
more  real  credit  than  all  our  Plasseys  and  Assayes. 
In  the  person  of  Mohan  Lai  we  proved  to  the 
Mohammedan  nations  beyond  the  Indus  our  qualifi- 
cation for  the  great  mission  with  which  we  have 
been  intrusted,  of  regenerating  India.  We  con- 
vinced them  that  we  are  capable  of  producing  a 
moral  change  infinitely  more  honourable  to  us  than 
any  victory  we  have  achieved.  It  must,  therefore, 
be  admitted  that  Mohan  Lai  deserves  well  of  our 

Not  to  mention  minor  instances,  Mohan  Lai  was 
honoured  with  the  particular  notice  of  Abbas  Mirza, 
the  late  lamented  prince  royal  of  Persia.  Oa  the 
great  day  of  Id-ul-Fatar,  aU  the  nobles  of  his  court 
came  to  pay  their  respects  to  his  highness,  who  was 
graciously  pleased  to  summon  Mohan  Lai,  by  spe- 


oial  invitation,  to  witness  tlie  pageant.     When  the 
first  ceremonies  bad  been  brought  to  a  close,  and 
the  noblea,   after  presenting  their  offerings,  had 
taken  their  places  in  the  darbar,  his  highness  turned 
towards  Mohan  Lai,  and  aaked  him,  as  he  had  seen 
both,  whether  Raiyit  Singh's  court  could  vie  in 
magnificence  with  what  he  now  saw  before  him,  or 
whether  the  Sikh  army  could  compare  in  discipline 
and  courage  with  his  highness's  sirbaz  ?*    To  this 
Mohan  Lai  modestly,  but  firmly,  replied,  that  Ma- 
harajah Banjit  Singh's  darbar-tent  was  made  of 
Kashmir  shawls,  and  that  even  the  floor  was  com- 
posed of  the  same  costly  material ;  and  as  for  his 
army,  if  Sardar  Hari  Singh  (Ranjit's  commander-in- 
chief  on  the  A%han  frontier)  were  to  cross  the  Indus, 
his  highness  would  soon  be  glad  to  make  good  his 
retreat  to  his  original  government  in  Tabriz.     The 
terms  in  which  this  reply  was  conceived,  and  the 
tone  of  voice  in  which  it  was  delivered,  were  so 
indicative  of  frankness,  that  no  idea  of  an  impro- 
priety having   been   committed  occurred  to  any- 
body; yet  the  free  expression  of  opinion  was  a 
thing  so  unheard  of  at  the  Persian  court,  that 
the  entire  audience  stood  waiting  in  silent  expec- 
tation for  his  highness's  reply.     This  was  not  long 
delayed,  and,  as  nearly  as  the  recollection  of  our 
informant  serves,  it  was  as  follows : — "  Wonderful, 
wonderful ! "  said  Abbas  Mirza,  drawing  the  atten- 

*  ^  Stokers  of  their  heads.'    The  Persian  regular  troops  are  so 


tion  of  the  court  towards  Mohan  Lai ;  "  see  the 
effect  of  English  education ! "  and,  after  a  short 
pause,  he  continued  —  "How  inscnitable  are  the 
decrees  of  Providence  which  has  conferred  so  much 
power  on  a  kafir !  (infidel) ;  but  if  Ali,  the  Lion  of 
God,  favour  us,  we  vidll  yet  plant  our  standard  in 
Kashmir,  and  dress  all  our  sirbazes  in  shawl  panta- 
loons." On  his  departure  from  Mashad,  Mohan  Lai 
was  distinguished  by  his  royal  highness  by  the  gift 
of  the  order  of  the  Lion  and  Sun ;  and  since  the 
premature  decease  of  that  truly  noble  prince,  this 
mark  of  his  good  opinion  has  acquired  additional 

From  Mashad,  where  Abbas  Mirza  at  that  period 
held  his  court,  Mohan  Lai  returned  with  Dr.  Gerard 
to  Herat,  and  during  seven  months'  stay  at  that 
place,  he  contracted  an  intimate  friendship  with 
Sadat  Malik,  son  of  Shah  Kamran,  the  Durani  king 
of  that  part  of  Afghanistan.  Jonathan  and  David, 
and  Pylades  and  Orestes,  were  not  more  distinguished 
examples  of  disinterested  friendship  than  Sadat 
Malik  and  Mohan  Lai.  The  princes  of  that  country 
do  not  enjoy  what  we  should  regard  as  a  princely 
revenue;  but  Sadat  Malik  gave  what  he  had, 
and  conferred  upon  his  friend  an  accomplish- 
ment which  is  likely  to  be  of  greater  practical 
value  to  him  through  life  than  can  be  estimated 
in  gold  and  silver :  he  taught  him  how  to  tie  his 
turban  in  a  style  of  superior  elegance.  We,  wh5 
only  deal  in  stiff  round  hats,  can  have  no  con- 


ception  of  the  real  importance  to  an  Asiatic  of  the 
ability  to  arrange  the  ample  drapery  of  his  turban 
in  a  becoming  manner.  This  gift  among  them  ranks 
second  only  to  that  of  a  handsome  fiEu^,  and  as  almost 
all  the  world  judge  of  persons  by  their  outward  ap- 
pearance, the  possession  of  such  an  accomplishment 
is  likely  to  have  a  beneficial  influence  over  a  per- 
son's prospects  through  life. 

From  Herat,  Mohan  Lai  proceeded  in  company 
with  Dr.  Gerard  to  Candahar,  where  he  attracted  the 
particular  notice  of  the  Barakzai  chiefs  of  that  place. 
Indeed  Mohammed  Saddiq  Khan,  the  eldest  son  of 
Kohan  Dil  Khan,  the  principal  chief,  was  so  deeply 
interested  by  the  information  which  Mohan  Lai, 
owing  to  his  English  education,  was  able  to  impart 
to  him,  that  he  had  at  one  time  made  up  his  mind 
to  accompany  him  to  Calcutta,  in  order  to  acquire  the 
same  advantages ;  but  he  was  prevented  from  carry- 
ing this  resolution  into  effect  by  the  unexpected 
approach  of  Shah  Shuja,  which  rendered  it  necessary 
for  him  to  remain  at  his  post. 

From  Candahar  the  travellers  returned  to  Kabul, 
where  perhaps  the  highest  compliment  of  all  was 
paid  to  Mohan  Lai's  character.  Sardar  Dost  Mo- 
hammed Khan,  the  stem  and  penetrating  ruler 
of  that  country,  pressed  him  to  enter  into  his 
service,  and  the  good-natured  Jabbar  Khan,  Dost 
Mohammed's  brother,  with  difficulty  got  him  excused 
on  the  plea  that  he  had  been  long  absent  from  his 
father,  and  that  it  was  therefore  his  duty  to  return 


to  see  him  before  he  entered  upon  any  plan  of  life. 
From  the  practical  illustration  of  its  effects  upon 
Mohan  Lai,  Jabbar  Khan  was  so  convinced  of  the 
greatly  superior  value  of  an  English  educati<m  to  any 
which  his  own  country  could  aflford,  that  he  resolved 
to  send  his  eldest  son  to  receive  his  education  in  our 
provinces,  and  he  has  since  actually  done  so.  Abdul 
Ghaias  Khan  is  at  this  moment  zealously  pursuing 
his  EngUsh  studies  at  Lodiana,  under  the  auspices 
of  Captain  Wade.*  Whatever  influence,  th^gre- 
fore,  this  distinguished  example  may  hereafter 
have  in  determining  the  choice  of  the  people  of 
India,  and  those  of  the  Trans-Indus  countries, 
between  the  Asiatic  and  European  systems  of  in^ 
struction,  the  world  is  entirely  indebted  for  it  to 
Mohan  Lai. 

Mohim  Lai  has  now  arrived  in  Calcutta,  in  charge 
of  despatches  and  of  the  collection  of  coins  and 
curiosities  made  by  him  and  Dr.  Gerard  in  the 
course  of  their  journey.  For  this  service  he  has 
received  the  thanks  of  the  Asiatic  Society;  but 
what  he  has  already  done  may  be  considered  only 
as  a  slight  earnest  of  the  contributions  which  he 
will  hereafter  make  to  Asiatic  science.  Through 
the  kind  acknowledgment  of  his  merits  by  the 
Governor-General,  he  will  shortly  return  to  Kabul 
m  a  public  capacity ;  and  the  leisure  and  influence 
he  will  enjoy,  combined  with  the  peculiar  advan- 

*  Now  Lieutenantr-Colonel  Sir  Claude  Wade. 


tages  of  the  sitaation,  both  as  a  place  of  great 
interest  in  itself,  and  also  as  a  point  of  easy  com- 
munication with  several  other  countries  of  clas- 
sical celebrity,  will,  no  doubts  enable  him  to  esta- 
blish much  greater  claims  on  the  gratitude  of 
the  scientific  worid  than  he  has  hitherto  done. 
Eyen  now  he  is  zealously  engaged  in  acquiring 
those  qualifications  which  are  necessary  to  enable 
him  to  make  the  most  of  the  opportunities  he 
will  enjoy;  and,  besides  the  directions  which  he 
receives  from  Mr.  James  Prinsep,  secretary  to  the 
Asiatic  Society,  regarding  the  points  which  will  be 
particularly  deserving  of  his  attention,  he  is  going 
through  a  regular  course  of  instruction  in  surveying, 
and  the  morning  of  the  seventh  day  is  the  only  one 
which  does  not  behold  him  and  his  teacher  busily 
engaged  in  taking  angles,  and  measuring  with  the 

One  other  brief  remark  only  requires  to  be  added 
— What  has  given  Mohan  Lai  so  decided  an  advan- 
tage over  the  generality  of  his  countrymen  ?  What  is 
it  that  has  gained  for  him  a  willing  acknowledgment 
of  his  personal  superiority  by  the  princes  of  Central 
Asia,  and  enables  him  to  enjoy,  on  terms  of  equality, 
the  society  of  European  gentlemen  ?  It  is  simply 
his  knowledge  of  the  English  language :  not  a  cri- 
Heal  knowledge — ^that  he  leaves  to  those  philologists 
in  whose  estimation  languages  are  desirable  objects 
of  acquisition,  not  so  much  as  a  medium  of  obtain- 
ing knowledge,  as  for  their  own  proper  sakes — ^but 


such  knowledge  as  enables  him  to  read  and  under- 
stand English  books,  and  to  converse  intelligently 
with  English  gentlemen  on  ordinary  subjects. 

This  is  the  simple  cause  of  Mohan  Lai's  elevation 
of  character ;  and  can  it  be  doubted  that,  under  the 
Divine  blessing,  the  same  means  which  have  pro- 
duced such  a  decided  effect  in  raising  an  individual 
in  the  scale  of  civilization  and  honour,  will,  if 
properly  applied,  lead  to  the  same  result  in  regard  to 
the  entire  population  of  this  great  country? 

August  22ndy  1834. 




Departure  from  Dellii-— Panipat — Kamal — Amhalah- 
Lodiana — Hari — ^Akalis,  or  Nihangs— Sikh  Jats — ^Ar- 
riral  at  Labor — Ranjit  Singh— His  goyenunent^-^-His 
darbar — ^Hunting  expedition — ^Tomb  of  Jahangir^— De- 
partnre  from  Lahor-^Sadhs— Salt-mines  near  Pind 
Dadal  Khan-— Fort  of  Rotas — l£anikjalar-*-Indo-Ore- 
cian  antiquities — Raral  Pindi— Maigala — ^Hindn  tra- 
veller— Passage  of  the  Indus — Arriyal  at  Peshawer — 
Character  of  the  chiefs,  govemment,  people,  &g. — 
Description  of  the  city  and  its  neighbourhood    •••         P<^^  1 



Departure  from  Peshawer— The  Shahalam,  or  Kabul  riyer 
—The  Khaibar  country — Ascent  of  the  mountains— An 
Afghan  husbandman— Jatahfcbad — ^Arriral  at  S[abul— 
The  Rev.  Mr.  Wolff— Description  of  the  city— Charac- 
ter of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan-^People  of  Kabul — Tomb 
of  the  emperor  Babar — ^Trade  of  Kabul— Revenue — 
Climate,  &e.— Departure  for  Bokhara — Region  of  the 



Hazaras — Pass  of  Shatar  Gardan — Deep  saow — ^Tradi- 
tion respeoting  the  emperor  Zohak — Cave-dwellings — 
Bamian — Its  colossal  statnes— -Tradition  respecting  them 
— ^Fort  of  Shahar  Ghnl  Ghnlah — Tradition  respecting 
it — Hindu  Kush—- Saighan — Dandar  Shikan  Pass — 
Beauty  of  the  women — Robbers — Haibak-^Enter  Mir 
Murad  Beg's  countiy — Arrival  at  EJinlum — Detention 
there — ^Account  of  Murad  Beg  and  his  government — 
Slavery — His  Diwan  Begi,  a  Hindu— ^Yisit  of  Sir  A. 
Bumes  to  Qunduz — Sufferings  of  the  party— People  of 
Khulum — ^Trade  of  the  place — Return  of  Sir  A.  Bumes 
— Departure— Mazar:— Arrival  at  Balk — Description  of 
the  city — Grave  of  Mr.  Moorcroft — Departure— The 
country — ^Turkmans — The  Amn,  or  Oxus— Mode  of 
crossing  the  river— bufferings  in  the  desert — Qizal  Bash 
slaves — Qarshi — ^Female  slaves  of  the  Uzbegs — ^Arrival 
at  Bokhara— Description  of  the  city — Character  and 
manners  of '  the  people— Jews— Hindus — Government 
of  Bokhara— -Climate — Productions — Tte  King — His 
revenue — Military  force — ^The  Qosh  Begi,  or  Prime 
Minister — Manufactures  of  Bokhara — Treatment  of  the 
travellers  in  that  city p.  57 




Departure  from  Bokhara — ^The  country — Detention  at 
Mirabad — The  Huiganji — Mr.  Moorcroft — Departure 
for  Maahad — Sandy  deserts — Passage  of  the  Oxns»  and 
entrance  into  Khorasan — Charjn — Cruel  treatment  of 
Turkman  slaves — Marv — Sarakhs — Its  singular  govern- 


ment— Slavea— -Alamans,  or  robbers-^Arrival  at  Ma- 
shad — Tomb  of    Imam  Raza — ^The  Prince  Ruler  of 
Mashad^-Mnrder  of  the  RtLBsian  ambassador  at  Tehran 
— Visit  to  the  camp  of  Abbas  Mirza,  at  Qochan — Ex- 
cardon  of  Sir  A.  Barnes  to  the  Caspian  Sea^-Turquois 
mines  at  Madan-^Retnm  to    Mashad — Entrance    of 
Abbas  Mirza-into  the  city — Yar  Mohammed  Khan, 
vazir  of  Herat — Mohammed  Mirza,  the  present  king  of 
Persia — Sir  John  MacneiU-— Description  of  Mashad — 
Colleges— Productions— -Inhabitants,  &c. — Departure— 
Turbat — ^Abbas   Mirzar— His    Qaim  Moqam,  or  prime 
minister— Operations  of  the  Persian  army — Dependen- 
cies of  Turbat — Stages  from  Tehran  to  Tabrez,  Ispahan, 
and  Mashad — Departure  for  Herat — Arrival  at   that 
city — Visit  to  the  king,  Shah  Kamran^-Communication 
with  his  Majesty — Return  of  the  author  to  Mashad — 
Detention  of  Ghuryan — Mahmudabad — Arrival  at  Ma- 
shad— The  Author  sent  for  by  Prince  Abbas  Mirza — 
Remarkable,  eonversation  with  the  Prince — Return  to 
Herat — Visit  to  the  King^    her    Mohammed  Khan, 
Hazara  chief — Mir  Saddiq  Khan — Women  of  Herat — 
Tortures  employed  by  the  King  to  extort  money — 
Treatment  of  the  poor — The  court — Cruel  punishment 
of  slave>dealers — Seizure  of  the  Author's  servant,  sent 
to  Mashad — ^Letter  from  Rahim  Dil  Khan,  chief  of  Can- 
dahar — ^The   Shias — Afghan    travellers — Visit  to  the 
King — Mausolea  of  the  family  of  Taimur,  at  the  Gazur 
Gah— The  Takt-i-Safar— The   Masjid  Jama— Ruined 
buildings  in  Herat — Its  revenue — Remarkable  objects 
'in  the  city — List  of  the  ancient  kings  of  Herat— The 
reigning  King  and  his  family — People  of  Herat — Pro- 
ducts, manufactures,  and  trade p,  145 




Departure  from  Herat — Sabnwaiy— Forta  of  the  Maiden 
and  Youth — ^Hauz-— The  Author  plundered  by  robbers^— 
Loss  of  his  journal— He  proeeeds  to  FanIb-«*RecoYerB 
his  property— Oirisk-^-Arriyal  at  Oandahar-— Visit  to 
the  chief — Description  of  the  city  and  its  inhabitants — 
The  Babavali  jGeut— Grotto  of  Ghar  Jamshaid—- Chffdens 
—Ancient  city-*The  Chihal  Zinah-*Persian  inscrip- 
tion, leoording  the  conquests  of  the  Emperor  Babar— 
The  Sardars  of  Candabai^— Its  climate— -Productions— • 
Commerce— Boutes— Duties j9.  279 



Departure  from  Candahar— Robbers— The  Ghilzai*— Di- 
valak — Chief  of  the  Takhis— Tumak  river — Ghazni — 
Description  of  the  city— Tomb  of  Sultan  Mahmud — 
Arrival  at  Kabul — Mr.  Masson — Viait  to  Dost  Moham- 
med Khan         ...         •••         ...         ...         ...  p*  322 



Departure  from  Kabul— But  Khak  —  Tezin— Sokhtah 
Chinar — JagdaJak — Wandering  Afghans — Chmdu  Mak 
— Tatang — Sugar-canes — JalaUbad — The  Siah  Posh- 
Topes  —  Hindu  idols  —  Antiquities — Peshawer — Bag 
Ram — Re-cross  the  Indus — Atak — Generals  Ventura 


and  Avitabili — Labor — Amritsa^— Lodiana — Delhi- 
Cool  reception  of  the  Author  by  hie  jealous  countrymen 
—Alahabad— Arrival  at  Calcutta        p.  S36 



Departure  from  Calcuttaf^-Lodiana*- Legend  of  Earid 
Shakarganj  Shakarbar-— Bahawalpup— Mianpur^Shu- 
jabad — ^Bibi  Jannat — Multan — Death  of  Radha  Ejuihen 
— Commerce  of  the  Indus-— Productionfl  of  Multan-— 
Trade — Duties-— Prices  of  Conmiodities— Marts— Ex- 
tortions in  the  Panjab— Departure  from  Multan— 
Qaraiahi — Visit  to  Diwan  Sawan  Mai— Dera  Ghaad 
Khan— Routes— Shikarpur^—Dandjal—Herrand— Ma- 
zari  Beloohes— Rajanpur— Mitankot— Beloch  language 
— Omarkoi — Country  of  the  Masiris — Manners  of  the 
tribe-— The  Buldis— Ghauspnr— Shikarpur — Baihram 
Khan — Cross  the  .Indus,  and  enter  Sindh— Gotki — 
Khairpur — Kot  Sabzal — Klianpur — Ahmadpur — ^The 
Author  acts  as  British  Agent  in  Bahawalpur — Curious 
question  in  Mohammedan  law— The  Author  attached  to 
the  mission  of  Sir  A.  Bumes— The  mission  enters  the 
territory  of  Khaiq>ur**Reception  by  the  Nawab— Uch 
Sharif — ^Tombs  of  the  Saints — ^Arrival  at  Peshawer— 
Jamrod — Khaibar  Pass— AH  Masjid — Deputation  from 
Dost  Mohammed  Khan — Arrival  at  Kabul — Captain 
VicoTitch,  the  Russian  agent— Rupture  of  the  negotia- 
tions—The Be^  Ratoatij  or  moving  sand — Departure 
from  Kabul — ^Arrival  at  Simla p,  373 




Army  of  the  Indus — Departure  of  the  Ajithor  for  Khair- 
pur— His  sucoessful  negotiations  with  Mir  Rustam  Khan 
— Moyements  of  the  army — March  to  Candahar,  and 
restoration  of  Shah  Shnja — ^Advance  of  the  army  to 
Ghazni  and  Kabul — Flight  of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan 
— Arrival  at  Kabul — Order  of  the  Durrani  Empire — 
Operations  in  the  Kohistan — Surrender  of  the  Amir- 
Outbreak  at  Kabul — Murder  of  Sir  A.  Bumes— Peril 
of  the  Author — His  sufferings — His  secret  negotiations 
for  the  relief  of  the  prisoners,  with  the  chiefs  and  Salah 
Mohammed  Khan — His  success — ^His  escape  from  pri- 
son— Re-occupation  of  Kabul  by  Sir  George  Pollock — 
Transactions  in  the  city — Withdrawal  of  the  British 
forces — Arrival  at  Labor — Reception  of  the  Jalalabad 
garrison  by  the  Governor-General,  at  Firozpur — Gene- 
rous act  of  Shahamat  All  p.  463 



Arrival  at  Lodiana — Meeting  with  Dost  Mohammed  Khan 
— The  Author  joins  the  court  of  the  Governor-General, 
at  Delhi — Mr.  Clerk — Gwalior — Dewas— Indore — 
Colonel  Outram — Nasak — Arrival  at  Bombay — Visit 
to  Sir  George  Arthur— Departure  for  England — Acci- 
dent to  the  steamer — Return  to  Bombay — Re-embarka- 
tion— Aden — Suez — Cairo — Alexandria — Malta — Gib- 
raltar— Arrival  at  the  Isle  of  Wight /?.  480 




Landing  at  Ryde — Portsmouth — Southampton — Arrival 
in  London — Reception  by  the  Court  of  Directors— Ob- 
jects in  the  metropolis — Yisit  to  Scotland — Montrose- 
Edinburgh — Glasgow — Vifflt  to  L^land  —  Dublin — 
Westport—Woodville— Return  to  England — Liverpool 
—Manchester—Arrival  in  London— English  manners 
and  society — Visit  to  Belgium — ^Antwerp— Brussels — 
Germany— The  Rhine— Wisbaden — Frankfort — Dres- 
den— ^Berlin — ^The  Author  dines  by  invitation  with  the 
King  and  Queen  of  Prussia— Return  to  Enghind  p,  490 




Delhi,  December  18,  1831,  Sunday. — I  went  to 
pay  a  visit  to  my  poor  friend,  Mr.  B.  Fitzgerald,  and 
met  in  his  house  Lieutenant  (afterwards  Sir  Alex- 
ander) Burnes,*  assistant  resident  in  Cutch,  whose 
countenance  shewed  me  that  he  was  a  very  sensible 
man.  He  asked  me  to  accompany  him  to  Turk- 
istan,  in  the  capacity  of  interpreter,  and  Persian 
secretary-!  He  sent  for  my  father,  who  had  been  em- 
ployed as  Persian  secretary  under  the  Hon.  Mount- 
stuart  Elphinstone,  on  his  mission  to  Peshawer,  and 
Mr.  Trevelyan  prevailed  on  him  to  allow  me  to  go 
with  him ;  he  told  him  that  he  would  take  the  same 
care  of  me  as  if  I  were  his  own  son.  My  father  at 
once  joyfally  consented,  by  the  advice   of  Messrs. 

*  Murdered  in  Cabool,  2nd  Noyember,  1841. 

t  I  was  not  monshi  of  Sir  A.  Barnes ;  he  had  a  munshi 
from  Bombay,  named  Mohamed  Ali,  whose  family  now  re- 
ceive a  pension  from  the  goyemment  for  his  services  with  Sir 
A.  Bnmes. 



Trevelyan  and  Fitzgerald,  who  had  lately  been 
appointed  secretaries  to  the  Governor-General  and 
the  Delhi  Resident.  Mr.  Bumes  told  me  to 
come  to  Lodiana,  to  Captain  (now  Sir  Claude) 
Wade's  house. 

On  the  20th  December,  before  I  left  Delhi,  I 
•went  to  see  my  friend  Fitzgerald,  who  was  very  ill 
at  that  time,  and  could  not  move  from  his  bed. 
When  I  sat  by  him,  he  took  me  in  his  arms,  sighed, 
and  told  me  he  was  very  sorry  for  our  separation, 
but  hoped  that  I  should  have  a  successful  journey. 
He  gave  me  a  great  deal  of  advice,  and  told  me  to 
be  assured  of  one  thing,  that  this  enterprising  spirit 
of  mine  would  secure  to  me  the  esteem  and 
admiration  of  all  Europeans,  and  even  my  own 
countrymen.  We  shed  a  flood  of  tears  at  parting, 
which  he  seemed  to  feel  very  much.  Having  paid 
a  visit  to  Messrs.  T.  T.  Metcalfe  and  J.  H.  Taylor, 
I  commenced  my  journey,  and  arrived  at  Sonipat, 
where  I  halted  for  the  night. 

Dec.  23. — A  march  of  thirty-six  miles  brought 
me  to  Panipat.  I  met  on  the  road  the  Raja  of 
Patyala,  who  was  going  to  meet  Lord  William 
Bentinck.  He  was  handsomely  dressed  in  shawls, 
and  had  jewels  tied  on  his  arms,  according  to 
the  usual  custom  among  the  Indian  princes.  He 
sent  for  me  by  his  secretary,  and  inquired  for  his 
lordship's  camp.  On  receiving  the  proper  infor- 
mation, he  presented  me  with  a  dish  of  sweetmeats, 
and  bent  his  course  towards  Delhi.     Panipat  is  a 


rich  and  populous  town.  I  was  invited  by  one  of 
my  relations  at  night,  who  gave  me  an  excellent 
dinner,  followed  by  a  dance.  I  laughed  and  joked 
with  my  companions,  though  in  reality  melancholy, 
on  account  of  my  having  parted  with  my  friend, 
Mr.  Fitzgerald,  whose  kindness  I  shall  never 

I  went,  accompanied  by  a  friend,  to  visit  the 
tomb  of  the  celebrated  Boalee  Qalandar,  who  was 
a  very  pious  man  in  ancient  days.  I  saw  near  his 
holy  tomb  two  very  handsome  pillars  of  black 
stone,  called  Sang  Moosa  (Moses's  Stone) ;  their 
size  surprised  me,  being  almost  thirteen  feet  high, 
for  this  kind  of  stone  is  seldom  found  in  such 
large  blocks. 

Dec.  24,  Kurnal,  fourteen  miles. — I  began  now 
to  travel  on  horseback ;  but  the  animal  near  the  gate 
of  the  city  was  taken  ill,  and  unable  to  go  further. 
I  was  obliged  to  leave  him  at  Panipat,  and  mounted 
a  small,  lean  pony,  belonging  to  my  friend.  When 
two  miles  from  the  town,  it  rained  very  hard. 
Being  thoroughly  wet,  I  made  my  pony  gallop,  in 
order  to  reach  Kurnal  as  soon  as  possible ;  but  the 
saddle  broke,  and  I  sent  it  to  be  mended  in  a 
village  called  Gharaunda.  I  waited  a  long  time 
for  the  man,  and  being  afraid  of  robbers,  I  departed 
from  the  village  on  the  bare  back  of  the  pony 
When  I  nearly  reached  my  halting-place,  I  met 
my  servant,  who  brought  me  the  saddle.  It  was 
raining  when  I  came  to  Kurnal,  and  none  of  the 



hostlers  would  receive  me  on  account  of  the  number 
of  people.  Whilst  I  was  conversing  with  one  of 
the  hostlers  about  a  lodging,  a  beautiful  girl  came 
gracefully  to  me,  and  said  "  Come  with  me  in  the 
next  room,  where  I  will  prepare  a  clean  bed  for 
you."     I  slept  very  comfortably. 

Dec.  25. — We  halted  at  Kumal,  to  make  pro- 
vision for  my  journey. 

Dec.  26. — A  march  of  twenty-eight  miles  brought 
me  to  Kulchhattar,  a  religious  bathing-place  of 
Hindus.  There  are  two  large  tanks  full  of  water, 
and  a  fine  palace,  built  by  the  rani  or  princess,  who 
rules  the  villages  around.  She  supplies  strangers 
vnth  rich  and  delicious  victuals ;  it  is  added,  that 
she  was  inveigled  by  a  Rajput,  and  was  induced  to 
put  an  end  to  her  husband's  life  by  poison. 

At  the  close  of  the  day  I  went  to  bathe. 
Meanwhile  a  crowd  of  men  surrounded  me,  who 
solicited  me  to  give  them  some  money,  as  a 
"dharam.**  I  was  much  astonished  to  hear  the 
names  of  all  my  ancestors  mentioned  to  me  by 
a  Brahmin,  without  any  error.  I  gave  him  a  rupee 
and  some  red  cloth. 

Dec.  27. — I  moved  from  this  village  before  the 
sun  rose,  and  reached  Ambala,  a  handsome  town, 
famed  for  its  beautiful  bazar.  The  shops  appear 
neat,  and  are  inhabited  by  different  traders,  in 
number  nearly  five  hundred.  There  is  a  hand- 
some edifice,  situated  in  a  garden,  at  some  distance 
from    the   city,    where    Mr.   Clerk    resides,    who 


Hianages  the  political  transactions  of  this  country. 
I  was  invited  to  dinner  by  Kidarnath,  the  younger 
brother  of  Dinanath,  a  respectable  man,  who  was 
head  accountant-general  in  the  Maharaja  Ranjit 
Singh's  service. 

Dec.  28. — I  marched  early  in  the  morning,  but 
a  heavy  shower  of  rain  obliged  me  to  stop  at  a 
cottage,  thatched  with  straw,  and  inhabited  by  a 
guard.  When  the  rain  was  over,  I  recommenced 
my  journey  to  Banjara  Sarai. 

Dec.  29. — A  march  of  fifty  miles  brought  me  to 
a  ruined  village,  called  Duraha.  I  passed  on  my 
way  through  the  famous  ruins  of  Sarhind,  built  by 
the  emperors  of  Delhi.  It  is  celebrated  for  its 
bridge,  which  is  very  solid  and  strong.  A  hus- 
bandman of  the  village  brought  me  some  vegetables, 
which  I  divided  among  the  people ;  I  gave  him  a 
cambric  sheet,  which  made  him  very  happy.  The 
place  where  I  am  now  is  bare  both  of  men  and 

Dec.  30. — ^Although  the  rain  continued,  I  pro- 
ceeded towards  Lodiana,  whither  I  was  conducted 
by  one  of  Ranjit  Singh's  horsemen.  Here  I  again 
met  Mr.  Bumes,  at  the  house  of  Captain  Wade, 
whose  countenance  and  conversation  shewed  that 
he  was  clever,  hospitable,  and  polite.  Mr.  Burnes 
was  much  pleased  at  my  safe  arrival  at  Lodiana. 

Captain  Wade's  house  is  well  built  and  has  a 
fine  garden. 

Jan.  1  &  2,  1832,  Lodiana. — I  was  invited  to 


breakfast  and  dine  by  the  adjutant  of  the  Maharaja 
Ranjit  Singh,  named  Surajbban.  He  is  a  man  of 
bold  aspect  and  great  intrepidity. 

Lodiana  is  not  so  clean  and  handsome  a  town  ad 
Ambala ;  it  is  more  populous,  on  account  of  the 
British  army  encamped  there. 

Jan.  3. — Having  obtained  Ranjit  Singh's  permis- 
sion to  prosecute  our  journey  through  his  territory, 
we  quitted  the  British  cantonment  of  Lodiana, 
bending  our  course  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Satlej, 
or  Hesudrus,  and  halted  for  the  night  at  Goshpura, 
eight  miles  distant.  I  got  a  dinner  from  an  officer 
of  the  Maharaja,  a  very  good  and  religious  person, 
more  so  than  any  of  the  Sikh  authorities. 

Jan.  4. — Our  camp  was  on  the  high  bank  of 
the  Satlej,  where  we  fblt  it  piercing  cold  at  break  of 
day.  The  mountains  looked  from  here  very  lofty, 
and  were  clad  entirely  in  white.  We  marched  to 
Bundri,  along  the  same  bank  of  the  river,  which 
appeared  proud  of  its  rapid  current.  Our  route 
continued  in  the  lowland  of  the  Satlej,  which  had 
a  rich  and  productive  soil. 

Jan.  5. — At  the  close  of  the  day,  we  reached 
Sadra,  nine  miles.  Many  of  the  villages  along 
the  bank  have  been  injured  by  the  Satlej.  We 
were  joined  this  night  by  a  smart  band  of  cavaliy 
sent  to  accompany  us  by  Ranjit  Singh,  who  was 
pleased  to  send  a  friendly  letter.  The  Maharaja  had 
made  magnificent  preparations  to  receive  us. 

Jan.  6. — We  moved  ten  miles  to  Indgarh.     The 


Tillages  close  to  the  Satlej  are  inhabited  by  farmers, 
who  possess  much  wealth.  The  husbandmen  con- 
sist of  Sikhs,  Hindu  Jats,  and  Mohammedans ;  but 
the  former  have  great  superiority  over  the  latter. 
The  people  resemble  those  of  the  Panjab.  Their 
houses  are  constructed  of  mud  and  wooden  frames. 

There  is  great  distress  felt  from  scarcity  of  fuel  in 
this  part  of  the  country,  but  cow-dung  is  burnt  by 
the  people  after  it  is  sun-dried.  I  am  surprised 
at  the  foolish  prejudices  of  Hindus,  who  worship 
cows  and  eat  cow-dung,  to  purify  themselves,  and 
at  other  times  bum  it. 

Jan.  7. — We  continued  our  course  to  Sardar- 
khan-ka-kot,  eight  miles  distant.  The  soil  through-^ 
out  abounds  with  sand,  but  is  fertile. 

At  Dharam-kot  we  were  welcomed  by  the  ruler 
of  the  village,  and  also  by  the  people,  who,  when  we 
approached  the  walls,  were  astonished  by  our  dress 
and  manners.  The  Sikhs  are  mostly  descended 
from  Hindu  Jats,  but  have  abandoned  that  religion 
to  follow  their  former  principles ;  they  believe  now 
in  Baba  Nanak. 

Jan.  8. — We  moved  to  Shah  Babakar,  eight  miles 
distant.  In  our  route  we  passed  the  dry  bed  of  a 
river,  which  I  am  told  was  that  of  the  Satlej,  fifty 
or  sixty  years  ago.  The  land  between  it  and  the 
present  channel  is  totally  barren  and  uncultivated. 
The  southern  balik  of  the  Satlej  is  inhabited  by 
Mohammedans,  who  have  introduced  the  practice 


of  agriculture.  The  natives  of  Dharam-kot  are 
chiefly  Gujars. 

Jan.  9. — A  inarch  of  ten  miles  brought  us  to  the 
banks  of  the  Beeas,  or  Hyphasis.  We  halted  three 
miles  on  this  side  of  the  junction  of  the  Beeas 
and  the  Satlej. 

In  this  part  of  the  country,  Guru  Gobind  Singh 
fought  a  great  many  battles  formerly  with  the 
emperor  of  Delhi.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  Sikh 
religion,  and  ruled  the  country  with  great  honour. 

Jan,  10. — We  continued  in  our  camp  with  the 
view  of  getting  a  correct  insight  into  the  manners 
of  the  people  of  this  country.  The  husbandmen 
are  slow  in  cultivation,  though  the  soil  is  rich. 
They  are  Mohammedans,  and  attached  to  their 
faith ;  they  are  not  civilly  treated  by  the  Sikhs  or 
Khalsa,  who  consider  plunder  as  traffic,  and 
oppression  justice. 

We  crossed  the  Satlej,  and  encamped  on  the 
banks  of  the  Hyphasis,  where  the  waters  of  two 
streams  meet  each  other.  These  rivers  are  not 
fordable  by  the  usual  ferry. 

Jan.  11. — Passed  the  Hyphasis  or  Beeas  by  the 
usual  ferry  of  Hari,  or,  as  it  is  usually  called,  Hari- 
ka-pattan.  The  shawls  of  Kashmir  and  other 
articles  of  that  city  go  by  this  route  to  Delhi  and 
other  parts. 

At  Hari  a  select  band  of  Ranjit  Singh's  cavalry 
is  stationed  to  protect  the  villagers  against  the 


Akalis  and  Nihangs.  These  violent  and  ignorant 
men  do  not  fear  Ranjit  Singh,  who  has  often  ran 
the  risk  of  his  life  from  these  bigoted  people. 
The  Sikhs  and  Nihangs  believe  in  Nanak  Baba; 
but  the  manners  and  dress  of  the  latter  are  quite 
different  from  those  of  the  former.  The  Nihangs  are 
careless  of  their  own  lives,  and  consequently  of 
those  of  others. 

At  Hari  we  were  well  treated  by  a  Sikh  Sardar, 
named  Sham  Singh,  who  was  despatched  by  Ranjit 
Singh.  He  presented  a  bow  and  bags  of  money, 
which  Mr.  Burnes  civilly  declined  receiving.  He 
said  he  was  sent  by  the  Maharaja  to  defend  us  from 
the  Nihangs.  These  men  are  always  described 
by  Ranjit  Singh  as  hag  fahm  wa  kotah  andeshy 
which  means  a  people  of  bad  understanding  and 

Jan.  12. — We  came  to  Patti,  nine  miles  distant. 
Our  course  led  us  over  an  uncultivated  soil.  The 
town  of  Patti  is  handsomely  built  of  bricks.  It 
has  about  forty  shops,  inhabited  by  different  mer- 
chants. At  the  fort  of  Patti  is  a  stud  of  mares, 
belonging  to  Ranjit  Singh,  which  Mr.  Burnes  went 
to  visit;  they  were  smart  and  beautiful  animals. 
All  are  of  the  breed  of  Dahni,  which  is  situated 
beyond  the  Hydaspes,  and  is  celebrated  for  horses. 

In  the  morning  we  heard  the  melancholy  news  of 
the  death  of  my  excellent  friend,  Mr.  B.  Fitzgerald, 
which  grieved  me  very  much,  and  made  me  low- 
spirited.     As  to  lament  the  course  of  nature  and 


will  of  God  avails  nothing  to  the  friends  of  the 
deceased,  I  considered  we  must  wait  with  patience, 
and  even  be  happy  in  the  prospect  of  that  time 
when,  sooner  or  later,  we  must  follow  him  to  that 
place  where  death  is  not  known,  and  where  we  shall 
obtain  everlasting  life. 

Jan.  13. — We  came  to  Suga,  eight  miles  distant. 
In  the  evening  a  detachment  of  500  horse,  veith  two 
guns,  passed  by  our  camp  from  Labor,  with  the 
intention  of  punishing  the  Akalis  or  Nihangs,  who 
are  always  disobeying  their  ruler. 

Among  the  Sikh  Jats  it  is  a  custom,  that  when- 
ever a  lady  loses  her  husband,  she  marries  one  of  his 
brothers,  and  sometimes  cohabits  with  them  when 
her  husband  is  abroad,  which  does  not  provoke  him 
at  all.  It  is  added  also,  that  no  woman  in  the 
Himalaya  mountains  is  married  to  a  single  person, 
but  to  three  or  four  of  the  same  fieunily. 

The  winter  in  the  Panjab  is  intensely  cold,  and 
the  water  freezes  in  the  ponds. 

Jan.  14. — We  commenced  our  march  to  Pidana, 
a  distance  of  ten  mUes,  traversing  a  barren  soil 
all  day. 

We  met  on  the  road  Sardar  Jowala  Singh,  a 
Sikh  of  rank,  who  was  ordered  by  the  Maharaja 
to  receive  us.  He  delivered  us  a  friendly  letter, 
with  a  bag  of  money,  sent  by  the  Maharaja,  and 
conducted  us  through  his  fort.  I(  appears  to  be  a 
magnificent  structure  frx>m  a  distance.  It  stands 
in  the  middle  of  the  village,  encircled  by  the  houses 


of  his  retinue ;  the  whole  is  surrounded  by  a  mud 
wall  and  narrow  ditch.  His  request,  that  we  would 
stay  in  his  fort  on  the  15th,  was  complied  with 
by  Mr.  Bumes. 

Jan.  16. — A  march  of  ten  miles  brought  us  to 
Dohree,  a  small  village.  It  was  piercing  cold  this 
morning;  all  the  pools  were  frozen  and  the  fields 
were  ornamented  with  the  pearls  of  hoar  frost. 
Whilst  taking  a  walk  in  the  fields,  I  saw  a  fine  bird, 
the  size  of  a  sparrow ;  his  head  was  green,  and  his 
tail  white ;  his  wings  were  blue  and  red ;  his  delicate 
chirping  brought  to  my  mind  the  power  of  Almighty 

Jan.  17.  —  Before  we  arrived  at  the  city  of 
Labor,  our  route  lay  through  the  ruins  of  the  old 
city,  which  appeared  to  have  had  a  greater  popula- 
tion than  that  of  the  present  city. 

One  of  the  Maharaja's  French  generals,  named 
Mens.  AUard,  and  two  other  respectable  persons 
(one  of  whom  was  my  friend  Diwan  Ajudhia  Nath), 
came  out  a  few  miles  to  meet  us ;  very  great  were 
the  congratulations  between  us. 

Jan.  18. — By  the  desire  of  the  Maharaja  Ranjit 
Singh,  we  paid  a  visit  to  his  highness  in  the  after- 
noon, in  a  garden  near  the  Durgah  of  Shah  Belaval. 
The  tent  in  which  he  held  his  darbar,  was  as  if  it 
had  been  the  tent  of  an  angel,  and  not  of  man. 
Ranjit  Singh  came  forward  a  few  paces  to  receive 
us ;  he  then  placed  Mr.  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard 
on  golden  chairs,  and  talked  for  two  hours   with 


them,  in  a  very  friendly  manner.  He  asked  my 
name,  and  Mr.  Burnes  told  him  I  was  a  very 
clever  lad,  and  knew  English,  which  I  had  learned 
at  the  Delhi  College,  under  Mr.  Trevelyan ;  he 
also  conferred  many  favours  on  me,  and  gave  me  a 
sum  of  money.  His  highness's  conversation  made 
it  appear  that  he  was  an  intimate  friend  of  the 
British  Government.  Ranjit  Singh  is  a  thin  man, 
and  has  only  one  eye ;  his  long  beard,  which  reaches 
his  navel,  is  silvered  by  age.  He  governs  his  king- 
dom without  any  minister  or  counsellor.  His  one 
eye  is  ever  inflamed,  either  by  the  use  of  opium  or 
wine ;  the  latter  he  praises  heartily  in  conversation, 
particularly  when  he  is  talking  with  Europeans.  He 
is  habituated  to  have  beautiAil  dancing-girls  every 
moment  before  him,  which  is  only  to  gratify  his 
eye.  Among  other  anecdotes  of  him,  the  following 
was  mentioned  to  me  by  his  ministers  who  stand 
high  in  his  favour : — 

Heera  Singh,  a  beautiful  and  delicate  boy  of 
thirteen  years,  the  eldest  son  of  Raja  Dhian  Singh, 
a  handsome  person,  was  loved  by  Ranjit  Singh,  who 
was  much  attached  to  him.  It  is  alleged,  that  the 
Maharaja,  in  order  to  please  this  boy,  was  induced 
to  settle  some  rich  provinces  in  the  Panjab  upon 
his  father,  Dhian  Singh,  who,  when  he  was  young, 
enjoyed  the  same  affection  and  fondness  of  the 
Maharaja.  It  is  added,  that  the  Maharaja  cannot 
bear  any  person  to  approach  him  when  in  his  bed- 
room except  this  boy,  who  also  nearly  collects   a 


quarter  of  the  revenue  of  the  Panjab.  He  cer- 
tainly is  not  such  a  miracle  of  beauty  as  report 
describes  him,  yet  Ranjit  Singh  allows  him  to  sit 
on  a  chair  by  his  side  in  the  open  court,  while  his 
father,  Raja  Dhian  Singh,  is  placed  on  the  ground.* 

Jan.  19  to  23. — We  continued  at  Labor,  to  enjoy 
the  civilities  of  our  friends,  and  learn  the  state  of 
the  country. 

Labor  is  fortified  and  has  a  deep  ditch.  The 
streets  are  so  narrow  and  muddy,  that  two  horses 
can  scarcely  pass,  and  no  man  can  walk  in  them 
without  dirtying  his  trousers  as  well  as  shoes.  The 
shops  in  the  city  are  irregularly  constructed  of 
bricks  and  mortar. 

The  air  of  Labor  is  very  pure.  The  summer  is 
extremely  hot,  and  the  winter  intensely  cold.  The 
soil  is  rich,  and  produces  com,  wheat,  oranges,  &c. 
abundantly.  Labor  is  subject  to  earthquakes,  as 
I  can  witness;  there  was  an  earthquake  on  the 
22nd  at  night. 

The  established  religion  of  Labor  is  Sikh  or 
Khalsa.  The  inhabitants  believe  and  worship  Baba 
Nanak,  whom  they  call  Guru,  or  abbot.  They  are 
authorized  by  him  to  eat  hogs;  the  Mohamme- 
dans are  scarcely  tolerated,  and  even  disgracefully 

Labor  is  governed  in  an  absolute  manner.  The 
present  king,  Ranjit  Singh,  has  passed  a  law  that 

*  Both  Dhian  Singh  and  Heera  Singh  have  since  been 


the  noses  and  ears  of  thieves  shall  be  cut  off,  and 
a  fine  of  two  or  three  thousand  rupees  imposed  on 
a  murderer.  In  the  court  of  the  Maharaja,  there 
are  three  men  of  obscure  origin,  of  the  same  familj, 
who  are  raised  to  the  highest  pitch  of  favour, — 
namely,  Raja  Gulab  Singh,  Raja  Dhian  Singh,  and 
Suchet  Singh.*  The  Maharaja  consults  them  upon 
all  occasions ;  no  favours  can  be  procured  but  by 
their  recommendation,  and  all  suitors  endeavour 
to  gain  these  three  men  over  to  their  side  by 
presents  and  sometimes  by  flattery. 

Jan.  24. — We  were  happy  to  receive  a  friendly 
letter  from  the  Maharaja,  soliciting  us  to  proceed 
on  a  hunting  excursion,  and  join  his  highness; 
on  which  we  quitted  the  city  of  Labor,  and  followed 
its  course  up  the  bank  of  the  Ravi  to  Avan,  ten 
miles.     The  bed  of  the  river  here  was  quite  dry. 

Before  reaching  our  camp,  we  visited  the  garden 
of  Shalemar,  which  vies  with  the  garden  of  heaven 
in  magnificence  and  beauty.  Its  original  name  is 
«  Sholah  Mah,"  or  the  Flame  of  the  Moon.  The 
streams  of  water  running  at  the  four  comers,  give 
an  idea  of  the  Mahtab  Bagh,  in  a  palace  of  the 
Delhi  king.  One  of  the  gardeners  presented  us 
with  a  basket  of  oranges,  which  were  sweet,  and  had 
a  soft  skin. 

Jan.  25. — A  march  of  nine  miles  brought  us  to 
the  bank  of  the  Ravi,  where  the  camp  of  the  Maha- 

*  Raja  Gulab  Singh  is  now  the  only  survivor  of  this  family. 


raja  was  pitched  in  great  pomp.  A  raja  of  good 
aspect  came  forward  to  receive  us»  and  conducted  us 
to  the  tents  pitched  for  us  by  the  Maharaja.  They 
were  made  of  Kashmir  shawls,  not  large,  but  of  an 
elegant  size.  In  the  evening  Captain  Wade  and  Dr. 
Murray  arrived  in  the  camp.  The  Maharaja  sent 
us  a  quantity  of  sweetmeats  and  fruits. 

Jan.  26. — The  Maharaja  sent  us  a  friendly  mes- 
sage that  we  should  pay  our  respects  to  his  highness, 
which  Mr.  Bumes  civilly  declined,  on  some  account 
which  I  do  not  know. 

Diwan  Ajudhia  Nath,  one  of  the  respectable 
men  of  the  Maharaja,  came  into  my  tent,  and 
inquired  the  cause  of  my  undertaking  such  a  long 
and  dangerous  journey.  I  gave  him  an  evasive 
answer,  but  he  tried  to  induce  me  to  stop  at  Labor 
till  my  relations  should  come  there,  in  consequence  of 
a  marriage ;  I  reftised  all  his  requests,  as  I  was  very 
anxious  to  visit  the  Mohammedan  countries  on  the 
frontier  of  Russia. 

Jan.  27.  —  Having  forded  the  river  Ravi  on 
elephants  with  the  Maharaja,  we  encamped  at  eve 
in  some  uncultivated  land.  Though  the  Maharaja 
sometimes  i-ode  on  horseback,  we  prosecuted  our 
journey  on  elephants  till  we  reached  his  canopy, 
pitched  on  a  high  ground.  Ranjit  Singh  conversed 
for  two  hours  with  Mr.  Bumes  in  great  good 

I  was  along  vdth  Diwan  Ajudhia  Nath,  being 
placed  with  him  by  Azizudin,  the  prime  minister  of 


the  Maharaja,  who  told  me  to  sit  by  his  side,  and 
inquired  about  my  knowledge  of  Persian.  I  ex- 
plained to  him  minutely  what  I  had  read.  He  is 
a  very  great,  learned,  and  religious  man,  and  the 
author  of  several  books  respecting  his  religion  and 
the  inmiortality  of  the  souL  He  praised  my  enter- 
prising spirit  in  undertaking  a  journey  through 
the  bigoted  Mohammedan  countries,  and  then 
spoke  with  Diwan  Ajudhia  Nath,  and  asked  him 
how  he  dared  to  send  so  young  a  boy  on  such  a 
fearful  tour;  to  which  he  replied,  that  he  had 
done  his  best  to  persuade  me  against  my  design  of 
travelling,  but  it  availed  nothing. 

Jan.  28. — We  went  this  day  on  an  elephant,  in 
company  with  the  Mahanga,  on  a  hunting  expe* 
dition.  He  was  on  horseback,  gorgeously  appa- 
relled, and  armed  cap-a-pie,  and  had  a  good 
appearance.  In  half  an  hour  a  number  of  hogs 
were  killed,  and  many  more  entrapped  alive  by 
the  Sikh  soldiers.  Ranjit  Singh,  seeing  the  slain 
hogs,  rewarded  the  sportsmen.  After  two  hours 
the  party  returned  to  the  encampment,  and  we,  in 
company  with  the  Maharaja,  entered  his  pavilion, 
which  was  made  of  Kashmir  shawls,  ornamented 
with  the  richest  embroidery.  Ranjit  Singh  talked 
for  an  hour  with  a  smiling  aspect  and  good  humour 
with  Mr*  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard.  He  sent  for 
dancing-girls,  and  placed  them  before  us,  joking 
with  them  in  the  open  court,  which  ill-becomes  a 
monarch,  and  is  improper  in  the  opinion  of  the  wise. 


Jan.  29. — We  bent  our  course,  in  company  with 
the  Maharaja,  to  the  Sarae  or  inn,  ten  miles  distant. 
On  the  road  nothing  was  notable,  except  the  regular 
line  of  smart  cavalry  which  encircled  the  Maharaja 
and  our  party. 

Jan.  30. — Having  spent  two  hours  in  visiting 
the  beautiful  tomb  of  the  Emperor  Jahangir,  in 
Shahdra,  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ravi,  we 
reached  Lahor,  eleven  miles  distant.  The  tomb  is 
constructed  entirely  of  marble,  of  fine  workman- 
ship, beneath  which  rests  the  body  of  the  monarch. 
The  tomb  of  his  wife,  Nurmahal,  (formerly  the  wife 
of  Sher  Afkan,)  has  been  ruined;  precious  stones 
are  daily  carried  away  by  the  restless  Sikhs,  who 
are  addicted  to  plunder.  I  call  it  a  noble  monu- 
ment, because  there  are  few  antiquities  like  it  in 
Delhi,  which  I  think  an  incomparable  city. 

Jan.  31  to  Feb.  5. — We  continued  at  Lahor  to 
learn  the  laws  and  customs  of  the  Sikh  Govern- 
ment. It  is  needless  for  me  to  mention  any  thing 
regarding  the  politics  of  the  Sikh  Government,  as 
they  have  been  already  minutely  described  by  Sir 
Alexander  Bumes. 

LahoTj  Feb.  6. — I  went  to  see  the  fair  of  Basunt, 
near  the  tomb  of  Madhu  Lai  Husain,  a  distance 
of  three  miles;  my  course  led  me  through  the  ruins 
of  the  old  city,  which  gave  me  an  idea  of  the 
durability  of  its  construction.  I  was  surprised  to 
view  the  Maharaja's  troops  standing  on  both  sides 
of  the  road,  forming  a  regular  street,  with  their 



uniform  basanti  dress  (of  a  yellow  colour),  to  salute 
the  King  of  the  Panjab,  who  was  apparelled,  like- 
wise in  a  basanti  dress,  accompanied  by  his  Euro- 
pean guests;  he  proceeded  to  the  tents,  which 
were  made  of  yellow  silk  and  ornamented  with 
pearls,  where  he  was  received  with  the  most 
extravagant  demonstrations  of  joy, — "Long  live 
the  good  liege  of  the  Five  Rivers  !'*  was  the  general 
cry.  By  the  trotting  of  elephants  and  horses,  the 
dust  arose  so  thick  that  one  could  not  see. 

The  original  name  of  Madhu  Lai  Husain  was 
made  known  to  me  by  an  old  man  of  Labor. 
Madhu  was  a  Hindu  boy  ;  his  beauty  made  a  strong 
impression  upon  the  heart  of  Lai  Husain,  a  holy 
man.  He  solicited  the  boy  from  his  parents,  in 
order  to  make  him  his  disciple,  but  his  request  was 
not  complied  with.  In  a  few  days  after  the  boy 
expired,  and  his  parents,  being  melancholy,  repaired 
to  Lai  Husain,  imploring  him  in  mercy  to  restore 
their  son  Madhu  to  life.  On  hearing  this,  Lai 
Husain  stipulated  with  them,  that  if  their  son 
Madhu  came  to  life  again,  they  should  allow  him 
to  become  his  disciple.  The  poor  parents  agreed 
to  this,  and  Madhu  was  revived  by  the  sacred 
blessings  of  Lai  Husain.  They  lived  some  days  in 
happiness,  and  finally  met  death  both  at  the  same 
time,  and  their  bodies  now  rest  in  one  coflSn. 

Feb.  7  to  10. — In  the  house  of  Diwan  Ajudhia 
Nath  I  met  an  old  darvesh,  who  had  traversed  the 
countries  of  Asia.     He  mentioned  the  barbarity  of 


the  Uzbegs  and  the  inhabitants  of  Bokhara,  which 
terrified  the  people  sitting  by  me.  He  said,  that 
the  gangs  called  Alaman  plunder  caravans  and 
trayellers,  and,  after  seizing  the  latter,  reduce  them 
to  slavery.  Though  he  explained  to  me  many  other 
cruelties  with  which  they  afflict  foreign  people,  yet 
this  did  not  frighten  me  in  the  least,  because  I 
have  been  habituated  to  rely  on  God  since  my 

Feb.  11. — Four  miles'  journey  brought  us  to 
Shahdra,  where,  having  obtained  Ranjit  Singh's 
permission,  we  crossed  the  river  on  a  ferry-boat, 
and  remained  for  the  night  there.  I  passed  it 
without  sleep,  in  consequence  of  cares  and  anxiety, 
which  often  oppress  the  human  heart,  but  more 
frequently  the  hearts  of  travellers. 

Our  baggage  and  servants  were  so  reduced  that 
the  men  of  the  Maharaja's  cavalry  who  accompanied 
us  were  laughing  at  our  poverty,  but  still  praised 
ou]>  bold  design.  We  had  no  tents  to  shield  our- 
selves fipom  the  rain  and  hoar  frost,  to  which  the 
country  is  generally  subject.  We  had  no  beds,  but 
slept  upon  the  bare  ground.  At  night  I  was 
astonished  to  see  Mr.  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard  sit- 
ting on  the  ground,  which  I  never  saw  an  Englishman 
do  before. 

Feh.  12. — We  came  to  Nangal,  fifteen  miles. 
This  village  is  generally  inhabited  by  Hindu  beg- 
gars, called  Sadh,  who  are  respected  by  Ranjit 
Singh ;   they   treat    Mohammedans  with  contempt 



and  insult.  Their  body  is  left  naked,  except  the 
lower  part,  which  is  covered  by  a  piece  of  coarse 
cloth.  They  wear  wooden  shoes,  and  commonly  do 
penance  in  the  Himalaya  mountains.  Their  hair  is 
exceedingly  long,  and  made  brown  by  ashes. 

One  of  the  Sadhs  considered  me  as  a  boy,  when 
we  met  by  a  well,  where  I  was  drinking  water, 
and  talked  a  great  deal  with  me  about  his  piety. 
He  told  me,  that  he  was  an  excellent  chemist,  and 
fervently  wished  to  teach  me  the  making  of  gold, 
"  as  I  was  a  good  and  clever  boy."  Though  I  knew 
him  to  be  a  false  man,  yet,  in  order  to  examine 
him,  I  applied  to  him  for  instruction,  as  if  I  was 
a  stranger  to  his  fraud.  I  told  him,  I  should  be 
much  obliged  to  him  if  he  would  be  kind  enough 
to  teach  me  chemistry.  He  replied,  that  he  could 
not  teach  me  without  obtaining  first  the  sanction  of 
his  religious  father,  whose  doctrine  all  the  society 
follow  with  great  respect  and  honour.  I  detected 
his  fraud  when  he  solicited  a  sum  of  money,  as  a 
present  to  God. 

Feb.  13. — A  march  of  eleven  and  a  half  miles 
brought  us  to  a  village  called  Kot,  where  I  again 
reduced  my  heavy  baggage.  My  heart  was  ready 
to  burst,  when  I  sent  back  my  faithful  servant,  for 
fear  that  the  Durani  tribe,  seeing  a  multitude  of 
servants  with  us,  would  think  us  rich  men,  and 
plunder  us  at  night.  Our  parting  I  felt  very  much, 
because  I  had  spent  the  greatest  part  of  the  time  of 
my  early  age  with  him  in  frolic  and  sport.     When 


the  dawn  of  the  next  day  broke,  I  sighed,  and 
disliked  the  day  that  I  left  my  relations  at  Delhi, 
suffering  a  relapse,  which  I  had  last  year. 

Fd),  14. — We  commenced  our  march  to  Mian 
Singh's  fort,  a  distance  of  ten  miles.  This  fort  is 
constructed  with  mud ;  it  is  about  forty  feet  high. 
We  halted  the  ensuing  day  in  a  garden  near  the 
fort,  which  was  planted  by  Mian  Singh.  It  is 
covered  with  fruit-trees  and  flowers.  Mian  Singh  is 
the  bravest  commander  in  Ranjit  Singh's  army,  and 
has  fought  a  great  many  battles,  in  which  he  has 
received  wounds.  He  sent  us  a  dinner,  and  treated 
us  with  respect. 

Feb.  16. — We  came  to  Saharan,  a  distance  of 
twelve  and  a  half  miles,  which  is  celebrated  for  the 
beauty  of  the  women  who  reside  there.  The  soil  is 
generally  fertile,  but  not  much  cultivated.  The 
farmers  are  careless  in  agriculture,  because  unjustly 
deprived  of  their  privileges  by  the  Maharaja's  officers, 
who  violate  the  chastity  of  their  females.  Their 
language  is  sweet  and  mild,  but  they  are  stem  in 

Feb.  17. — We  commenced  our  march  to  Ram 
Nagar,  eleven  miles  distant.  This  town  is  popu- 
lous, and  has  many  shops.  We  halted  the  ensuing 
day,  18th,  in  a  country  house  of  Ranjit  Singh,  called 
Baradari  {J)ara  means  ^twelve,' (/on  means  ^a  door;' 
a  house  having  twelve  doors). 

I  had  a  grand  view  of  the  natural  sublimity  of 
the  Himalaya  mountains  from  the  top  of  Baradari. 


I  could  not  venture  to  indicate  their  height,  in  con- 
sequence of  their  being  covered  with  masses  of  snow. 
Some  of  the  mountains  looked  as  white  as  crystal, 
and  some  red,  blue,  and  brown. 

The  name  of  this  town  has  been  altered,  since  the 
decline  and  fisdl  of  the  Mohammedan  empire,  from 
Rasul  Nagar  to  Ram  Nagar.  Basul,  in  Persian, 
means  *  messenger,'  and  Ham  *  obedient.' 

Feb,  19. — Across  the  Chenab,  five  miles.  We 
passed  the  stream  of  the  Chenab,  or  Acesines,  this 
morning  on  a  ferry-boat,  and  halted  at  the  small 
village  of  Rarmal.  The  river  is  two  hundred  yards 
wide ;  but  at  this  season  it  overflows  for  two  miles 
on  both  sides,  which  much  troubles  travellers.  The 
water  of  the  Chenab  appeared  reddish,  as  I  observed 
from  the  boat. 

The  natives  of  the  Panjab  are  filthy ;  they  never 
bathe  or  wash  their  faces,  on  account  of  which 
they  are  much  afflicted  with  fever  and  cold.  A 
mad  man  was  brought  to  us  for  some  medicine. 
Dr  Gerard  bled  him,  and  he  got  better. 

The  Chief  of  Ram  Nagar  came  and  brought 
us  some  wine  made  in  that  country.  It  was  ac- 
cepted and  distributed  to  the  people,  as  Mr.  Bumes 
had  not  tasted  wine  since  he  left  the  presence  of 
Ranjit  Singh,  with  whom  he,  Dr.  Gerard,  Captain 
Wade,  and  Dr.  Murray  gave  way  to  the  noisy 
pleasure  of  wine  and  festivity  in  the  Samman  Burj. 

F^.  20.  Palia,  eleven  miles. — Our  course  en- 
tirely lay  over  sandy  and  barren  ground,  though  I 


expected  we  should  meet  a  rich  soil.  I  remained 
at  a  husbandman's  house,  who  with  a  large  *&mily 
was  cast  upon  the  sand  in  penury ;  he  had  a  wife 
and  four  children,  who  felt  the  piercing  cold,  and 
were  reduced  to  extreme  distress.  We  halted  here 
the  21st,  in  consequence  of  the  continued  rain. 

Feb.  22.  Biki,  ten  miles. — We  commenced  our 
march  towards  the  town  of  Jelum.  The  country 
is  covered  by  bushes  and  jungle.  We  halted  at  a 
mosque,  built  by  a  sacred  virgin.  She  was  a  very 
religious  lady,  who  had  devoted  herself  to  the 
perusal  of  the  Koran,  which  she  learnt  by  heart. 
She  has  dug  a  well  in  the  mosque,  which  is  of 
great  service  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  village,  in 
consequence  of  the  sweet  and  crystal  water  it 

There  is  nothing  remarkable  in  this  village  except 
the  beauty  and  cheerfulness  of  the  women.  When 
I  was  measuring  this  well,  I  beheld  a  crowd  of 
women  engaged  in  drawing  water  from  it.  They 
seemed  to  have  a  masculine  spirit ;  one  of  them  was 
a  perfect  model  of  beauty,  and  had  a  very  noble  air 
and  graceful  deportment ;  her  person  was  clean ;  she 
charmed  the  spectators  with  her  modesty.  Her 
raiment  being  blue,  added  lustre  to  her  beauty. 

Feb.  23.  Badshahpur,  eleven  miles  distant. — We 
reached  this  village  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening. 
I  halted  at  a  blacksmith's  house.  We  had  this 
night  a  heavy  shower  of  rain,  with  darkness. 
Mr.  Burnes  sent   for  me   on  some   urgent   bnsi- 


ness.  From  the  rain  and  dark,  I  lost  the  way  to 
Mr.  Bumes's  lodging,  which  was  some  distance  from 
that  of  mine,  and  came  to  the  edge  of  a  small 
well,  into  which  I  nearly  felL 

Feb.  24.  Dadan-Khan-ka-Pind,  sixteen  miles^ 
across  the  Jelum,  or  Hydaspes. — We  moved  at 
one  o'clock  in  the  forenoon;  our  route  lay  in  muddy 
and  watery  ground,  which  caused  a  good  deal  of 
fatigue  to  our  horses. 

I  was  happy  to  visit  the  waves  of  the  Jelum  or 
Hydaspes,  which  flows  out  of  Kashmir.  We  crossed 
it  on  a  ferry  boat  before  it  was  dark.  The  rapidity 
and  depth  of  this  famous  river  surpass  those  of  the 
Jamna  and  the  Granges. 

We  halted  at  the  Find  or  town  of  Dadan  Khan, 
where  we  were  welcomed  by  a  Rajput  Sardar, 
named  Dargah  Singh;  he  brought  an  offering  of 
money,  and  some  jars  of  sweetmeats,  sent  by  Raja 
Gulab  Singh  for  us. 

This  town  is  handsomely  built  on  a  beautiful 
spot,  about  three  miles  from  the  river.  There  is  a 
Sarae  (which  the  Hindus  call  Dharam  Sala)  erected 
by  a  Sikh  chief,  whose  body  is  buried  there,  and  has 
been  ornamented  by  his  followers.  This  town  is 
celebrated  for  salt-mines,  and  copper  ware,  which  ia 
made  better  here  than  in  any  other  part  of  the 

Feb.  25. — We  proceeded  to  examine  the  salt* 
mines,  which  are  bounded  by  a  range  of  hills  six 
miles  N.N.W.  of  Find  Dadan  Khan.     This  range. 


of  hills  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  the  White  Moon* 
tain,  or  Sufaid  Koh,  and  passes  along  the  Indus  at 
Karabegh,  tenninating  at  the  right  bank  of  the 
Jelum  or  Hydaspes. 

Near  the  village  of  Khayira  we  penetrated  one  of 
the  largest  mines,  which  extends  about  400  yards, 
one  hundred  of  which  are  a  descent*  The  passage 
at  this  distance  is  so  narrow,  that  it  does  not  admit 
of  two  men  passing  together.  When  we  came  to 
the  seat  of  the  salt,  there  were  a  great  number  of 
men  and  women  with  their  little  children  at  work. 
The  salt,  which  is  reddish,  is  very  hard,  and  is  dug 
up  with  sledge*hammers  and  axes.  There  is  no 
moist  or  cold  feeling  in  these  mines.  The  workmen 
have  a  yellow  and  unhealthy  countenance.  The 
temperature  was  20  degrees  above  that  of  the 
mines,  where  Dr.  Gerard's  thermometer  was  64®. 
The  revenue  of  the  salt-mines  amounts  to  eighteen 
lacs  of  rupees  a  year,  with  two  lacs  additional  for 
the  duties.  The  salt  is  exported,  laden  on  mules 
and  camels,  to  all  parts  of  the  Panjab,  but  seldom 
to  India.  A  rivulet  of  salt-water  intersects  the 
range  of  these  mines. 

In  the  vicinity  of  these  mines  there  is  a  religious 
place  of  the  Hindus,  called  Katas.  This  place  has 
a  pond,  in  which  are  a  great  many  snakes,  swim- 
ming like  fish,  but  they  do  not  hurt  or  bite  any 
individual  whatever.  I  was  invited  to  visit  this 
sacred  place  with  an  officer  of  Ranjit  Singh,  named 


Chunelal,  who  is  a  very  religious  man,  but  modesty 
prevented  me  from  asking  leave  of  Mr.  Bumes. 

Feb.  26.  Jutana,  twelve  miles. — We  reached  this 
village  at  sunset,  and  put  up  in  a  farmer's  house, 
built  on  the  top  of  a  hill  called  Jud,  but  in  modem 
times  nobody  knows  that  name.  The  hill  is  two 
hundred  feet  high,  and  has  a  salt-mine  in  its 
neighbourhood.  The  inhabitants  of  this  village  are 
Mohammedans,  tall  and  handsome ;  their  language 
is  quite  different  from  that  of  the  Panjab,  but  their 
dress  is  almost  the  same.  They  did  not  take  Mr. 
Bumes  to  be  an  Englishman,  and  asked  our  ser- 
vants, with  astonishment,  who  were  Europeans  (or 
'' SahUhhg'y. 

The  agriculture  is  bad,  because  the  ground  is 
unequal,  and  consequently  the  husbandmen  are 
poor,  and  often  prompted  to  sell  their  daughters 
and  sons  to  provide  themselves  vrith  the  necessaries 
of  life. 

Feb.  27.  Jalalpur,  sixteen  miles  distant. — We 
followed  the  course  of  the  Jelum,  and  reached  the 
village  at  evening.  Our  route  lay  entirely  in  sandy 
valleys,  which  had  no  marks  of  the  road.  This 
village  is  built  on  a  beautiful  spot,  and  its  inha- 
bitants are  chiefly  Hindus. 

I  had  the  opportunity  to  be  in  the  same  village 
where  my  father  had  encamped  vdth  Mr.  Elphin- 
stone,  on  his  return  from  Peshawer.  I  put  up  in  a 
brahman's  house,  who  was  generously  treated  by 


my  father ;  he  made  great  preparations,  beyond  his 
ability,  for  my  dinner,  and  prepared  a  good  bed 
for  me. 

Feb.  28.  Darapur,  a  distance  of  nine  miles.— 
This  village  is  very  fine  and  richly  cultivated.  It 
contains  about  thirty  shops,  irregularly  constructed 
of  mud  and  bricks.  The  women  of  this  village  are 
beautiful,  and  fond  of  indulgence.  They  have 
power  over  their  husbands,  whom  they  control 
rather  than  obey,  and  do  what  they  like.  The 
climate  is  temperate  and  wholesome.  The  soil  is 
fertile,  producing  immense  quantities  of  cotton, 
tobacco,  rice,  and  Indian  com. 

Feh  29. — Our  course  led  us  aside  from  the  stream 
of  the  Jelum.  We  passed  several  channels,  whose 
water  had  dried  up,  leaving  their  beds  a  little  muddy. 
As  there  had  been  rain  on  the  preceding  night,  the 
green  fields  of  com  were  decorated  with  pearls  of 
dew.  We  encamped  at  the  small  village  of  Sangin, 
ten  and  a  half  miles  distant. 

The  people  of  the  village  assembled  in  crowds, 
and  looked  at  us  and  at  our  dress  with  astonishment. 
One  of  them,  who  had  passed  the  meridian  of  life, 
inquired  of  me  what  I  was,  and  what  were  our  in- 
tentions :  to  which  I  made  reply,  that  we  were  poor 
travellers,  and  going  on  a  pilgrimage ;  but  he  told 
me,  in  an  abusive  manner,  that  we  were  spies. 

March  1.  Fort  of  Rotas,  a  distance  of  nine  miles. 
— We  took  our  departure  through  the  valleys,  and 


after  passing  two  small  currents,  entered  this  famous 
and  ancient  fort  by  an  irregular  and  steep  road. 
The  officers  came  out  of  the  fort  to  receive  us ;  and 
after  paying  their  respects,  conducted  us  into  the 
fort,  where  they  gave  us  a  clean  house. 

This  fort  is  situated  on  a  high  mountain,  and 
contains  about  thirty  shops,  and  about  four  hundred 
houses,  fifty  of  which  are  occupied  by  dancing«>girls. 
It  is  strong  and  solid,  more  so  than  any  other  of  the 
Panjab  forts.  It  has  a  rampart,  which  is  stronger 
than  that  of  Delhi,  though  that  was  constructed  by 
the  late  emperors  of  that  noble  city.  This  fort  has 
never  been  examined  by  any  Englishman  before ; 
for,  although  Mr.  Moorcroft  wished  to  see  it,  and 
tried  to  induce  the  officers,  by  presents,  to  allow  him 
to  go  into  the  inside,  yet  his  request  was  not  com- 
plied with. 

We  visited  the  fort,  and  found  it  to  be  very 
strong,  and  in  many  parts  entirely  inaccessible. 

It  is  needless  to  give  a  full  explanation  of  this 
ancient  fort,  because  it  can  be  found  in  Mr.  Bumes's 
work.     It  is  destitute  of  wells. 

We  halted  on  the  2nd,  in  order  to  write  answers 
to  our  letters. 

March  3.  Bakrala,  twelve  miles  distant. — We 
reached  this  village,  after  passing  a  number  of 
caverns,  which  are  said  to  be  infested  with  robbers, 
who  plunder  the  passengers.  The  people  of  this 
village  are  obstinate  and  rebellious,  and  addicted  to 


taking  np  arms  agaiiiBt  their  sovereign,  Ranjit  Singh. 
He  has  often  attempted  to  punish  them,  but  it  is  of 
no  use ;  because,  when  threatened,  they  ascend  the 
neighbguring  mountains.  The  village  has  several 
times  been  reduced  to  ashes  by  Ranjit  Singh,  but 
still  the  people  are  refractory. 

March  4. — We  commenced  our  march  to  Jabbo 
Kassi,  eleven  and  a  half  miles,  traversing  the  ravines 
I  have  already  described.  This  village  is  very  small 
and  contains  no  shops.  In  this  part^  between  the 
Duab  (or  Mesopotamia)  of  the  Hydaspes  and  the 
Indus,  the  hamlets  are  very  close  to  each  other,  in**" 
habited  by  thirty  or  forty  individuals,  who  rear 
larger  herds  of  cattle  than  in  the  other  districts  of 
the  Panjab. 

We  put  up  for  the  m'ght  in  a  very  small  mosque, 
inhabited  by  a  darvesh,  or  mendicant.  Though  he 
was  a  Mohammedan,  he  put  in  the  mosque  a  bed  for 
me,  which  was  against  his  religion.  I  inquired  of 
him  what  was  the  cause  of  his  being  reduced  to  beg- 
gary ;  to  which,  sighing,  he  mildly  replied :— That 
his  father  was  a  respectable  man  of  Candahar,  who 
died,  leaving  no  issue  besides  him,  then  of  the  age 
of  ten  or  twelve  years ;  and  his  mother  two  dayig 
after  shared  the  same  fete.  His  uncles  then  em* 
braced  the  opportunity  of  possessing  themselves  of 
his  father's  property,  and  drove  him  from  his  home. 
After  wandering  two  or  three  years,  he  met  a  holy 
man,  whom  he  called  his  '*  Murshid,"  or  religious 
father,  who  advised  him  to  leave  the  world,  to  re- 


member   God   Almighty    always,    and   follow  his 

March  5.  Mandla,  nine  miles  distant. — This 
village  seems  smaller  than  those  we  left  l^ehind ; 
but  it  is  populous,  and  the  inhabitants  and  their 
houses  are  clean. 

The  soil  is  fertile,  the  husbandmen  are  smart  and 
industrious.  They  are  Mohammedans.  There  is  not 
a  single  shopkeeper,  but  a  Bhattiara,  who  provides 
passengers  with  the  necessaries  of  life.  I  put  up 
this  night  at  a  carpenter's  house,  which  was  cleanly, 
constructed  of  mud  and  rafters. 

March  6. — We  encamped  near  Manikyala,  eight 
miles ;  the  meaning  of  which  name  General  Ventura, 
an  officer  in  the  service  of  Maharaja  Ranjit  Singh, 
conceives  to  be  *  City  of  the  White  Horse,'  beneath 
which  are  buried  extensive  ruins.  The  general 
availed  himself  of  the  opportunity  to  prosecute  the 
researches  formerly  made  on  the  spot,  where  coins, 
bearing  Greek  legends,  had  been  discovered.  With 
this  view  he  directed  excavations  to  be  made  into  a 
tope  or  cupola,  the  prodigious  extent  of  which,  as 
well  as  of  the  fragments  with  which  it  is  surrounded, 
affords  an  idea  of  those  relics  of  antiquity  on  which 
time  has  exercised  but  little  influence,  and  by  means 
of  which  their  founders  hoped  to  convey  to  future 
ages  historical  traces  of  the  past. 

His  operations  continued  for  two  months,  and  the 
opinion  of  the  general  (grounded  upon  conjecture) 
is,  that  a  sovereign  prince  alone  could  get  such  a 


building  constructed,  and  that  upon  this  site  stood 
the  city  of  Bucephalia,  erected  by  Alexander  the 
Great,  in  honour  of  his  horse  ;  and  he  deems  it  pro- 
bable that  the  inscription  on  one  of  the  relics  may 
relate  to  some  circumstance  connected  with  the  in- 
vasion of  the  Panjab  by  that  great  captain. 

On  the  march  from  the  Indus  to  the  Hydaspes,  a 
party  from  the  camp  of  Mr.  Eiphinstone  (on  his 
return  from  his  mission  to  Kabul)  set  out  in  search 
of  the  remains  of  Taxila,  the  capital  of  Alexander's 
ally,  Taxiles,  or,  more  correctly,  Takshasila,  the 
name  of  the  Hindu  city  which,  the  late  Colonel 
Wilford  conjectured,  was  situated  in  this  direction. 
The  party  met  with  no  ruins  or  remains  of  any 
ancient  city,  except  this  building,  resembling  a 
cupola  in  its  outline ;  but  which  proved  to  be  a 
solid  structure  on  a  low  artificial  mound.  It  was 
about  seventy  feet  high,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty 
paces  in  circumference,  cased  in  most  parts  with 
stone,  but  in  some  places  apparently  unfinished. 
Most  of  Mr.  Elphinstone's  party  imagined  the 
building  decidedly  Grecian,  but  the  natives  termed 
the  structure  the  tope,  or  mound,  or  tumulus  of 
Manikyala,  which  is  situated  in  a  large  city,  forty 
miles  from  the  Jelum,  or  ancient  Hydaspes  (N.L. 

The  digging  of  the  cupola  continued  with  little 
intermission  and  success,  until  the  general  found 
iron  and  golden  boxes,  which  contained  a  golden 
ring  and  Greek  coins,  and  some  fluid  substance. 


which  Mr.  Bumes  and  Dn  Gerard  saw,  through  the 
&your  of  General  AUard,  at  Labor.  The  city  could 
not  have  been  Bucephalia,  as  General  Ventura 
supposes ;  for  some  state  that  Alexander  built  that 
city  on  the  bank  of  the  Hydaspes,  at  the  place 
where  he  crossed  the  river.  The  same  authority 
informs  us,  that  the  country  between  the  Indus  and 
Hydaspes  was  governed  by  Taxiles,  who  was  reason- 
ably apprehensive  of  the  ambition  of  Porus,  the 
sovereign  of  the  country  on  the  east  of  the  Hydas- 
pes. We  bought  here  some  Greek  coins  from  the 
villagers,  who  found  them  beneath  the  soil  near  the 
tope,  in  the  rainy  season ;  some  Mr.  Bumes  and 
Dr.  Gerard  purchased  and  sent  to  Calcutta. 

March  7.  Raval  Pindi,  fifteen  and  a  half  miles. — 
We  came  to  this  town  in  the  afternoon,  and  en- 
camped in  the  house  of  Shah  Shuja  ul  Mulk,  the 
deposed  king  of  Kabul.  The  officers  of  the  Maha* 
raja  came  to  receive  us,  and  treated  us  respectfully; 
they  sent  us  a  zeafai  also. 

Mwrch  8. — We  halted  here  to  reduce  still  more 
of  our  baggage :  the  load  of  two  mules  we  kept,  and 
all  the  rest  we  threw  away.  We  put  on  the  Afghan 
dress,  and  pretended  to  be  Duranis ;  but  this  impo- 
sition would  not  bear  close  inspection.  Mr.  Bumes 
altered  his  English  name  to  Sikandar  Khan,  and  I 
was  called  Hasan  Jan,  as  named  on  my  birth-day. 

We  tied  our  cooking-pots  on  our  horses'  backs, 
to  shew  our  indigence  to  the  Durani  or  Afghan 
people,  who  will  plunder  and  murder  travellers  for 


a  farthing ;  such  show  as  we  made  in  the  Panjab 
would  have  endangered  our  safety  in  the  Durani  and 
Uzbeg  countries. 

March  9. — We  continued  at  Pindi,  in  conse- 
quence of  having  very  heavy  rains,  and  Dr.  Gerard 
was  taken  ill,  which  grieved  me  much,  as  he  was 
very  kind  to  me. 

I  had  a  sight  this  evening  of  the  tomb  of  Che- 
ragh  Shah,  a  pious  man ;  many  miracles  are  now 
wrought  on  his  monument,  which  was  constructed  of 
stones  and  mortar  1,200  years  ago.  There  are  some 
beggars,  his  votaries,  who  gain  their  livelihood  by 
the  charity  of  the  people  who  visit  the  mausoleum. 

The  climate  of  Raval  Pindi  is  good,  but  the 
winters  are  colder  than  those  of  Labor.  The  po- 
pulation is  reckoned  to  be  equal  to  that  of  Pind 
Dadan  Khan.  The  inhabitants  are  chiefly  Hindus, 
by  whom  other  castes  are  tolerated.  The  soil  is 
richly  cultivated,  and  produces  grain,  mustard- seed, 
and  Indian  com»  The  vegetation  is  quick.  The 
husbandmen  are  smart  and  strong,  but  still  they 
are  careless  of  agriculture,  in  consequence  of 
the  oppression  they  suffer  from  the  Sikh  govern- 

This  town  is  enriched  by  the  trade  in  raisins, 
almonds,  grapes,  &c.  and  blankets,  and  is  frequented 
by  the  merchants  of  Peshawer,  Kabul,  &c.  From 
this  place  all  sorts  of  commodities  from  the  upper 
countries  are  exported  to  the  different  parts  of  the 



March  10. — A  march  of  thirteen  miles  brought 
us  to  a  small,  rebellious  village,  called  Jani-ka* 
Sang  {Jani  means  ^  dear/  and  savig  means  ^  union ;' 
'  union  with  a  dear  object ').  The  inhabitants 
of  this  village  do  not  regard  the  authority  of  the 
Sikhs.  There  are  two  shopkeepers  living  in  the 
neighbouring  small  and  muddy  fort,  which  is  desti- 
tute of  people.  The  land  is  barren,  and  abounds 
with  bushes,  mixed  with  grass.  The  husbandmen 
are  scarcely  provided  with  the  necessaries  of  life* 
They  live  mostly  upon  milk,  and  consider  plunder 
as  lawful  traflSc. 

March  11.  Usman  Khatar,  nine  miles. — We 
passed  through  Margala,  which  is  handsomely  paved 
with  large  and  clean  stones.  It  was  built  by  the 
late  emperors  of  Delhi,  and  it  gives  an  idea  of  the 
energy  of  the  workmen,  who  cut  the  range  of  hills, 
and  made  a  passage  through  it,  about  two  hundred 
yards  in  length.  We  found  here  a  Persian  inscrip- 
tion engraved  on  stOBe,  which  was  in  the  middle  of 
the  top  of  the  hill,  and  overlooked  the  pavement.  I 
ascended  the  height,  by  an  almost  impassable  way, 
with  great  difficulty,  with  the  view  of  learning  what 
was  written  there ;  but  it  could  not  be  deciphered, 
as  it  was  worn  out,  and  covered  with  black  dust. 
Mar  means  '  snake,'  and  gala  means  '  throat'  ('  throat 
of  the  snake').  It  is  alleged,  that  when  travellers 
pass  in  safety  by  Margala  (which  abounds  with 
thieves),  they  congratulate  each  other  on  their  escape. 
We  reached  this  village,  commonly  called  Usman 


Khatar,  before  sunset,  and  put  up  in  a  husband- 
man's house. 

The  soil  is  well  adapted  for  cultivation,  and  is 
occupied  by  a  flourishing  colony.  A  spring  from 
the  base  of  the  neighbouring  hills  supplies  this  vil- 
lage with  numerous  streams,  which  wash  the  streets, 
bazars,  and  gates  of  the  houses  in  the  village, 
and  adorn  and  fertilize  the  hamlets.  I  liked  this 
place,  which  abounds  with  clear  and  crystalline 
canals,  very  much  ;  and  if  they  would  run  in  Delhi 
as  they  do  here,  it  would  make  that  city  a  perfect 
paradise.  There  are  about  seventy  shops  in  this 

The  people  are  very  handsome,  both  in  stature 
and  features,  and  possess  the  beauty  of  symmetry. 
The  village  contains  two  thousand  souls,  half  of 
whom  are  cultivators;  they  are  chiefly  Hindus, 
though  the  northern  part  is  inhabited  by  Moham- 

I  met  a  Hindu  goldsmith  in  this  village,  who 
had  traversed  Persia,  and  returned  two  months  ago 
from  Bokhara ;  he  told  me  of  the  wonders  of  that 
city,  the  dangers  of  the  road,  and  cruelty  of  the 
inhabitants.  He  shewed  a  Russian  copper  coin  (a 
copec),  which  he  bought  in  Bokhara  for  a  quarter  of 
a  rupee.  It  was  broad  in  circumference,  resembling 
a  cake.  It  excited  in  me  a  greater  desire  to  see  the 
Russian  countries  than  I  had  before  felt.  This 
coin  was  a  curious  thing  to  me,  having  never  seen 
the  like  of  it  in  my  life.     I  introduced  him  to  Mr. 



Bumes,  who  put  many  questions  to  him  respect- 
ing the  road,  and  conversed  with  him  for  two 

March  12.  Burhan,  twelve  miles  and  a  quarter. — 
Our  course  led  us  through  the  celebrated  place 
called  Hasan  Abdal,  the  residence  of  the  Delhi 
Emperor  Jahangir,  whose  body  rests  in  Shahdra, 
on  the  bank  of  the  Ravi,  near  Labor.  In  the 
vicinity  of  this  place  was  a  garden,  without  the 
village,  called  Vah,  planted  by  that  Emperor.  It 
is  watered  by  six  fountains,  which  contain  numerous 
fishes.  We  reached  our  camp,  and  were  well 
treated  by  a  husbandman. 

A  beautiful  Sikh  boy,  fourteen  years  of  age, 
came  to  me,  and,  holding  the  bridle  of  my  horse, 
prevailed  upon  me  to  shew  him  Messrs.  Burner 
and  Gerard  (or  the  Sdhib-hg).  I  pointed  them 
out  to  him ;  he  then  told  me  that  he  could  not  dis- 
tinguish the  gentlemen  from  me,  as  we  had  all 
Afghan  dresses. 

March  13.  Haidru,  eight  miles  distant. — We 
forded  a  rapid,  noisy,  and  fearful  stream  on  our 
journey  (appropriately  called  Haro),  which  made 
me  tremble  on  the  horse,  whosie  legs  were  losing 
their  hold  by  the  force  of  the  water. 

We  encamped  at  a  clean  house  out  of  the  village, 
and  were  surrounded  by  a  number  of  people,  both 
men  and  women,  who  looked  at  us  with  amazement, 
and,  talking  to  each  other,  said  we  were  sent  by 
Ranjit  Singh  on  a  mission  to  the  Peshawer  Sardar. 


It  happened  four  years  ago  that  thid  village  was 
tevaged  by  Sayad  Ahmad,  better  known  by  the 
name  of  Khali&.  He  crossed  the  Indus  at  nighty 
and  put  the  men  of  this  village  to  the  sword,  not 
only  the  Hindus  but  the  Musalmans  also.  Mean-^ 
while,  Sardar  Hari  Singh,  one  of  the  Sikh  chiefs, 
having  gained  intelligence  of  the  enemy,  while  he 
was  perpetrating  his  horrid  deeds,  came  upon  him, 
sword  in  hand,  terrified  Khalifa,  and  massacred  three 
parts  of  his  troops,  which  made  him  retreat  across 
the  Indus  as  soon  as  possible.  Khalifa  was  bigoted 
to  the  Mohammedan  creed.  Having  been  brought 
up  among  superstitious  people,  and  having  been 
taught  to  prefer  even  martyrdom  to  apostasy,  he 
was  an  enemy  to  the  infidels  or  Sikhs. 

March  14. — We  got  a  civil  message  from  Sardar 
Hari  Singh  this  morning,  saying  that  he  was  very 
anxious  to  visit  us,  but  some  urgent  affairs  made 
him  stop  on  the  banks  of  the  Indus,  called  Sirkika 
Bela,  where  he  requested  us  to  favour  him  with  a 

We  traversed  an  extensive  plain,  well  fitted  for 
a  combat,  and  richly  cultivated.  The  villagers  are 
Afghans;  they  speak  the  Pashto  language.  On 
this  vast  plain  Shah  Mahmud  and  Fatah  Khan 
Vazir  seemed  willing  by  a  vigorous  effort  to  rescue 
their  country ;  and,  with  inferior  forces,  continued 
for  a  long  time  to  disturb  and  harass  the  Maharaja 
Ranjit   Singh,   till   at    length    they  were    totally 


routed  and  driven  across  the  Indus.  Since  then, 
none  of  the  Duranis  have  dared  to  vrage  war  with 
Ranjit  Singh. 

Before  we  reached  our  camp,  Sardar  Hari  Singh, 
with  a  resp^table  retinue,  came  to  receive  us,  and 
shewed  us  great  respect;  he  was  robed  in  rich 
brocade,  and  armed.  He  conducted  us  to  his  camp» 
on  the  banks  of  the  Indus,  where  he  had  pitched 
tents  for  us.  His  appearance,  deportment,  intrepid 
language,  as  well  as  his  moral  qualities,  resembled 
those  of  Ranjit  Singh.  He  sent  us  a  zeafal  of 
money,  and  was  talkative. 

Mr.  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard,  in  company  with 
Sardar  Hari  Singb,  forded  the  Indus  on  elephants. 
There  happened  a  melancholy  accident  on  this 
occasion ;  seven  horses  and  their  riders  were  swept 
away  by  the  impetuous  torrent ;  two  of  the  former 
and  one  man  found  a  watery  grave. 

March  15. — We  followed  the  course  of  the 
Indus,  or  Atak,  and  remained  in  a  ruined  inn  or 
Sarae,  outside  of  the  gate  of  Atak. 

We  wished  to  examine  the  fort  of  Atak,  and  the 
Abduzd  a  subterraneous  passage  of  water.  The 
term  Abduzd  means  in  Persian  *  stealing  of  the 
water.'  The  garrison  supply  themselves  from 
thence  with  an  immense  quantity  of  water,  when 
there  is  war,  and  when  people  cannot  go  out  of 
the  gates  to  fetch  water.  The  garrison  had 
mutinied  on  account  of  the  long  arrears  of  their 


pay,  which  was  the  cause  of  their  disobedience  of 
the  Maharaja's  orders,  who  had  authorized  us  to 
examiue  the  fort.  It  was  regretted  by  our  party 
that  the  garrison  refused  to  admit  us. 

March  16. — We  halted  here^  on  account  of  some 
public  business. 

March  17.  Khairabad,  two  miles  across  the 
Indus. — We  passed  the  "  forbidden  river,"  or  Atak, 
this  morning.  Its  current  runs  six  miles  an  hour, 
more  rapid  than  that  of  the  other  Panjab  rivers. 
It  is  very  deep.  The  splashing  of  the  water  is 
heard  at  a  distance  of  three  miles,  and  deafens  the 
people  who  cross  it.  The  north  part  of  the  fort 
of  Khairaba^  is  washed  by  a  slow  muddy  river, 
called  Landi,  which,  after  sweeping  the  base  of  the 
Kabul  and  Snowy  mountains,  joins  the  Indus,  and 
excites  its  rapidity  and  violence. 

When  we  approached  the  village,  the  people  and 
soldiers  crowded  round  us  with  arms,  and  gave  us 
ill  words,  saying,  "  Put  these  monkeys  to  the  sword, 
and  plunder  their  baggage ;"  but  they  could  not  do 
any  harm  to  us,  because  the  Almighty  God  ever 
protects  travellers.  I  sent  a  letter  to  Mr.  Treve- 
lyan,  containing  an  account  of  Ranjit  Singh's  charac- 
ter, and  some  particulars  of  the  Panjab.  We  got  a 
fnendly  epistle  from  Nazir  Morad  Ali  Khan,  who  is 
in  the  service  of  the  Peshawer  Governor,  Sultan 
Mohammed  Khan.  He  sent  us  a  very  friendly 
message,  that  he  and  his  master  were  happy  to  hear 


of  our  arrival  in  their  city,  as  they  entertain  a 
friendly  feeling  towards  Englishmen. 

March  18.  Akora,  eleven  miles  distant. — We 
passed  in  our  journey  through  a  place  called  Gidar 
Gali,  famous  for  robbers,  who  plunder  travellers  in 
the  daytime. 

A  Nihang,  or  Akali,  with  three  or  four  persons, 
met  us  with  swords  in  their  hands,  with  an  intention 
to  kill  us ;  but  they  were  prevented  by  a  party  of 
Sikh  soldiers,  who  came  to  protect  us ;  but  still  they 
abused  and  cursed  us. 

Before  we  reached  our  camp,  the  officer  of  Akora, 
accompanied  by  soldiers,  came  to  receive  us;  he 
talked  very  courteously,  and  conducted  us  to  the 
village,  where  he  had  prepared  a  clean  house  for  us. 
The  Afghans  of  the  village  came  to  us,  and  con- 
versed in  the  Persian  language^  with  great  polite- 
ness and  respecV 

March  19.  We  came  to  Pirpai,  a  distance  of 
eighteen  miles. — Two  Afghans,  of  a  respectable 
family,  with  a  band  of  sepoys,  accompanied  us  as 
far  as  our  encampment.  We  traversed  an  extensive 
plain,  where  the  famous  battle  of  Sayad  Ahmad 
with  Ranjit  Singh  was  fought.  Many  dead  bodies 
are  buried  in  this  place  of  those  who  were  killed 
in  the  combat. 

This  village  is  thinly  peopled,  and  was  reduced  to 
ashes  twice  by  Ranjit  Singh,  when  he  fought  with 
the  Duranis  of   Peshawer.     The  inhabitants  are 


Afghans,  who  are  fond  of  their  religion.  We  put 
np  for  the  night  in  a  very  narrow  and  poor  cottage, 
where  Mr.  Burnes  and  all  his  servants  resided 

About  eight  o'clock  at  night,  Nazir  Husain  Jan, 
a  fat  man,  of  bold  appearance,  sent  by  Sardar 
Sultan  Mohammed  Khan,  came  to  convey  us  to 
Peshawer.  He  delivered  us  two  letters,  one  from 
Nazir  Morad  All,  and  the  other  from  Sultan  Moham- 
med Khan.     They  contained  friendly  sentences. 

March  20.  It  was  raining  when  we  saddled  our 
horses,  and  set  out  for  Peshawer,  twenty  miles.^ — 
The  road  was  on  both  sides  richly  cultivated.  Nazir 
Morad  Ali,  and  the  elder  son  of  Sultan  Mohammed 
Khan,  came  to  receive  us,  and  conducted  us  honour- 
ably to  a  pretty  house,  adjoining  that  of  Sultan 
Mohammed  Khan,  which  is  almost  surrounded  by 
fine  orchards,  where  there  is  a  large  pond.  > 

Sultan  Mohammed  Khan  came  to  Mr.  Burnes, 
and  dined  with  him,  and  with  Dr.  Gerard,  partaking 
of  their  dishes,  though  a  Mohammedan.  He  talked 
for  a  long  while  in  a  very  friendly  manner.  I  was 
very  much  astonished  to  see  them  eating  together 
from  one  dish,  the  like  of  which  I  never  saw 
amongst  the  selfish  Mohammedans  of  India* 

The  town  of  Peshawer  stands  on  an  uneven  plain. 
It  is  about  one  thousand  seven  hundred  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea,  which  is  the  reason  of  the 
northern  complexion  of  the  foliage.     It  is  not  forti- 


fied,  bat  surrounded  on  all  sides,  except  one,  by 
mountains.  Pesbawer  unites  the  luxuriance  of 
tropical  yerdure  with  the  yegetation  of  an  European 
climate.  The  houses  are  constructed  of  bricks 
(generally  unbnmt)  in  wooden  frames.  They  are 
chiefly  three  or  four  stories  high.  The  streets  are 
narrow,  but  larger  and  cleaner  than  those  of  Labor, 
and  they  are  payed.  A  number  of  brooks  run 
through  the  town,  which  are  crossed  by  bridges. 
There  are  many  mosques,  but  none  of  them  worthy 
of  such  praise  as  those  of  Delhi. 

The  northern  part  of  the  town  contains  the  ruins 
of  a  famous  building,  called  Balahisar  {Bala  means, 
in  Persian,  *  high  ;'  hisar  means  *  fort ').  It  com- 
mands a  romantic  prospect  of  some  yery  spacious 
and  pleasing  gardens. 

The  inhabitants  of  Peshawer  are  generally  Afghans, 
or  Duranis ;  they  are  of  Indian  origin.  The  city 
contains  about  80,000  souls.  They  are  remarkable 
for  their  cruelty  and  fierceness,  except  the  men  of 
rank.  Their  heroism  is  great,  but  exalted  neither 
by  mercy  nor  resolution.  They  have  often  been 
dispossessed  of  their  estates  by  Abdus  Samad,  an 
inhabitant  of  Iran.  He  is  an  agent  of  the  goyemor 
of  Peshawer,  and  has  spread  a  report  among  the 
citizens  that  he  is  an  European,  or  Farangi ;  and 
they,  without  any  scruple,  belieye  him  to  be  so, 
owing  to  their  ignorance.  He  stands  high  in  the 
favour  of  Sultan  Mohammed  Khan. 


The  situation  of  Peshawer,  surrounded  as  it  ie 
on  three  sides  by  mountains,  makes  it  liable  to  fre* 
quent  variations  in  the  weather,  but  it  prevents  those 
great  extremes  of  heat  in  summer  to  which  Labor  is 
generally  subject,  and  it  is  on  that  account  probably 
that  the  inhabitants  possess  good  complexions.  It 
is  also  deserving  of  remark,  that  the  variableness  of 
the  climate  does  not  destroy  the  vegetation,  which 
might  have  been  apprehended.  Even  the  greatest 
irregularity  and  the  most  unfavourable  appearances 
of  the  weather  are  not,  as  in  Indian  countries, 
accompanied  with  famine  or  scarcity ;  perhaps  this 
may  be  in  part  owing  to  the  great  improvements  in 
agriculture.  Such  attention  has  been  paid  to  agri- 
culture and  the  amelioration  of  the  soil,  that  no  part 
of  the  Panjab  country  can  equal  the  cultivated  dis- 
tricts of  Peshawer  in  beautiful  scenery.  The  agree- 
able avenues  and  handsome  houses  extend  not  only 
over  the  suburbs,  but  also  over  the  whole  of  the 
gardens  which  surround  the  city,  and  are  adorned 
with  the  richest  verdure ;  an  adequate  idea  of  the 
grandeur  of  which  is  not  easily  conveyed  by  words. 
It  is  certain  that  no  city  in  the  Panjab  equals 
Peshawer  in  the  richness  of  its  soil.  Grapes, 
figs,  pomegranates,  pears,  apples,  melons,  oranges, 
peaches,  &c.  are  produced  here. 

The  government  of  Peshawer  is  administered  by 
petty  sardars,  who  do  not  know  the  name  of  justice, 
and  are  fond  of  luxury.  They  possess  a  few  bat- 
talions, composed  of  foot  and  horse  soldiers,  who 


use  spears,  swords,  and  guns  in  battle.     They  fight 
furiously  and  openly. 

The  religion  of  the  inhabitants  is  Mohammedan^ 
but  other  sects  are  tolerated  by  them.  The  mulkus^ 
or  religious  men,  enjoy  great  authority.  They  are 
generally  smart,  and  in  possession  of  the  greatest 
part  of  the  learning  and  riches  of  the  country,  which 
is  the  cause  of  their  being  permitted  to  inflict 
penalties  upon  those  who  are  fond  of  wine,  danc-* 
ing,  music,  &c. 

Sultan  Mohammed  Khan,  the  present  goYemor 
of  Peshawer,  commonly  called  Sardar,  is  a  man  of 
middle  stature.  He  has  passed  the  meridian  of  life, 
and  is  fond  of  pleasure.  He  is  notorious  for  his 
lewdness,  and  is  always  surrounded  by  females,  both 
married  and  unmarried.  He  is  careless  of  his 
country  and  government,  and  always  employed  in 
adorning  himself  with  splendid  and  precious  robes, 
on  account  of  which  he  is  called  Sultan  Bibi  (or 
lady)  by  Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  the  ruler  of 
Kabul,  who,  I  hear,  is  a  very  just  and  heroic  man. 
Sultan  Mohammed  Khan  has  thirty  children,  and  as 
many  have  died  by  various  disorders.  From  his 
numerous  family  may  be  guessed  the  number  of  his 

March  21,  22. — Sultan  Mohammed  Khan  asked 
Mr.  Bumes  who  was  his  Persian  secretary,  and  by 
whom  the  letter  which  he  got  was  written.  Mr. 
Bumes  mentioned  my  name,  whereupon  Sultan 
Mohammed  Khan  wished  to  see  me,  and  sent  for 


me.  I  paid  him  my  respects,  and  inquired  how  his 
honor  was :  he  returned  the  compliment,  and  said 
that  I  was  a  very  clever  Persian  scholar.  He  praised 
the  idiom  and  friendly  words  which  I  wrote  him  in 
the  letter.     He  was  dressed  in  rich  brocade. 

March  23.  Peshawer. — There  was  a  maulvi,  or 
learned  man,  who  lately  was  the  paramour  of  a 
tailor's  wife,  and  she  was  attached  to  him  also.  This 
noon,  the  maulvi,  having  found  a  good  opportunity, 
entered  the  house  of  the  tailor  in  his  absence. 
While  he  was  enjoying  the  wife's  conversation,  the 
tailor,  conjecturing  what  was  passing,  entered  the 
house  by  climbing  over  a  high  wall,  the  door  being 
locked.  Knitting  his  brows,  and  biting  his  lips, 
and  shewing  by  frequent  alterations  of  countenance 
the  signs  of  some  inward  passion,  he  took  a  sword 
out  of  the  room,  and  killed  his  wife  and  the  maulvi 
on  the  same  bed.  Finally,  the  tailor  brought  out 
the  corpse  of  his  wife  and  her  lover  where  Sultan 
Mohammed  Khan,  in  company  with  Mr.  Bumes 
and  Dr.  Gerard,  happened  to  come ;  they  praised 
the  tailor  for  his  intrepidity  and  resolution. 

March  24  to  31.— The  whole  of  Thursday  I 
spent  in  writing  Persian  letters  to  the  chiefs  of 
Kabul,  whom  we  informed  of  our  coming  into 
their  country,  requesting  their  permission,  and 
their  protection  in  case  of  necessity. 

An  Afghan,  who  was  taken  ill,  came  to  Dr. 
Gerard,  and  asked  for  some  medicine.  Whilst  he 
was  speaking  with  me,  a  respectable  Durani,  who 


was  saying  his  prayers  just  before  us,  upbraided  the 
sick  man  with  all  the  bitterness  of  anger,  and  told 
him  neyer  to  take  medicine  from  Englishmen,  for 
they  were  not  physicians  but  sorcerers. 

Friday  evening  I  happened  to  pass  through  the 
bazar  of  Peshawer,  where  a  multitude  of  shop- 
keepers and  other  people  looked  at  me  and  at  my 
dress,  which  was  not  very  good.  They  cried  out 
with  loud  voices  that  I  was  an  Englishman,  not  a 
Kashmerian,  though  my  clothes  were  not  like  an 

I  was  very  happy  to  hear  of  the  good  health  of 
my  patron,  Mr.  C.  E.  Trevelyan.  It  was  through 
the  kindness  of  Sayad  Moen  Shah,  who  had  just 
come  from  Calcutta,  with  some  European  merchan- 
dize for  sale  at  Bokhara.  He  told  me  that  Mr.  T. 
T.  Metcalfe  remembered  me  kindly.  He  brought 
me  a  letter  from  my  father,  which  made  me  very 
happy  to  know  that  he  continued  in  good  health. 
It  contained  an  obliging  epistle  from  my  intimate 
friend  Jugat  Kishor  (now  unhappily  no  more),  in 
whose  company  I  often  spent  many  happy  hours,  and 
at  parting  with  whom  I  felt  a  good  deal. 

April  1.  —  It  hailed  exceedingly,  and  rained 
heavily,  to-day.  A  tame  monkey,  which  I  caught» 
picked  up  the  hailstones  and  ate  them.  This  was  a 
curious  sight,  and  Messrs.  Bumes  and  Gerard  were 
astonished  at  the  alacrity  of  the  animal  in  putting 
the  hail  into  his  mouth,  though  the  stones  were  so 
cold  that  I  did  not  venture  to  touch  one  of  them. 


-  April  2. — I  set  out  to  a  bathing-place  this  morn- 
ing, and  met  an  Afghan  beggar,  '^  Sans  teeth,  sans 
eyes,  sans  taste,  sans  every  thing."  He,  hearing  the 
sound  of  the  galloping  of  my  horse,  cried  out  with  a 
loud  voice  to  this  effect  :-^- 

''  Oh  !  horseman !  in  compassion  cast  your  eyes  to- 
wards me,  remembering  that  the  Almighty  God,  who 
has  made  me  blind,  has  blessed  you  with  sight." 

April  3. — I  wandered  this  day  a  long  time  in  the 
city,  till  night,  which  terrified  me  with  its  darkness. 
On  my  return,  I  heard  an  Afghan  singing  a  song 
in  the  Afghani  or  Fashto  language,  which  made  me 
laugh.  I  could  not  help  it,  because  his  voice  was 
stiff  and  harsh ;  his  companions,  however,  praised 
his  melody. 

April  4.  —  I  passed  through  the  city  in  the 
evening.  The  shops  of  the  cooks  were  surrounded 
with  hungry  Mohammedans,  who  bought  a  loaf  of 
bread  soaked  in  broth  for  a  pice.  In  the  streets 
were  people  singing,  joking,  &c.  &c.,  and  men 
canying  water  in  leather  bags  upon  their  backs, 
announcing  it  for  sale  by  beating  a  brazen  cup,  in 
which  they  give  a  draught  to  the  passenger  for  a 
trifling  sum. 

April  5.— -An  evening  walk  led  me  to  the  garden 
of  Ali  Mardan  Khan,  a  Persian  nobleman,  who  has 
filled  the  country  from  Mashad  to  Delhi  with 
monuments  of  his  taste  and  magnificence.  In  the 
centre  of  the  garden  is  a  fine  building,  three  stories 
high,   surrounded  by  fountains.     The  rest  of  the 


garden  is  filled  with  an  exuberance  of  fruit  and  rose- 
trees.  I  left  the  garden  a  little  before  sunset,  and 
passed  on  the  road  through  the  garden  named  Shah- 
lemar.  Its  shape  is  oblong,  and  the  greater  part  of 
it  is  divided  by  avenues^  which  cross  each  other  in 
the  middle  of  the  garden.  A  minute  description  of 
this  garden  has  been  already  given  by  Mr.  Elphin- 

On.  my  return  through  the  city,  I  met  an  old, 
fat,  respectable  dark  man,  mounted  on  a  horse, 
who  was  surrounded  by  nearly  twenty  persons ;  half 
of  them  were  on  foot,  and  half  on  horseback.  He 
stopped  his  horse,  and  after  the  complimentary 
^^Salam  alai  fcumy^  asked  me  who  I  was,  and  where 
I  came  from,  and  my  father's  name  ?  I  told  him 
that  I  was  going  on  a  pilgrimage 'to  Kabul,  to  see 
the  tomb  of  my  "  Murshid ;  *'  that  I  had  come  from 
Delhi,  and  that  my  father's  name  was  Bud  Singh. 
He  knew  him  very  well,  he  replied,  when  he  came 
to  Peshawer  with  Mr.  Elphinstone. 

Through  all  the  throng  I  met  on  the  road,  I 
generally  passed  without  noticing  them,  except 
exchanging  a  "  Salam  alai  hum  "  with  every  fellow. 
Sola  means  *  safety,'  ala  means  *upon,'  and  hum 
signifies  *you.' 

I  had  a  long  conversation  with  Khwajah  Moham- 
med Khan,  the  eldest  son  of  the  governor  of 
Peshawer.  He  came  to  my  place,  bearing  a  watch 
in  his  hand.  After  compliments,  he  sat  upon  my 
bed,  and  talked  a  long  while  with  me  in  the  Persian 


language  inth  the  utmost  politeness.  He  was 
richlj  dressed,  and  had  a  shawl  turban  on  his  head, 
which  increased  his  beauty.  He  is  a  very  sharp 
boy  of  fifteen,  and  knows  poetry.  He  recited  a 
number  of  Afghani,  or  Pashto,  and  Persian  verses : 
the  following  is  a  translation  of  one  of  the  former, 
which  he  prevailed  upon  me  to  write,  and  keep 
as  a  remembrance.  He  took  a  copy  from  me 
of  some  Hindi  verses,  which  were  full  of  love, 
and  told  me,  when  I  returned  back  to  my  native 
city,  I  must  remember  to  write  him  a  letter. 


The  lore  that  I  have  for  you  is  not  false ; 

Without  you  all  good  is  bad. 

If  any  man  see  the  looking-glass  and  not  your  face, 

The  looking-glass  is  not  clear,  but  dim. 

Do  not  boast  yourself  with  regard  to  the  show  of  the  world. 

The  mirth  of  this  world  is  to-day,  and  not  to-morrow. 

If  any  paramour  shed  a  flood  of  tears,  he  does  not  mean  to 

cry,  but  to  laugh. 
If  you  oppress  me  a  hundred-fold. 
The  oppression  is  the  same  measure  of  pity  in  my  behalf. 
In  time  past  our  love  was  secret ; 

Now  our  love  all  the  world  knows,  and  it  cannot  be  hidden. 
If  the  beloved  can  be  procured  at  the  price  of  a  head. 
It  is  cheap  for  Rahman,  who  can  give  his  head,  and  buy  a 


April  6. — I  proceeded  about  four  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon  with  Dr.  Gerard  to  examine  the  shop  of 
a  lapidary,  who  has  been  over  all  the  countries  of 
Turkistan.     He  shewed  us  plenty  of  precious  stones 



of  various  colours,  which  he  brought  from  Badakh- 
shan  and  other  famous  places.  We  got  two  stones 
from  him,  on  which  we  desired  our  names  to  be 
engraved  in  the  Persian  character. 

In  the  evening,  we  passed  through  the  city  on  our 
route  to  the  Balahisar.  This  place  is  seventy  feet 
high,  and  was  lately  destroyed  and  burnt  by  Ranjit 
Singh.  Its  ruins  give  an  idea  of  a  noble  structure. 
A  shout  of  a  passenger  in  the  city  of  "  0  Farangi !" 
brought  the  shopkeepers  out  to  look  at  us  with  sur- 
prise. They  said  to  each  other  that  we  were  come 
to  Peshawer  by  the  order  of  Ranjit  Singh,  on  an 

AprU  7. — Mr.  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard  set  out  on 
a  hunting  excursion  with  Sultan  Mohammed  Khan. 
I  met  a  lapidary,  who  had  been  over  Asiatic 
countries,  including  Jerusalem  and  Mocha.  He 
told  me  a  number  of  wonders  of  Turkistan,  where 
he  said  the  Indians  are  well  treated,  and  Afghans 
generally  meet  with  contempt.  I  inquired  of  him 
what  was  the  cause  of  this.  He  said  that  three  men 
resolved  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to  the  holy  sepulchre 
at  Mecca ;  one  of  them  was  an  Afghan  or  Sultani, 
the  other  a  Sindhi,  or  an  inhabitant  of  Sindh,  and 
the  third  a  Hindi,  or  an  Indian.  Having  made 
several  marches  to  that  holy  place,  they  arrived  at 
the  boundary  of  Arabia,  and  by  chance  lost  their 
route  and  wandered  over  an  extensive  plain.  They 
met  a  husbandman,  who  was  at  work,  to  whom  they 
related  their  difficulties,  and  begged  of  him  to  point 


out  the  road.  As  he  was  at  work,  he  told  his 
daughter,  a  beautiful  virgin,  to  direct  them  to  the 
proper  road.  When  they  were  out  of  the  sight  of 
the  farmer,  the  Sultani  first  said  to  his  companions, 
that  he  wished  to  violate  the  chastity  of  the  girl  who 
was  their  guide.  The  Sindhi,  one  of  the  pilgrims, 
said,  that  he  would  take  the  horse  on  which  she 
was  mounted.  While  they  were  speaking,  the 
Hindi  burst  into  a  passion,  and  upbraided  them 
bitterly,  but  without  avail.  The  poor  girl,  being 
violated,  and  having  lost  her  horse,  ran  to  her 
ftrther,  to  whom  she  mentioned  her  misfortune, 
shedding  a  flood  of  tears.  The  father  no  sooner 
heard  this,  than  he  was  enraged  to  such  a  degree, 
that  a  stream  of  blood  poured  down  from  his  eyes. 
He  sent  some  men  of  his  party  to  seize  the  offenders. 
The  party  set  out,  and  after  two  days'  march  secured 
the  pilgrims  and  brought  them  back  to  the  farmer. 
The  Sultani  and  Sindhi  were  flayed  alive,  and  he 
married  his  daughter  to  the  Hindi.  The  farmer 
built  a  village  in  honour  of  the  Hindi,  and  since  this 
time,  every  Indian  is  well  treated  in  Arabia,  and 
called  £sdthful  and  sincere. 

April  8. — I  went  this  morning  to  the  Hindu 
temple  called  Gorakh  Nath.  It  is  a  fine  place. 
All  Hindus,  both  men  and  women,  with  their 
children,  assemble  here  on  Sundays  and  bathe  in 
the  pond,  which  has  a  beautiful  fountain  in  the 
middle.     Its   clear  and  crystalline  water,  which 



washes  the  northern  side  of  Peshawer,  forms  a 
narrow  rivulet. 

In  the  evening  I  bent  mj  course,  in  company  with 
Dr.  Gerard,  to  the  garden  of  Ali  Mardan  Khan,  an 
account  of  which  I  have  already  given.  Near  the 
entrance  of  the  garden,  we  met  a  prince,  named 
Shabzadah  Mohammed  Husain,  a  descendant  of  the 
family  of  the  late  Taimur  Shah,  king  of  Kabul.  He 
was  attended  by  some  horsemen,  and  dressed  in  a 
brocade  gown.  He  made  Dr.  Gerard  Salam  dai^ 
kum^  and  said  he  was  very  anxious  to  see  us.  He 
talked  for  half  an  hour  on  ahorseback,  and  entreated 
Dr.  Gerard  to  take  a  letter  for  Mr.  Elphinstone  to 
England.     He  is  a  friend  to  that  gentleman. 

The  thermometer  in  the  room  (where  I  was 
writing  my  diary)  stood  at  sixty-six  degrees,  and  in 
the  open  air,  at  the  same  time,  it  was  eighty-three, 
a  difference  of  seventeen  degrees. 

AprU  9. — Faqir  Mohammed,  kotwal  (or  constable) 
of  Peshawer,  a  man  of  fifty-five  years  of  age,  came 
and  talked  with  me  upon  various  subjects.  He  men- 
tioned to  me  the  annual  revenues  of  this  place ;  but, 
on  account  of  the  uncertainty  of  which,  I  must  not 
write  it  in  my  journal. 

April  10. — An  evening  ride  led  me  through  a 
beautiful  orchard,  which  was  intersected  with  rivu- 
lets. All  the  gardens  and  the  neighbouring  fields 
are  watered  by  brooks  and  fountains,  conducted  from 
the  river  Bara,  which  enriches  the  country.     The 


barlej  and  com»  &c.  are  here  reaped  four  or  five 
times  a  year.  All  the  suburbs,  fields,  and  meadows 
of  Peshawer,  are  covered  with  green;  they  were 
called  «  Sabzbahar"  by  Nadir  Shah. 

I  cast  my  eyes  upon  the  ruins  of  a  magnificent 
building,  the  tempting  aspect  of  which  drew  me  to 
its  side  from  the  road.  When  I  approached  the 
edifice,  it  appeared  to  have  been  about  seventy  feet 
in  height,  but  it  was  destroyed  and  burnt  by  Ranjit 
Singh,  when  he  gained  a  victory  over  Azim  Khan 
Durani,  ten  years  ago.  It  was  erected,  in  the  reign 
of  Ahmad  Shah  Durani,  in  honour  of  Mausam  Khan 
Arbab.  Though  it  is  totally  destroyed,  it  still  re- 
tains the  name  of  Mausam  Khan's  Kote.  It  is 
reported  that  forty  maunds  of  iron  were  taken  from 
the  gate  of  this  edifice,  and  swords  and  other  instru- 
ments of  war  were  made  from  it. 

April  11. — A  holy  day  of  the  Hindus,  called 
Baisakhi,  which  authorizes  that  tribe  to  bathe  this 
morning  in  rivers,  canals,  and  especially  at  Hard  war, 
a  celebrated  bathing-place  in  India.  I  was  induced 
to  pay  a  visit  to  the  temple  of  Gorakh  Nath.  Thou- 
sands of  men  and  women  were  in  the  pond,  which  is 
shaded  by  three  pipal-trees.  The  women  were  all 
beautiful  and  delicate,  more  so  than  the  Mohamme- 
dans. As  the  sun  was  getting  hot,  I  returned  to  my 

'  An  evening  ride  led  me  to  the  Asya  Bazar,  in 
company  with  Dr.  Gerard,  where  we  were  sur* 
rounded  by  a  great  multitude  of  sick  men,   and 


our  liberal  distribution  of  medicine  vma  eyerywhere 

April  12, 13. — It  was  a  hot  and  cloudy  mornings 
and  I  was  taken  ill.  We  set  out  this  evening  to  the 
Asya  Bazar,  where  I  saw  two  Khaibaris  *  passing 
on  the  road.  Their  visage  betokened  perfidious- 
ness.  This  tribe  is  celebrated  for  plundering 
and  murdering  travellers  who  happen  to  pass 
through  the  valley  Khaibar  (Khyber),  and  con- 
sequently the  high  road  is  shut  up,  which  intersects 
their  limits.  The  mountains  of  Khaibar  are 
situated  N.W.  of  Peshawer.  It  is  said  that  these 
people  never  submit  to  any  authority.  Nadir  Shah, 
on  his  route  to  Delhi,  passed  the  valley  of  Khaibar, 
where  he  could  not  effect  a  passage  without  giving 
some  large  presents  to  the  Khaibaris. 

April  14,  15. — I  was  very  sorry  to  see  Mr. 
Bumes  unwell.  We  were  anxious  to  proceed  to 
Kabul  in  company  with  a  caravan,  but  our  host, 
Sultan  Mohammed  Khan,  did  not  let  us  go,  wishing 
us  to  continue  some  days  more  in  his  country,  to 
enjoy  the  pleasant  gardens,  which  were  then  in 
foliage.  It  was  in  vain  that  we  repeatedly  sent 
him  messages  concerning  our  departure  to  Kabul. 

April  16. — There  was  a  Sayad,  called  Maulvi 
Mohammed  Husain,  a  good  Persian  writer,  who, 
hearing  of  our  arrival,  came  to  our  residence,  and 
appjied  for  some  medicine.  As  he  spoke  with  Dr. 
Gerard,   who    could    not  understand  his    Persian 

*  Commonly  written  Khyberees. 


language,  I  was  sent  for  by  that  gentleman,  to  hear 
the  Maulvi,  and  explain  to  him  in  the  English 

As  soon  as  the  Maulvi  cast  his  eyes  upon  me,  he 
shed  a  flood  of  tears,  and  recited  a  Persian  distich, 
of  which  the  following  is  a  translation : — 

^^  Oh  my  inoomparable  taper  (or  beloved),  where  are  you? 
The  burner  of  my  house,  where  are  you  ?" 

He  spoke  with  me,  in  the  presence  of  Dr. 
Grerard,  and  said  that  he  had  been  yery  anxious  to 
visit  me  since  he  saw  me  on  horseback  in  the  Bazar. 
As  he  could  not  find  access  to  our  presence,  he 
was  obliged  to  obtain  it  by  a  pretence  of  asking 
medicine.  He  humbly  entreated  that  he  might  see 
me  every  day  while  I  resided  in  Peshawer.  I  did 
not  think  proper  to  refuse  his  request. 

April  17,  18. — The  Maulvi  came  this  morning 
and  presented  me  with  a  pretty  Persian  book, 
written  in  the  country  of  Iran.  It  contained  all 
the  fire  of  love  which  sparkled  three  thousand  years 
ago  in  some  parts  of  the  Dakhan.  The  paramour 
is  called  Rajanal,  and  the  beloved  was  Damni. 
The  history  of  their  love  was  formerly  written  in 
the  Sanskrit  language,  in  the  reign  of  Akbar,  and 
it  was  translated  into  Persian  by  Faizi,  a  celebrated 
learned  man  in  his  time.  The  Maulvi  gave  me  a 
letter  of  recommendation  to  Mir  Mohammed 
Murad  Beg,  chief  of  Kholum,  who  behaved  ill  to 
Mr.  Moorcroft.     It  was  written  by  a  Sayad,  named 


Eazla  Haq,  who   was    the    Murshid    of  all  the 
Turkistan  and  Peshawer  people. 

Whilst  we  continued  at  Peshawer,  we  received 
very  kind  and  friendly  attentions  from  the  rulers ; 
and  in  the  meantime  Mr.  Bumes  collected  a  good 
deal  of  information  about  the  country,  which  it  is 
needless  for  me  to  put  down  in  this  journal,  as  he 
has  minutely  described  the  same  to  the  world  in  his 




April  19.— We  quitted  Peshawer  this  morning, 
under  the  charge  of  a  respectable,  but  vain  and  self- 
sufficient  individual,  who,  however,  did  not  join  us 
till  the  third  day.  I  was  separated  from  my  party, 
and  lost  the  proper  road ;  at  length,  I  applied  to 
several  passengers  to  shew  me  the  right  way,  but  it 
availed  nothing.  My  entreaties  to  an  old  beggar 
were  as  useless ;  for  he  shewed  me  a  wrong  rod,d, 
pointing  with  his  fingers  towards  one  which  gradu- 
ally led  me  to  the  bank  of  the  Shahalam  river, 
which  I  wished  to  ford.  The  main  current  is  here 
more  rapid  than  the  Indus ;  and  but  for  the  oppor- 
tune arrival  of  a  man,  who  prevented  my  putting 
my  intention  into  execution,  I  should  inevitably 
have  been  drowned.  My  clothes  and  the  saddle  of 
the  horse  were  quite  wet.  At  last,  I  returned  back 
to  Peshawer,  where  I  met  the  servant  of  the  gen- 
tlemen, who  came  to  search  for  me. 

He  conducted  me  four  miles  to  a  handsome  vil- 
lage, named  Pajaggi,  where  we  encamped  for  the 
night.  The  village  is  very  fertile,  and  is  watered 
by  rivulets.     The  inhabitants  are  Afghans,  speaking 


the  Pashto  language,  and  are  bigots  in  religion. 
There  are  many  mosques.  The  houses  are  very  smalU 
made  of  mud,  and  shaded  with  large  mulberry-trees. 

April  20. — ^A  march  of  six  miles  brought  us  to 
Matti.  We  crossed  many  rivulets  on  our  route, 
which  fertilize  the  country,  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
village.  Matti  is  situated  on  a  beautiful  spot,  com- 
manding a  view  of  the  river,  and  contains  manj 
mulberry-trees.  Their  shade  is  cool  in  the  hot 
weather.  The  houses  are  well-constructed,  of  two 
and  three  stories  high.  At  night  we  were  joined  by 
a  great  number  of  travellers. 

April  21. — We  moved  this  morning  to  Michni,  a 
distance  of  eight  miles,  passing  several  brooks,  and 
followed  the  right  bank  of  the  Kabul  river. 

The  weather  had  now  become  very  sultry,  and  on 
entering  the  valleys  of  the  Abkhana  hills,  gusts  of 
hot  wind  were  felt,  which  in  the  subsequent  months 
cause  the  simfims,  from  the  effect  of  which  people 
frequently  perish.  The  thermometer,  observed  by 
Dr.   Gerard    at   the    time,    stood    at  eighty-nine 

On  the  right  bank  of  the  Shahalam,  or  Kabul 
river,  there  are  four  roads  from  Peshawer  to  Kabul. 
The  King's-road  intersects  the  valley  of  Khaibar,  on 
which  artillery  may  be  easily  moved ;  it  is  now  shut 
up,  because  the  inhabitants  (called  Khaibaris)  plun- 
der the  travellers ;  but  the  messengers,  or  qasids,  of 
course,  pass  along  it,  bearing  only  their  light  dress, 
for  fear  of  being  robbed. 


The  road  by  Chor  is  passable  for  camels  and 
horses.  The  road  by  Kohat  is  not  so  troublesome 
as  that  of  Tatahra^  where  we  hear  that  footmen  can- 
not pass  without  bruising  or  hurting  their  bodies. 
You  will  not  cross  any  river  on  your  route  to  Kabul^ 
if  you  take  the  aboTe-mentioned  routes,  which  lie 
on  our  left.  The  road  of  Chor  is  within  the  terri- 
toiy  of  the  Khaibar  people,  and  is,  consequently,  not 

After  travelling  along  a  hilly  road,  we  reached  the 
ferry  of  Michni,  and  swam  our  horses  across  the 
river,  which  has  dirty  water,  and  runs  slowly.  There 
is  no  boat ;  a  bridge  might  be  made  across  this  river 
vrith  ten  or  twelve  boats ;  it  is  not  fordable  at  any 

April  22. — We  halted  at  Michni,  in  a  mosque,  on 
account  of  its  being  a  hot  and  stormy  day,  and  fixed 
our  residence  on  a  high  mountain,  which  commands 
the  pass  of  the  river.  Nayab  Mohammed  Sharif 
Khan,  our  conductor,  joined  us  this  evening,  through 
the  fevour  of  the  Peshawer  ruler. 

April  23. — We  took  our  departure  at  two  o'clock 
in  the  morning ;  our  party  now  consisting  of  sixty 
or  seventy  horsemen.  We  began  to  ascend  the 
mountains,  as  the  night  set  in,  and  it  was  fortunate 
that  we  were  not  aware  of  the  dangers  which  envi- 
roned us ;  for  when  daylight  disclosed  the  frightful 
precipices  we  had  passed,  our  eyes  grew  dim  at  the 
sight,  and  our  heads  giddy  at  the  very  thought. 

We  passed  near  the  Khaibar  country,  but  saw  no 


robbers,  though  our  conductor  shewed  great  anxiety 
for  our  safety,  pointing  out  the  defiles  and  danger^ 
ous  parts  of  the  road ;  but  we  feared  nothing.  It  is 
impossible,  without  frequently  dismounting  from 
your  horse,  to  surmount  some  tracts  of  this 
ascent.  My  dear  travellers,  if  you  wish  to  pass 
well  over  these  hills,  follow  my  advice,  which  will 
keep  you  safe  from  every  danger.  That  is,  dis- 
mount from  your  horse,  hold  his  bridle  in  your  hands, 
arid  lead  him  after  you.  In  this  part  of  the  country, 
water  is  indispensable  to  the  comfort  and  even  the 
existence  of  the  travellers,  who  become  wearied  by 
their  exertions  and  the  heat. 

We  happened  to  pass  on  our  road  through  the 
village  of  Haidur  Khan,  where  we  had  a  grand 
sight,  on  our  left,  of  the  white  mountain,  called 
Safaid  Koh.  Here  an  Afghan  husbandman,  leaving 
his  station,  where  he  was  watching  some  fields,  came 
in  front  of  us,  and  prevented  our  proceeding  on  our 
journey.  On  our  expostulating  with  him,  he  said, 
with  a  loud  and  fearful  voice,  that,  three  days  before, 
a  man  of  his  village  hurried  down  to  Peshawer, 
where  some  Durani  took  from  him  one  rupee  by 
force,  and  wished  to  take  his  life ;  and,  continued 
he,  "  now  you  are  all  of  that  city,  and  are  in  my 
power — ^may  my  sufferings  soon  be  revenged  on 
you  I  **  After  many  arguments,  he  let  us  pass.  We 
applauded  his  noble  heart  and  bold  spirit,  that  made 
him  singly  oppose  one  hundred  men,  all  armed,  and 
stop  them  on  the  road. 


We  descended  again  into  the  bed  of  the  river,  and 
crossed  it,  as  before,  by  a  raft  of  skins,  as  Alexander 
did  the  Chenab.  It  was  nearly  upset;  but  the 
mercy  of  God,  and  the  alacrity  of  the  feriTman, 
saved  our  lives.  We  encamped  on  the  bank,  having 
«ome  a  distance  of  six  miles. 

April  24.  —  We  commenced  our  march  (the 
beginning  of  which  was  very  difficult)  early  in  the 
morning.  The  horses  (though  no  person  was  upon 
their  backs)  were  exceedingly  tired  in  ascending  thid 
lofty  and  rugged  hill.  As  the  sun  grew  Hotter,  we 
stopped  for  two  hours  in  a  village  called  Dakka* 
situated  on  the  bank  of  the  Kabul  river.  At  the 
twilight  of  evening,  we  bent  our  course  to  Hazara 
Nau,  a  distance  of  twenty-four  miles,  which  brought 
us  to  the  King's  or  Khaibar  road,  where  troops  and 
artillery  may  easily  pass. 

The  village  is  almost  surrounded  by  mountains, 
and  possesses  a  soil  fit  for  cultivation.  There  is  a 
fountain  in  the  village,  which  contains  plenty  of 
fish.  This  place  has  been  subject  for  the  last  two 
months  to  a  calamity,  viz.  two  or  three  persons 
expire  every  day  of  fever.  The  inhabitants  are 
Afghans,  and  speak  only  the  Pashto  language. 
There  are  seven  houses  of  Hindus,  who  are  badly 
treated  by  the  Afghans. 

April  25. — We  moved  to  Jalalabad,  where  we 
arrived  in  the  afternoon,  having  travelled  thirty-two 
miles.  We  passed,  on  our  route,  through  several 
vast  plains,  where  armies  might  combat  with  each 


other,  but  they  were  destitute  of  waten  Our  march 
for  about  eight  miles  continued  over  a  rich  soil. 
We  were  overtaken  by  a  storm  of  wind  and  dust* 
like  the  north-wester  of  India,  which  compelled  us 
to  take  shelter  under  trees. 

The  tomb  of  Batti  Kot,  a  veiy  pious  man,  is  mag- 
nificently built  in  an  extensive  desert,  called  Dasht 
Batti  Kot.  A  village  is  erected  to  his  honour,  which 
we  happened  to  pass  about  eight  o'clock  at  night. 
There  is  neither  well  nor  fountain  within  a  distance 
of  ten  miles  from  the  village,  and  on  this  account 
the  countiy  is  not  well  cultivated.  The  villsgen 
provide  themselves  with  water  from  the  neighbour* 
ing  hamlets.  No  man  can  travel  in  this  dry  desert 
in  the  hot  weather,  during  the  day,  on  account  of  the 
simtims,  or  fiery  winds ;  and  for  this  reason,  there 
is  a  proverbial  saying  amongst  the  inhabitants  of 
this  country,  ""  Sokhtdh  dasht  Batti  Kot  hasUf* 
«  Art  thou  burnt  of  the  desert,  Batti  Kot  ?  " 

The  village  abounds  with  snakes  and  scorpions; 
but,  it  is  said,  they  have  no  power  to  bite  or  hurt 
any  one,  when  he  draws  a  line  round  a  place  which 
he  occupies,  invoking,  at  the  same  time,  the  name 
of  Batti  Kot.  Our  marches  were  fatiguing  and 
desultory,  and  entirely  at  the  caprice  of  our  guide, 
sometimes  in  rain,  and  at  others  in  sunshine  or 

At  midnight  we  passed  through  a  desert,  near  Jar 
lalabad,  called  Surkh  Divar  (or  *  red  wall '),  infested 
by  robbers.     I  was  at  the  head  of  my  party,  and 


at  a  point  of  the  road  of  an  unusual  dreariness, 
when  we  were  alarmed  by  firing  close  ahead  of 
us,  and,  on  coming  up,  were  met  and  congratu- 
lated by  our  leader  on  our  escape  from  a  body  of 
robbers,  by  his  praiseworthy  conduct  on  the  occa- 
sion, with  so  few  followers.  We  took  behind  us 
those  who  were  on  foot,  and  moved  on  in  a  compact 
body,  passing  a  Tillage  we  had  intended  resting  at, 
and  travelled  on  till  the  day  dawned  upon  our 
weary  eyes.  During  all  this  time,  our  valiant  guide 
talked  of  nothing  but  his  exploits  with  robbers,  till 
his  vanity  betrayed  him,  and  burst  through  the 
dissimulation  by  which  he  had  imposed  upon  our 
credulity.  No  robbers  had  been  seen,  and  the  false 
alarm  was  the  offipring  of  his  own  ingenuity,  to  gain 
him  reputation,  and,  no  doubt,  in  the  hopes  of 
gratifying  his  sordid  appetite  by  a  present  The 
story  became  a  good  jest,  and  the  man  himself 
joined  in  the  diversion  it  created. 

April  26. — We  had  now  penetrated  into  the  depth 
of  the  mountains,  and  remained  at  Jalalabad,  which, 
though  very  large  and  populous,  looks  but  a  poor 
place,  and  deserves  no  notice,  except  that  it  is  re- 
markable for  filth  and  misery.  It  is  situated  on  the 
bank  of  the  Eoibul  river.  The  soil  is,  however,  fer- 
tile, and  the  landscape  refreshing  to  the  sight,  after 
the  barren  rocks  and  parched  sur&ce  we  had  tra- 
versed. The  contiguous  country  is  interesting.  In 
addition  to  the  many  objects  of  natural  history,  tra- 
dition has  placed  here  the  graves  of  several  of  the 


prophets,  Noah's  fiskther,  and  Lot.  The  ark  is  said 
to  hare  rested  upon  the  snowy  mountains  of  Kanur. 
Brooks  of  dirty  water,  shaded  with  mulberry-trees, 
wash  the  walls  of  every  house.  The  inhabitants  are 
chiefly  Afghans,  but  look  very  poor  and  miserable. 
There  are  many  shops,  which  are  badly  supplied. 
We  saw  a  magnificent  building,  a  Hindu  temple, 
named  Gorakh  Nath,  which  abounds  with  pigeons. 
The  houses,  although  constructed  of  mud  and  un- 
burnt  bricks,  are  durable. 

April  27. — It  was  evening  when  we  came  to  the 
fort  of  Aghajan,  a  distance  of  one  mile,  and  put  up 
in  a  very  dirty  stable,  which  was  full  of  dung  and 
little  flies.  The  fort  is  very  high ;  it  is  of  mud,  and 
looks  a  noble  edifice  at  a  distance.  We  had  a  sharp 
wind  and  rain  at  night. 

April  28. — We  took  our  departure  early  in  the 
morning ;  our  route  was  very  pleasant.  We  crossed 
several  streams  on  the  road.  The  country  on  our 
right  appeared  as  if  it  were  covered  with  a  green 
sheet,  owing  to  the  richness  of  the  soil ;  whilst  on 
the  left  was  a  sandy  desert,  and  a  white  mountain 
(the  Safaid  Koh),  which  was  covered  with  snow. 
The  high  mountain  of  Karanj,  near  Siah  Posh,  also 
covered  with  snow,  was  in  our  front;  beyond  it 
(out  of  sight)  was  Hindu  Kush.  It  is  reported  that 
on  this  mountain  a  Hindu  army  perished  in  the  days 
of  old,  and  it  hence  takes  the  name  of  Hindu  Kush, 
or  '  Destroyer  of  the  Hindus.'  It  has  a  veil  of 
snow  on  its  face  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.     We 


halted  in  a  very  neat  village,  called  Bala  Bagh,  after 
trayelling  a  distance  of  eight  miles.  Numerous 
streams  and  fountains  fertilize  and  adorn  this 
village.  We  were  refreshed  by  visiting  several 
orchards,  abounding  with  grapes,  pomegranates,  figs, 
peaches,  and  pears. 

April  29. — A  march  of  fourteen  miles  brought 
us  to  a  village  called  Gandu  Mak.  On  the  left  of 
our  route  was  the  pretty  garden  of  Nimla,  where 
Shah  Shuja,  the  deposed  king  of  Kabul,  was 
defeated  by  Vizir  Fatah  Kban.  It  is  situated  in 
a  beautiful  spot,  at  the  entrance  of  a  handsome 
valley.  Before  we  reached  our  halting-place,  we 
crossed  a  very  large  and  dangerous  bridge  on  the 

The  weather  became  now  very  gloomy,  and  we 
were  detained  by  rain ;  on  the  sky  clearing,  we  be- 
held snowy  peaks  quite  near  on  both  sides  of  us. 
Towards  the  south,  was  Safaid  Koh,  which  is  not  a 
solitary  peak,  but  a  range.  The  snow  was  bril- 
liantly white,  and  sboue  with  dazzling  splendour 
from  the  reflection  of  the  retiring  sun.  The  climate 
was  disagreeably  warm,  notwithstanding  our  proxi- 
mity to  those  gelid  regions.  The  sides  of  the 
mountains  were  invested  with  majestic  cedar  forests. 
On  our  right,  and  through  the  recesses  of  the  hills 
near  us,  we  had  occasional  glimpses  of  mountains 
joining  the  great  Hindu  Kush,  which  forms  a  natural 
boundary  between  Khorasan  and  Turkistan,  and 
extends  to  the  west  in  a  continuous  crest  of  white- 


ness,  so  lofty  as  to  border  upon  the  thin  clouds  that 
float  betwixt  it  and  the  heaTons. 

April  30. — We  entered  this  morning  a  cold  coun- 
try, and  passed  several  brooks,  and  a  fine  large  sub- 
stantial bridge,  on  our  way,  which  was  built  by  the 
ancient  emperors  of  Delhi.  We  stopped  at  noon  at 
Jagdalak,  after  which  we  recommenced  our  march, 
.  and  halted,  at  twelve  at  night,  in  the  mouth  of  a 
valley,  called  Lata  Band,  having  travelled  a  distance 
of  thirty-three  miles.  The  wind  was  very  cold  and 
piercing.  Our  route  continued  over  rounded  stones, 
which  rendered  the  way  very  difiScult,  both  for  men 
and  beasts. 

May  1. — At  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  we  de- 
parted towards  Kabul,  a  distance  of  twenty-five 
miles.  On  approaching  the  city,  the  climate  as- 
sumed a  refreshing  coolness,  and  we  only  required 
to  be  our  own  masters,  to  enjoy  the  ever-varying 
scenes  which  were  opened  before  us ;  but  our  heart- 
less conductor  pursued  his  way,  and  we  were  obliged 
to  follow  him  through  rain,  sunshine,  and  darkness. 
Having  kept  moving  for  twenty-four  hours  together, 
we  arrived  at  Kabul. 

We  travelled  at  night,  and  could  see  nothing  of 
the  country ;  but  the  very  perceptible  ascent  of  the 
roads,  and  the  increasing  cold,  assured  me  that  we 
had  attained  a  very  considerable  elevation.  I  was 
impatient  to  feast  my  eyes  upon  the  beauties  of  the 
place,  which  is  considered  the  garden  of  India.  I 
often  sighed  for  daylight  to  put  to  sleep  the  stars, 


that  I  might  actually  behold  what  I  had  long  onlj 
dreamt  of,  and  vaguely  imaged  to  my  mind;  but  when 
daylight  came,  it  made  me  blush,  for  nothing  was 
visible  but  a  desert  of  hard  and  naked  rocks,  which 
denied  even  to  the  snow  a  place  of  rest.  The  city 
was  indicated  by  a  dark  haze,  as  if  it  had  no  con- 
nection with  the  uniform  sterility  around ;  and  after 
such  a  dismal  approach,  I  had  little  hopes  of  being 
gratified  in  entering  it.  It  is  no  wonder  that  the 
kings  of  Kabul  left  their  dreary  territories,  to  plunder 
the  rich  plains  of  India. 

We  crossed  the  river  on  a  bridge,  which  was  in 
some  parts  overflowed.  On  our  left,  the  road  was 
generally  a  broad  causeway,  running  for  two  miles 
in  a  straight  line,  till  it  terminated  in  a  view  of  a 
noble  building  called  Balahisar,  which  was  formerly 
the  residence  of  the  king,  and  now  Dost  Mohammed 
Khan,  the  governor  of  Kabul,  occupies  that  cele- 
brated place.  We  were  welcomed  by  our  host, 
Nawab  Jabbar  Khan,  who  gave  us  a  very  fine  house 
to  reside  in. 

May  2  to  5.  Kabul. — We  remained  at  Kabul 
to  see  the  curiosities  and  antiquities,  which  shall  be 
described  hereafter. 

The  day  after  our  arrival,  on  the  2nd  of  May,  we 
were  delighted  by  meeting  a  fellow-traveller,  who 
had  overcome  the  difficulties  of  the  road  from  Bok- 
hara, after  encountering  many  misfortunes.  Mr. 
Wolff  is  a  zealous  missionary,  wandering  like  the 
apostles  of  old  over  foreign  countries,  for  the  sake 



of  enlightening  the  various  nations  of  the  earth ; 
bnt  with  what  success  he  did  not  mention.  His 
sole  object  is  to  discover  the  lineal  descent  of  the 
Jews,  and  in  Afghanistan  he  had  a  fertile  field  for 
research,  as  the  people  themselves  trace  their  ge- 
nealogy to  the  tribes  of  Israel ;  but  in  so  interesting 
a  tract  of  country  Mr.  Wolff  did  not  stop  suf- 
ficiently long,  and  after  the  disasters  he  met  with, 
it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  if  he  was  anxious  to  quit 
so  inhospitable  a  region.  Amongst  his  adventures, 
he  related  having  been  made  a  slave ;  but  fortunately 
for  him  he  was  not  considered  of  much  value,  and 
got  released*  He  next  came  into  the  hands  of 
robbers,  who  took  away  all  his  money,  and  even  the 
clothes  from  his  back.  Lastly,  he  was  deprived  of 
his  horse  by  the  deep  snow  of  the  Hindu  Kush,  and 
was  compelled  to  walk  naked  into  Kabul,  like  the 
faqirs  of  India.  All  these  details  were  not  very 
consolatory  to  us,  who  were  to  tread  in  his  foot- 
steps; but  there  is  an  attraction  even  in  the  idea 
of  danger,  that  makes  its  actual  sufferings  shrink 
into  insignificance,  on  such  a  journey  as  this. 

Mr.  Wolff  was  very  kind  to  me,  especially  when  I 
told  him  that  my  religion  consisted  in  the  worship  of 
one  sole  Supreme  Being.  He  seemed  pleased  to 
hear  of  the  Delhi  Institution,  and  asked  if  there 
were  others  educated  like  myself.  He  thought  that 
sacred  instruction  should  be  inculcated  as  well  as 
knowledge,  but  it  is  questionable  whether  this  would 
not  defeat  the  object  of  the  academy.     He  pro- 


mised  to  become  a  patron,  and,  with  the  assistance 
of  Lord  W.  Bentinck,  to  improve  the  instractkm. 
If  he  visits  Delhi,  I  take  the  liberty  to  commend 
him  to  the  kindness  and  favour  of  the  college  com- 
mittee and  my  friends  in  India. 

May  6. — An  evening  ride  led  me  through  the 
Balahisar  to  the  residence  of  the  present  ruler.  It 
is  partly  commanded  by  the  southern  hills,  and 
partly  by  the  western,  besides  being  separately 
walled.  The  northern  and  eastern  walls  are  de* 
fensible.  It  contains  twelve  large  brass  guns,  regu- 
larly made.  On  my  return,  I  bent  my  course 
through  the  Shor  Bazar,  which  was  roofed  with  very 
large  rafters  and  mats.  The  shops,  having  numerous 
fine  things,  looked  very  beautiful. 

May  7. — Early  in  the  morning  I  proceeded  to 
try  the  bath,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Gerard.  The 
water  was  very  fine  and  clear.  There  are  neither 
flies  nor  any  other  insects  to  be  found  either  in 
the  outer  or  inner  room,  where  rich  men  are 
generally  allowed  to  bathe.  The  skylights  overlook 
the  Kabul  river.  It  was  built  in  the  time  of 
Vazir  Fatah  Khan,  and  adjoins  the  edifice  of  that 

At  evening  we  set  out  to  see  the  garden  of  the 
Shah,  or  the  Bagh  Shah,  which  is  planted  on  the 
northern  side  of  the  city,  in  a  beautiful  spot.  A 
stream  of  water,  running  from  the  river,  passes  the 
entrance  of  the  garden.     The  road,  or  khayaban,  was 


very  clean  and  straight,  like  that  of  India.  It  rans 
from  the  gate  of  the  city,  and  ends  in  a  view  of  a 
high  hill,  eight  miles  distant. 

Poplar  trees,  which  are  not  found  in  India  (but  axe 
in  England,  as  Dr.  Gerard  told  me),  adorn  the  sur- 
rounding walls  of  the  garden.  There  are  thousands 
of  trees  of  many  different  kinds  of  fruit,  for  which 
the  city  is  celebrated.  Above  me  were  the  clear 
and  blue  skies ;  on  each  side  were  masses  of  snow, 
which  tempered  by  their  cold  aspect  the  glow  of 
the  sun. 

The  appearance  of  Kabul  is  not  remarkable ;  and 
its  grey  walls  of  mud  ill  correspond  with  the  scene 
which  opens  upon  the  traveller  on  entering  the  city. 
But  how  shall  I  describe  the  bazar  or  charsu,  so  full 
of  people,  all  strangers,  not  only  in  face,  in  dress,  and 
in  their  dialects,  but  in  all  their  customs ;  while  every 
article  of  trade  or  of  manufacture  is  equally  dissimilar 
from  that  of  Hindustan !  The  whole  scene  is  entirely 
new,  and  one  wonders  that  in  so  short  a  space  there 
should  be  such  a  singular  contrast.  I  thought  of 
Delhi,  with  its  palaces,  its  tall  menarets,  its  splendid 
architecture,  and  its  showy  people,  the  flowing  robes 
and  brilliant  ornaments,  the  braids  and  bracelets, 
the  rose-odours,  the  bright  eyes,  and  raven  hair,  and 
in  the  dance,  *^  the  many  twinkling  feet,  so  small 
and  sylph-like."  I  looked  in  vain  for  the  scenes  of 
my  youth,  their  true  and  false  enjoyments ;  but  th&f 
were  gone ! 


The  shops  displayed  a  profusion  of  those  fruits 
which  I  used  to  esteem  costly  luxuries.  The 
parts  of  the  bazar  which  are  arched  over  exceed 
any  thing  the  imagination  can  picture.  The  shops 
rise  over  each  other,  in  steps  glittering  in  tinsel 
splendour,  till,  from  the  effect  of  elevation,  the 
whole  &de8  into  a  confused  and  twinkling  mass, 
like  stars  shining  through  clouds,  and  the  people 
themselves,  not  so  big  as  beetles,  seem  as  if  of  the 
pigmy  race.  These  bazars  were  made  by  Ali 
Mardan  Khan,  to  whose  liberality  and  magnificent 
works  his  posterity  is  indebted  for  many  fine  and 
noble  edifices  which  adorn  India  and  other  parts  of 

Next  to  the  bazar,  or  I  should  say  preceding  it 
in  importance,  is  Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  the  ruler 
of  Kabul,  who  deserves  particular  notice,  not  only 
as  a  ruler,  but  as  a  man.  I  might  be  able  to  de- 
lineate him  in  Persian,  but  I  am  not  sufficiently 
qualified  in  the  English  language  to  do  his  character 
justice,  therefore  I  must  comprise  my  description  of 
him  in  a  few  words.  His  tall  stature  and  haughty 
countenance,  with  his  proud  tone  of  speech  and 
plain  dress,  indicate  his  high  rank  and  sovereign 
power.  He  trusts  none  but  himself,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  numerous  enemies,  both  of  his  own 
family  and  court. 

If  we  judge  the  conduct  of  Dost  Mohammed 
Khan  as  an  encourager  of  commerce  and  a  poli- 
tician,  we  must   allow  him   considerable    praise, 


though  he  is  not  a  character  in  whom  one  could 
place  the  confidence  either  of  permanent  friendship 
or  political  alliance.  He  has  killed  many  chiefs  of 
the  country,  and  deprived  many  of  the  priesthood 
of  their  estates,  after  having  sworn  seven  times  by 
the  holy  soul  of  Mohammed,  and  even  upon  the 
Koran,  which  he  afterwards  said  were  the  leaves  of 
a  comtnon  book,  I  am  not  quite  sure  whether  the 
necessity  of  the  times  or  his  natural  ambition  ex- 
cited him  to  the  murders  he  has  committed.  He  is 
very  desirous  to  make  himself  the  sole  monarch  of 
Afghanistan,  but  is  in  want  of  money.  He  seems 
not  to  be  friendly  towards  the  British  Government ; 
and  I  dare  say  he  will  side  with  that  power  which 
appears  the  strongest  in  the  field.  He  has  many 
wives,  and  also  many  sons,  three  of  whom  are  the 
rulers  of  different  places.  He  is  very  cautious  not 
to  give  them  much  power,  for  fear  of  their  turning 
against  him.  When  he  drove  Sultan  Mohammed 
Khan  Sardar  out  of  Kabul,  he  possessed  himself 
of  one  of  his  dearest  (intended)  wives,  which 
has  heightened  the  animosity  between  the  two 

May  8  to  17. — I  had  the  pleasure  of  talking 
with  Mr.  Wolff,  who  came  into  my  room,  and  told 
me  to  listen  to  the  Bible,  and  be  converted  to 
Christianity,  which  is  the  best  religion  in  the  world. 
My  answer  pleased  the  reverend  gentleman  very 
much.  He  added  the  following  most  singular 
speech : — That  in  the  city  of  Bokhara  he  had  an 


interview  with  Jesus  Christ,  who  informed  him  that 
the  pleasant  valley  of  Kashmir  will  be  the  New 
Jerusalem  after  a  few  years,  I  copied  his  narrative, 
which  he  sent  to  Lady  Georgiana,  in  Malta.  He 
gave  me  a  certificate,  and  promised  to  recommend 
me  to  his  relation,  Lady  W.  Bentinck,  in  Cal- 

The  inhabitants  of  Kabul  are  Sunis,  Shias,  and 
Hindus.  The  Shias  live  separately  in  a  walled 
street  called  Chandaul.  They  believe  the  Panjtan, 
and  always  quarrel  veith  the  Sunis,  the  followers  of 
Charyar ;  but  the  Shias,  by  their  unanimity,  generally 
gain  the  honours  of  the  field.  Nadir  Shah  brought 
a  few  Qizal  Bash  from  Persia,  and  colonized  them  in 
Kabul,  where  they  increased  to  5,000.  Their  dress 
and  custom  of  living  are  more  decent  than  those  of 
the  Sunis  or  Afghans,  who  occupy  the  major  part 
of  the  country.  The  people  do  not  possess  good 
features,  and  are  fond  of  pleasure.  They  drink 
clandestinely,  and  rove  about.  The  females,  both 
of  high  and  low  family,  desert  the  path  of  virtue 
and  pursue  bad  principles.  The  proverbial  say- 
ing which  follows,  and  prevails  among  the  inhabit- 
ants, confirms  my  explanation  regarding  the  sex : — 
"  The  flour  of  Peshawer  is  not  without  a  mixture 
of  barley,  and  the  women  of  Kabul  are  not  without 

The  people  and  the  merchants  of  the  city  gene- 
rally speak  Persian;  but  in  the  country,  a  very 
harsh  Pashto  continues  to  be  spoken. 


The  Hindus  are  nearly  two  thousand  in  number, 
and  many  of  them  are  the  first  inhabitants  of 
Kabul.  They  have  large  families,  and  are  allowed 
all  the  privileges  of  their  religion.  They  are  known 
by  their  robes,  and  by  their  painted  foreheads. 
Their  shops  are  spread  over  all  the  streets  and 
bazars,  while  their  Mohanmiedan  neighbours,  though 
they  are  prejudiced  against  them,  treat  them  very 

At  noon  we  paid  a  visit  to  the  tomb  of  the 
Emperor  Babar,  which  is  worthy  of  description. 
Having  passed  through  the  street  of  Javan  Sher, 
or  Shias,  we  followed  the  right  bank  of  the  Maidan 
river,  which  flows  close  by  the  city  walls.  We  came 
now  to  a  small  village,  where  we  refreshed  ourselves 
with  dry  fruits  of  the  past  year.  Again  we 
entered  an  old  ruined  gate,  which  led  us  through  a 
beautiful  square,  shaded  with  fruit-trees  of  diffe- 
rent kinds,  and  washed  by  numerous  crystal  canals. 
The  green  flower-beds,  and  the  pleasant  wind, 
along  with  the  music  of  beautiful  birds,  quite 
surprised  me,  and  I  stood  without  motion,  medi- 
tating whether  I  was  dreaming  of  paradise,  or  had 
come  into  an  unknown  region.  In  the  mean- 
time, my  eyes  suddenly  opened,  and  my  sleepy 
heart,  tired  of  the  view  of  the  barren  rocks,  awoke 
and  said  to  me,  "No  doubt  the  Emperor  Babar 
was  judicious  in  choosing  this  spot  for  his  grave.*' 
We  ascended  four  or  five  steps,  and  saw  on  our 
left  hand  a  magnificent  mosque,  built  entirely  of 


beautiful  marble.  The  breadth  of  the  room  (my 
companion  measured  it)  was  eight  paces,  and  the 
length  twenty.  There  were  four  open  arches  in 
the  building.  The  marble  was  very  fine,  white, 
and  clear;  our  faces  were  reflected  in  it.  The 
expense  of  building  the  mosque  was  forty  thousand 
rupees,  and  it  was  completed  in  the  space  of  two 
years  by  Shah  Jahan,  after  the  conquest  of  Balk 
and  Badakhshan. 

Having  climbed  a  few  paces  more,  we  came  to  a 
rising  ground,  which  abounds  with  numerous  tombs, 
made  of  marble,  equal  in  size,  and  similar  in  shape, 
to  each  other.  There  was  no  difference  between 
the  tomb  of  the  emperor  and  the  tombs  of  his 
royal  fBunily,  except  in  the  inscription  of  the  name 
of  the  buried. 

The  mausoleum  of  the  emperor  is  not  much 
raised  above  the  surface  of  the  earth ;  a  few  pieces 
of  broken  but  fine  marble  cover  the  tomb,  and  at 
the  head  stands  a  small  menar,  called  a  ''  Lauh,*' 
which  contains  verses,  beautifully  cut,  signifying 
the  date  of  the  emperor's  death. 

We  are  highly  indebted  to  the  English  transla- 
tion of  "  Babar's  Memoirs,*'  which  gives  us  valuable 
intelligence  of  the  whole  country  of  Kabul.  After 
a  long  description  of  the  mountain,  the  emperor 
mentions  that  the  famous  pass  of  Hindu  Kush  is  so 
high,  and  the  wind  is  so  strong,  that  the  birds, 
being  unable  to  fly,  are  obliged  to  creep  over  the  top. 
They  are  often  caught  by  the  people,  who  kill  and 


roast  them  for  dinner.  This  is  said  by  Dr.  Gerard 
to  be  probably  owing  to  the  thinness  of  the  air  at 
that  great  elevation. 

The  original  name  of  Kabul,  described  by  the 
Persian  authors,  was  Bakhtar,  and  is  what  we  call 
the  ancient  Bactria.  In  the  reign  of  the  Chaghatah 
sovereign,  it  was  called  the  division  or  parganah 
of  the  city  of  Bagram,  which  is  now  Peshawer. 
Tradition  says  that,  in  former  days,  the  whole 
country  of  Kabul  contained  nothing  but  a  vast 

Farhad  or  Kohkan,  the  famous  lover  of  Shirin^ 
a  beautiful  queen  in  Persia,  happened  to  come  to 
Bactria,  and  cut  through  a  large  hill,  from  whence 
a  spring  of  clear  water  issued.  On  this  he  placed  a 
colony  of  a  few  Persians,  who  invited  over  a  great 
many  foreigners  to  occupy  their  new  found  country. 
There  is  a  long  story  about  the  paramour  above 
described.  After  the  country  was  inhabited  and 
improved  by  science  and  art,  the  king  Zabul,  an 
infidel,  possessed  himself  of  Bakhtar.  When 
Zabul  died,  the  initial  letter  of  his  name,  which  is 
Z,  or  J  in  Persian,  was  changed  for  that  of  K  or  4^ 
and  the  city  is  since  known  by  the  name  of  Kabul. 

Trade  has  enriched  the  city  of  Kabul  beyond 
any  other  capital  in  Afghanistan.  The  caravan  of 
Lohanis,  which  consists  of  between  six  hundred  and 
seven  hundred  camels,  furnishes  it  once  a  year  with 
English  and  Indian  goods.  They  come  through 
Multan    and    Ghaznin,    where    they  are   not    ill- 


treated.  Great  part  of  their  merchandize  is  eoii<- 
veyed  to  Bokhara,  which  furnishes  the  merchants 
in  return  with  fine  silk,  and  also  with  a  good  breed 
of  beautiful  horses.  These  fine  animals,  purchased 
in  Kabul,  are  sold  in  India  at  a  price,  quadruple 
their  original  cost,  surpassing  the  expectations  of 
their  first  Uzbeg  masters.  A  great  number  go  back 
with  the  Lohanis,  who  also  take  numerous  loads  of 
fruit  for  sale  in  that  country.  The  qafilah  returns 
in  the  month  of  October. 

In  the  garden  of  the  Shah,  I  happened  to  meet  a 
respectable  Lohani  merchant,  who  fell  into  dis- 
course with  me ;  and  when  I  was  talking  with  him 
upon  the  subject  of  traffic,  he  said  that  if  the  British 
Government  would  make  some  arrangement  with 
Ranjit  Singh  not  to  put  heavy  duties  upon  goods,  and 
pay  a  small  sum  of  money  to  the  Khaibaris  west  of  the 
Indus,  to  allow  the  caravan  to  pass  safe  through 
their  valley,  they  would  make  an  immense  fortune 
by  exporting  English  goods  to  Afghanistan,  &c.  by 
the  road  of  Lodiana,  which  may  be  better  frequented 
than  that  of  Multan.  In  Shah  Shujah's  reign,  the 
road  of  Khaibar  was  traversed  without  any  danger. 
The  town  duty  of  Peshawer  and  Kabul  was  heavier 
'than  it  is  now.  The  above  king  gave  the  chiefs  of 
Khaibar  a  salary  of  60,000  rupees  a  year,  and  held 
them  responsible  for  the  loss  of  every  traveller. 
When  the  merchant  added,  that  the  copper,  steel, 
iron,  and  lace  of  Russia  supplied  the  whole  of 
Afghanistan  through  the  distant  deserts  of  Tartary, 


I  was  quite  amazed  to  find  that  India,  being  so  near 
Kabul,  allows  foreign  articles  to  appear  in  the 
market.  The  blue  paper  of  Russia  is  used  through- 
out the  whole  Afghan  states.  The  English  manu- 
factures and  other  articles  are  sent  from  Kabul  to 
Peshawer,  where  they  are  very  dear.  With  the 
imitation  brocade  of  Russia  the  rich  men  make 
saddles  for  their  horses,  and  cover  the  floors  of  their 
houses.  Bagu,  a  Shikarpuri  merchant,  told  me  that 
English  goods,  worth  300,000  rupees,  are  yearly 
sold  in  Kabul,  and  those  of  Russia  to  the  value  of 

The  whole  revenue  of  the  country  of  Kabul, 
some  say,  amounts  to  24,00,000  rupees,  and  others, 
to  25,00,000  ;  but  it  is  certain  that  the  city  itself 
owes  much  to  the  intercourse  of  trade. 

Kabul  is  famous  for  its  pleasant  spring,  during 
which  time  the  whole  region  is  refreshed  with 
different  and  beautifully-coloured  flowers.  It  is 
remarkable  for  flowers,  as  the  following  Persian 
verse  declares : — 

^^  The  flowers  of  Kabul  and  the  wine  of  Sheeraz  hare  charming 
coloars ;  the  curling  locks  of  the  Persians  and  the  delicate  waist 
of  the  Indians  hare  an  attractive  character." 

The  winter  is  severe  here  for  three  months. 
From  the  1st  of  December  snow  falls  very  heavily 
till  the  beginning  of  March,  and  continues  more  or 
less  till  April.  The  roads  to  Bokhara  and  Cauda- 
har  are  blocked  up  till  the  arrival  of  spring.  The 
are  very  seldom  opened  on  account  of  the 


cold.  The  inhabitants  buy  up  all  the  proviBions  for 
the  winter  season,  and  many  never  come  out  of  their 
lodgings  till  the  forty  days  of  extreme  cold  are 
passed.  They  wear  postins  made  of  goat  skins,  and 
sit  always  round  a  fire,  which  is  put  under  a  kind 
of  chair  covered  with  a  blanket,  to  prevent  its  being 
extinguished  by  the  cold. 

On  account  of  the  above-motioned  circum- 
stances, the  people  find  great  difficulty  in  sustaining 

When  we  left  Peshawer,  on  the  19th  of  April, 
the  temperature  of  the  air,  especially  at  the  base  of 
the  hills,  was  at  100'';  but  here  the  thermometer  in 
the  house,  in  the  morning,  stood  at  44%  and  seldom 
rose  to  63%  This  great  depression,  I  was  informed 
by  Mr.  Gerard,  was  caused  by  the  elevation,  which 
he  ascertained  to  be  nearly  6,000  feet.  The 
country,  being  free  from  periodical  rains,  produces 
fruit  of  a  superior  flavour,  which  is  notorious  in 

We  did  not  go  to  the  gardens  of  Daman,  which 
are  so  celebrated.  They  skirt  the  base  of  a  lofty 
ridge  at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  city,  a  few 
miles  distant,  where  snow  rests  throughout  the  year. 
This  ridge  is  part  of  the  Hindu  Kush,  and  was  very 
white  while  we  remained  in  Kabul,  but  by  the  end 
of  summer  very  little  snow  is  left  on  it. 

May  18. — When  the  sky  got  clear,  we  set  out 
for  Bokhara  in  the  afternoon,  and  encamped  in  the 


village  called  Qilah  Qazi,  a  distance  of  eight  miles. 
Our  road  was  over  a  rich  country,  covered  with 
numerous  hamlets.  We  crossed  two  bridges  and 
several  brooks  on  the  way.  Nawab  Jabbar  Khan, 
our  host,  went  with  us  a  few  miles ;  but  his  return 
was  a  cause  of  grief  to  us,  as  he  is  an  intimate  friend 
of  all  the  travellers.  We  were  not  now  with  the 
qafilah,  but  under  the  protection  of  a  highly  re- 
spected man,  the  nazir  of  the  ruler  of  Kabul,  who 
was  proceeding  to  Moscow,  to  obtain  the  forfeited 
property  of  his  late  brother.  We  trusted  more  to 
his  character  than  to  any  other  means  of  defence 
we  were  capable  of  employing.  He  had  a  letter  of 
recommendation  from  Dost  Mohammed  Khan  to 
the  Emperor  of  Russia.  I  heard  he  has  a  better 
knowledge  of  the  Russians  than  of  the  English  in 
India.  Our  ground  was  surrounded  by  high  mud 
walls,  and  has  three  large  solid  gates.  The  inhabit- 
ants are  quite  different  from  those  between  Kabul 
and  Peshawer,  not  only  in  their  language,  but  also 
in  their  features  and  attire.  The  scenery  in  the 
skirts  of  Kabul  was  strikingly  variegated  with 
orchards  of  green  foliage. 

May  19. — A  march  of  twenty-four  miles  brought 
us  to  a  rich  village,  called  Jal  Rez,  commanded  by 
snowy  mountains.  The  north-east  part  of  the  place 
is  washed  by  a  clear  river,  which  falls  into  that  of 
Kabul.  Here  are  walnut,  apple,  and  peach  trees  in 
considerable  numbers.     The    productions    of   the 


country  are  wheat  and  fine  rice,  which  grow  on  the 
slopes  of  the  hills*  In  this  part  the  hamlets  stand 
very  near  to  each  other,  and  are  well  constructed. 
We  saw  numerous  kahraizes,  of  which  Mr.  Elphin- 
stone  makes  mention  in  his  work  This  term  means 
a  line  of  wells,  the  water  of  which  runs  through 
each  other  and  ends  in  a  stream.  We  are  now  in 
a  very  cold  region,  and  the  inhabitants  generally 
have  broad  faces,  flat  noses,  and  small  eyes ;  they 
speak  Persian. 

May  20. — We  moved  early  in  the  morning  and 
passed  near  a  village  named  Sir-chashmah,  where  our 
baggage  was  searched.  This  village  is  so  called  from 
a  fountain  of  water  (or  chashmah),  which  is  said  to 
have  sprung  up  from  the  spot  marked  by  the  foot- 
step of  Hazrat  Ali ;  the  print  of  a  foot  is  still  visi- 
ble, and  from  it  the  water  is  seen  bubbling  up.  We 
were  now  travelling  over  snow,  which  was  so  soft, 
that  we  were  frequently  obliged  to  dismount  and 
walk,  fearing  that  our  horses  would  founder  in  it. 

After  this  we  ascended  a  high  pass,  elevated 
11,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  On  our 
route  we  passed  over  a  plain  where  Ali,  people 
say,  galloped  his  horse,  and  from  that  time  every 
traveller  thinks  it  a  religious  duty  to  follow  his 
example.  At  noon  we  had  a  little  snow,  which  was 
here  new  to  my  eyes.  We  put  up  in  the  fort  of 
Afzal  Khan,  or  Yort,  a  distance  of  sixteen  miles. 

May  21. — We  commenced  our  march  at  sunrise, 
which  produced  a  grand  effect,  the  light  being  re- 


fleeted  from  the  snowy  walls  which  were  scattered 
on  each  side  of  us ;  and  what  was  curious,  the  snow 
had  formed  arches  over  the  canals  which  intersected 
our  road,  and  by  such  weak  structures  we  crossed 
many  deep  cavities.  We  journeyed  now  over  a 
snowy  bed,  which  was  nearly  four  or  five  feet  deep. 
In  the  middle  of  the  day,  though  we  felt  the  air 
very  keen,  yet  I  earnestly  gazed  from  a  small  emi- 
nence upon  the  splendour  of  the  scenery. 

On  our  route  we  passed  by  the  village  called 
Grardan  Divar,  washed  by  two  beautiful  rivers,  one 
of  which  runs  through  the  country  of  Candahar,  and 
is  called  Ar  Ghandab. 

We  are  now  in  the  region  of  the  Hazara  or 
Shias,  the  believers  in  Panjtan.  The  inhabitants 
are  white,  but  very  ugly.  Travelling  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan  is  not  very  danger- 
ous, but  the  scarcity  of  fiiel  causes  travellers  to 
experience  great  distress.  The  snow  lies  for  seven 
months  upon  the  ground.  It  falls  from  the  Ist  of 
November  to  the  end  of  May,  in  the  course  of 
which  time  a  great  part  of  it  melts  away,  and  makes 
the  road  very  muddy.  The  rays  of  the  sun  began 
now  to  stimulate  the  husbandmen  to  plough  and  sow. 
They  live  upon  barley,  milk,  and  the  flesh  of  the 
gosfand  or  goat.  Money  is  not  much  used  in  their 
country.  They  barter  goods  for  goods,  and  are 
pleased  to  take  needles,  coarse  cloth,  silk,  combs, 
&c.  for  provisions,  with  which  they  supply 
travellers.      Our  route  lay  over  the  bosom  of  the 

BALK,    AND   BOKHABA.  83 

mountains,    and   we    visited    many  resting-places 
hidden  under  the  snow,  the  last  of  which,  named 
Qilah  Lashkari,  fifteen  miles  distant,  was  our  halt- 
ing-place.    Here  the  snow  lay  upon  the  walls  and 
in  heaps  before  the  houses.     After  sunset  the  snow 
began  to  iall,  and  in  the  morning  the  whole  place 
was    covered  afresh.     The   inhabitants  here  have 
very  singular  customs,  one  of  which,  described  by 
Mr.  Elphinstone,  is  the  privilege  of  travellers  to  the 
wife  or  sister  of  their  hosts.     To  ascertain  the  ex- 
istence of  so  peculiar  a  fashion,  I  exerted  my  curi- 
osity as  far  as  decency  permitted,  but  did  not  quite 
succeed.    The  females  possess  no  attractive  features. 
When  we  forded  the  above  rivers,  we  came  to  a 
rising  ground,  containing  a  fountain  of  salt-water. 
The  earth  which  surrounded  it  had  a  red  colour, 
as  had  the  water.     In  the  adjacent  hills,  we  were 
informed,  exist  mines  of  copper  and  iron ;  also  of 
silver,  which  last  have  not  been  worked  for  two 
hundred  years. 

May  22. — On  our  leaving  the  last  ground,  we 
felt  the  morning  air  cold  and  piercing.  The  ther- 
mometer was  twenty-eight  degrees  at  six  o'clock. 
We  travelled  for  some  time  on  a  beautiful  pass, 
entirely  covered  with  snow,  almost  12,000  feet  in 
height,  but  we  had  not  such  difficulty  in  crossing  it 
as  yesterday.  The  road  from  Kabul  to  this  pass 
or  kotal  (as  it  is  called,  Shutar  Gardan)  is  fit  for 
carriages  to  pass  if  the  snow  does  not  prevent 
them.     On  account  of  the  deep  bed  of  snow,  we 



left  the  straight  route  on  our  left  hand,  and  followed 
the  brink  of  a  small  rivulet,  which  continued  to 
lead  us  through  a  very  narrow  valley.  The  snow 
fell  a  little  upon  us,  and  when  it  ceased,  we  as- 
cended by  a  pass,  of  a  very  small  breadth,  called 
Mori,  in  crossing  which  I  hurt  my  foot.  '  When  we 
began  to  descend,  I  perceived  some  red  hillocks  on 
my  left  hand,  which  commanded  a  view  of  a  flourish- 
ing valley  covered  with  a  green  crop;  at  the  bottom 
of  the  valley  stood  a  beautifully  constructed  villa, 
the  appearance  of  which  at  some  distance  was  so 
romantic,  as  forcibly  to  remind  me  of  the  words  of 
the  Persian  poet : — "  It  looked  like  an  egg  placed 
in  a  green  dish." 

Before  we  encamped  in  the  Qilah  of  Dada  Shah 
Arbab,  we  gazed  with  surprise  at  the  ruins  of  the 
city  of  Zohak,  which  is  situated  on  rising  ground. 
My  curiosity  led  me  to  examine  the  structure,  which 
in  many  places  is  injured  by  age ;  nor  could  I  refrain 
from  admiring  both  the  materials  and  masonry  re- 
maining entire,  when  I  beheld  a  high  wall  of  bricks 
cemented  vrith  mud  and  supported  only  by  a  small 
portion  of  clay,  the  foundations  having  been  evi- 
dently washed  away  at  some  remote  period.  The 
buildings  in  India,  of  the  present  age,  never  last 
more  than  a  hundred  years,  during  which  space  of 
time  they  are  often  repaired. 

Tradition  says,  that  Zohak  was  a  very  great 
emperor,  and  had  a  pompous  court,  besides  a 
numerous   army   and   considerable    treasure.     He 


was  fond  of  music  and  dancing,  and  liked 
jesters  very  mnch.  The  ill-luck  of  Zohak  in- 
duced Satan  to  counterfeit  the  person  of  a  buffoon, 
and  perform  some  curious  feats,  which  made  him 
known  through  the  whole  city,  and  his  name  was 
even  mentioned  with  great  praise  before  the  king, 
so  that  he  wished  to  see  him.  The  jester,  beauti- 
fully apparelled,  and  with  a  harp  in  his  hand,  came 
into  the  presence  of  the  emperor.  He  exhibited 
his  performances,  and  tried  all  he  could  to  please 
2k>hak,  who  asked  Satan  what  he  wanted,  for  he 
would  be  glad  to  do  any  thing  for  him.  Satan 
replied,  he  was  very  anxious  to  kiss  the  shoulders 
of  his  highness ;  and  his  request  was  complied  with. 
Next  day,  the  king  was  attacked  with  a  violent  pain 
in  his  shoulders,  from  whence  two  black  snakes 
sprung  forth,  putting  him  to  much  pain.  Zohak 
beheaded  them  often,  but  they  grew  again  and 
again.  At  last  his  Majesty  had  recourse  to  phy- 
sicians, but  they  availed  nothing.  Satan,  his  latent 
enemy,  disguised  himself  as  a  doctor,  and  paid  a  visit 
to  his  Majesty.  He  saw  the  snakes  and  felt  the 
pulse  of  Zohak.  After  this,  he  said,  nothing  could 
cure  him  unless  the  brains  of  a  few  young  people 
were  given  daily  to  satisfy  the  appetite  of  the  snakes. 
The  king  took  his  advice,  and  killed  nearly  half 
of  his  subjects  to  get  their  brains  out  of  their  heads. 
This  tyrannical  act  created  a  revolution  in  the 
country,  and  encouraged  foreigners  to  rescue  the 
people  from  the  yoke  of  the  unmerciful  Zohak.     In 


a  pitched  battle  he  was  taken  prisoner  and  put  to 
the  sword. 

It  was  new  to  us  to  see  the  people  living  in  caves 
excavated  in  a  range  of  hills.  They  are  known  bj  the 
name  of  Hazara,  which  is  also  the  name  of  the 
country.  It  is  hilly  and  not  very  beautiful.  The 
inhabitants  possess  very  rude  features,  resembling 
those  of  the  Paharis  in  the  Himalaya  mountains. 
They  have  no  public  mosques,  and  never  even 
offer  prayers,  though  they  call  themselves  the  pure 
Musalman,  or  the  Shia  believers  of  Haidur  Karrar. 

May  23. — We  directed  our  course  towards  Ba- 
mian,  an  old  place  famous  for  its  idols.  The  deri- 
vation of  Bamian  is  Bam^  which  means  in  Persian 
'a  roof,'  as  its  situation  is  higher  than  the  other 
neighbouring  tracts.  Perhaps  this  may  be  one  of 
Alexander's  cities  mentioned  by  Quintus  Curtius. 

North  of  the  village  of  Bamian  runs  a  range  of 
hills,  and  in  it  stand  three  beautiful  images.  They 
are  very  curious,  both  in  respect  to  their  antiquity 
and  the  traditions  which  attach  to  them.  Two  of 
them  stand  in  arches  by  each  other,  and  the  third, 
which  is  smaller  than  the  others,  stands  apart  on  the 
left.  They  are  cut  out  of  a  solid  rock  on  the  hard 
face  of  the  mountain.  Their  stature  is  gigantic, 
being  nearly  100  feet  high.  On  the  left  side  of  the 
idols  we  discerned  a  considerable  number  of  caves 
succeeding  each  other,  and  having  a  number  of 
rooms  inside,  which  are  occupied  by  the  people 
called  Tajiks. 


It  is  said  that  these  noble  images  were  made  by 
Hindu  Rajas,  more  than  a  thousand  years  before  the 
birth  of  Jesus  Christ.  They  were  the  work  of  five 
brothers,  called  Pandavs,  namely,  Jadushtar,  the  son 
of  true  faith ;  Bhim,  the  master  of  strength ;  Arjan, 
the  source  of  beauty  and  the  dance ;  Nakul,  the  in- 
ventor of  good  ballads  and  sweet  tones;  Sah  Dev,  the 
creator  of  delicious  victuals,  and  the  best  judge  of 
horses.  It  is  very  difficult  for  me  to  give  a  full  de- 
tail of  the  story  connected  with  them,  and  it  is  un- 
necessary, as  the  famous  Faizi,  the  brother  of  Abul 
Fazal,  has  translated  into  Persian  the  Sanskrit  book 
called  Mahabharat,  which  is  in  two  large  volumes, 
and  contains  their  adventures,  miracles,  pains,  plea- 
sures, and  wars ;  moreover,  the  old  history  of  the 
world.  However,  I  will  mention  a  very  rude  and 
unlawful  act  which  they  performed. 

Though  they  possessed  such  high  natural  qualifi- 
cations, as  I  have  already  mentioned,  still  they 
nourished  a  savage  idea  in  their  heads.  They  had 
one  wife  among  them,  named  Daropti,  who  is  con- 
sidered by  the  Hindus  the  mother  of  virtue  and  a 
miracle  of  faith  and  sanctity.  She  had  an  uncom- 
monly charming  countenance,  and  notwithstanding 
the  multiplicity  of  her  husbands,  she  is  believed  to 
be  a  Debi  or  prophetess.  As  soon  the  five  Pandavs 
mortgaged  the  whole  of  their  empire  to  Durjodhan, 
their  uncle's  son,  in  order  to  pay  him  their  gambling 
debts,  he  immediately  banished  them  for  the  space 
of  twelve  years.      The  poor  Pandavs  chose  their 


ground  at  Bamian,  and  spent  their  unhappy  days  in 
making  these  magnificent  idols,  which  they  and 
their  followers  worshipped  for  a  long  time.  One 
day,  Arjan,  one  of  the  five  Pandavs,  proceeded  from 
Bamian  to  the  western  hills,  a  distance  of  four 
miles.  He  met  on  the  road  a  snake  of  monstrous 
shape,  who  wished  to  swallow  him  up ;  but  Arjan 
instantly  struck  it  dead  with  a  blow,  and  cut  it  into 
two  pieces.  It  was  petrified,  and  there  still  lies  a 
large  mass  on  the  ground,  resembling  a  snake.  It 
is  fifty  feet  in  length,  and  its  two  pieces,  making 
a  duct,  join  gradually  upon  one  side.  The  water 
which  it  contains  bubbles  with  great  noise,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  caused  by  the  banefiil  effect  of 
the  monster.  The  water  is  very  bitter,  and  freezes 
as  soon  as  it  springs  out  through  a  small  hole,  which 
is  said  to  be  the  eye  of  the  snake.  Near  it  is  also 
the  mark  of  the  feet  of  the  horse,  which  has  given 
rise  to  a  dispute  among  the  Mohammedans  and 
Hindus ;  the  former  say  that  it  is  the  print  of  the 
hoofs  of  All's  horse ;  and  the  latter,  that  it  is  that  of 
Aijan's,  I  am  lost  in  speculation  as  to  which  of 
these  accounts  is  true.  If  we  consider  the  date  of 
Arjan's  birth,  which  is  long  antecedent  to  that  of 
Ali,  then  we  have  no  history  which  would  favour 
the  Hindu  account ;  but  tradition  speaks  in  favour 
of  both  accounts. 

South-east  of  Bamian,  at  the  skirt  of  a  steep 
rock,  is  situated  a  celebrated  fort,  named  Sbahar 
Ghul  Ghulah,  erected  by  a  Kafar  before  the  birth 


of  Mohammed.  The  plaee  bears  the  name  of  Ghul 
Ghulah,  on  account  of  the  great  noise  caused  by 
the  discourse  of  the  inhabitants,  who  were  in  con- 
siderable number.  A  Tartar,  native  of  Badakhshan, 
resolved  to  invade  it,  and  laid  siege  to  it.  When 
he  found  great  difficulty  in  subduing  it,  and  was  on 
the  point  of  dismissing  his  camp,  he  fortunately 
received  a  letter,  with  the  following  contents,  from 
the  beautiful  daughter  of  the  Eafar,  who  had  fallen 
in  love  with  the  Tartar : 

"  My  beloved  Tartar,  —  Your  name,  and  the 
picture  of  your  lovely  face,  which  is  drawn  by  ima- 
gination, have  fixed  their  residence  in  my  mind 
and  eyes.  They  have  strongly  affected  my  desolate 
heart,  and  have  smitten  me  with  such  violent  love 
for  you,  that  I  cannot  describe  minutely  the  sensa- 
tions which  I  now  experience.  You  will  never 
obtain  possession  of  the  fort  either  by  assault  or 
siege ;  but  I  advise  you  to  stop  the  passage  of  the 
water,  the  scarcity  of  which  will  oblige  the  garrison 
to  surrender  it  to  you." 

The  Tartar  followed  her  advice,  and  instantly 
made  himself  master  of  the  fort.  He  then  married 
the  daughter  of  the  Kafar ;  but  after  a  few  days  he 
killed  her,  saying,  '^This  is  the  result  of  her 
treachery  and  misbehaviour  towards  her  father ;  and 
I  am  afraid  to  trust  her  any  longer." 

The  village  of  Bamian  is  walled,  and  divided  into 
two  or  three  parts,  and  has  much  cultivation.  It 
is  in  Dost  Mohammed  Khan's  possession,  and  given 


to  Haji  Khan  Kakar,  a  respectable  chief  under  him. 
He  collects  not  much  from  the  country,  as  it  is  too 
cold  and  hilly ;  but  the  duty  taken  upon  the  mer- 
chandize amounts  to  70,000  rupees  yearly*  Reason- 
ing from  the  large  sum  of  money  raised  from  the 
merchants  as  an  ordinary  duty  at  Bamian,  we  may 
form  an  idea  of  the  extent  of  commerce  between 
Kabul  and  Bokhara.  The  houses  at  Bamian  are 
very  low,  though  of  two  stories ;  the  bricks  are 
sun-dried  and  cemented  with  mud.  They  are  roofed 
with  wood  and  mats,  which  do  not  last  long,  on  ac- 
count of  the  heavy  falls  of  snow.  The  inhabitants 
are  Afghans  and  Tajiks,  and  speak  both  the  Persian 
and  Pashto  languages. 

Taimur  the  Great,  on  his  return  from  India,  passed 
through  the  suburbs  of  Bamian,  where  he  was  taken 
ill,  which  obliged  him  to  travel  in  a  litter.  He 
came  to  the  city  of  Bamian,  which  is  now  entirely 
ruined,  and  visited  the  idols.  Being  tempted  by  his 
religion,  he  ordered  his  expert  archers  to  discharge 
their  arrows  against  the  images,  which  he  wished  to 
level  to  the  ground ;  but  none  of  the  arrows  struck 
them,  the  cause  of  which  I  know  not.  Lat  and 
Manat,  mentioned  in  the  Koran,  tradition  says,  are 
the  names  of  the  idols  of  Bamian.  This  confirms 
the  account,  that  they  were  undoubtedly  made  be- 
fore Mohammed  came  into  the  world. 

May  24. — As  soon  as  the  sun  shone,  we  com- 
menced our  journey,  escorted  by  Haji  Khan's  people, 
who  were  all  well  armed  and  mounted.     Our  route 


conducted  us  betwixt  the  lofty  branches  of  the 
Hindu  Kush,  ascending  over  large  ranges  and  de- 
scending into  deep  defiles,  all  without  verdure,  and 
of  dreadful  aspect — not  a  single  tree  appeared  in 
sight.  Having  crossed  the  pass  of  Akrabad,  the 
height  of  which  is  10,500  feet,  we  quitted  the 
boundary  of  Afghanistan  and  entered  Turkistan. 
Our  march,  which  was  not  more  than  thirty  miles, 
brought  us  to  the  beautiful  town  of  Saighan,  ruled 
by  Mohammed  Ali  Beg.  His  object  is  to  attack, 
or  chapao,  the  villages  of  Hazara,  and  reduce  the 
inhabitants  to  slavery.  Some  time  ago,  one  of  his 
friends  tried  to  persuade  him  to  abolish  the  custom 
of  selling  people,  as  being  contrary  to  the  will  of 
God.  "  If  this  was  the  case,"  replied  the  Beg,  "  why 
did  not  God  tell  me  in  a  dream  not  to  do  so  ?"  On 
one  hand,  he  collects  money  by  selling  people,  and 
on  the  other,  he  erects  mosques  and  mehman 

The  soil  which  surrounds  the  country  of  Saighan 
is  fitted  for  agriculture.  There  is  now  assafcetida 
growing.  The  mixture  of  villas,  meadows,  crystal 
canals,  and  gardens  containing  fruits  of  all  sorts, 
was  highly  gratifying  to  a  traveller.  The  inhabit- 
ants are  Turks,  and  wear  a  singular  cap  of  cloth, 
projecting  to  a  point  in  the  centre.  It  resembles 
that  of  the  Dadu  Panthi,  a  sect  of  Hindu  beggars 
in  India.  We  put  up  in  a  clean  mehman  sarae^ 
and  were  peeped  at  by  the  boys  through  the  holes 
of  the  roof.     They  called  to  us,  with  a  loud  voice> 


"0  Isai,  or  Musai,  what  are  you  doing  in  the 
room?"  On  this,  being  afraid,  we  quitted  our 
writing,  till  darkness  covered  the  face  of  the 

May  25. — Having  crossed  the  Kotal  Dandan 
Shikan,  we  passed  on  by  the  village  of  Kamard, 
situated  on  the  bank  of  a  beautiful  river.  The 
ruler  is  Rah  MatuUah  Khan,  an  old,  respectable- 
looking  man.  He  acknowledges  the  authority  of 
Mir  Morad  Beg,  the  famous  chief  of  Qunduz. 
Having  journeyed  along  the  bank  of  the  river, 
under  the  cool  shade  of  fruit-trees,  we  reached  our 
halting-ground,  in  a  small  village  called  Larmusht, 
washed  by  the  river  named  Khajah  Abdullah. 

The  women  of  the  village  were  Very  beautiful ; 
such  charming  features  I  had  never  beheld  since 
my  departure  from  India.  A  few  of  them,  who 
had  delicate  complexions,  stood  by  me,  and  asked 
who  I  was,  and  what  was  my  native  country  ?  At 
my  reply,  they  laughed  together,  and  said,  "  It  is  a 
great  pity  indeed  that  you  do  not  choose  to 
dwell  here,  and  marry  a  bonny  girl  in  this  vil- 
lage." In  a  word,  they  joked  with  me  in  such  a  way 
as  I  cannot  describe  here. 

A  few  years  ago,  the  successor  of  Dilavar,  a  man 
of  power  in  his  neighbourhood,  attacked  the  coun- 
try of  Kamard,  in  the  absence  of  the  khan.  He 
plundered  the  whole  district,  and  took  the  khan's 
wife  and  his  family  prisoners.  When  the  khan  was 
informed  of  this  accident,  he  collected  an  army,  and 


in  the  space  of  seTen  years  he  reduced  the  enemy 
to  extreme  distress,  and  got  possession  of  his  wife, 
who  hrought  forth  a  son,  whose  &ther  was  her 
ravisher.  The  son  is  now  very  young,  and  lives 
with  the  khan,  who  loves  him  like  his  own  child. 

May  26.  —  Our  route  continued  to  lead  us 
towards  a  hot  climate,  and  over  an  arid  and  torrid 
land.     The  nights  were  still  cold. 

Before  we  began  to  ascend,  we  passed  by  a  vil- 
lage, where  we  got  an  escort,  headed  by  the  bastard 
son  of  Rah  Matullah  Khan.  Having  climbed  the 
pass,  we  entered  on  the  broad  way,  where  I  advanced 
ahead  of  my  party.  My  companion,  the  servant  of 
the  qafila  bashi,  was  speaking  with  me  of  the  dan- 
ger which  generally  awaits  caravans  on  this  pass. 
He  said,  the  merchants  are  often  robbed  here,  and 
travellers  are  frequently  murdered.  Whilst  this 
conversation  was  going  on,  my  party  overtook  me, 
and  witnessed  a  case  of  this  kind.  We  had  not 
completed  the  journey  of  the  pass,  when  suddenly 
we  encountered  a  body  of  robbers,  who  came  to 
plunder  the  remains  of  a  qafila  that  had  eluded 
them,  and  would  have  attacked  us,  had  we  not  been 
guarded  by  an  armed  force.  Robbers  have  a  sym- 
pathy for  those  who  become  in  their  turn  Alamans 
or  desperadoes ;  on  this  account,  partly,  as  well  as 
their  respect  for  our  strength,  we  escaped.  They 
conversed  with  our  guard,  and  informed  us,  that  the 
respectability  of  our  protector  was  the  only  reason 
of  our  safety.     They  caught  the  two  last  camels  of 


a  caravan,  and  their  poor  pusillanimous  drivers  were 
condemned  to  slavery  before  our  eyes.  We  pro- 
ceeded still  with  great  precaution,  keeping  our 
baggage  in  front,  and  moved  in  such  order  as  to 
be  ready  to  fight.  We  congratulated  each  other  on 
our  good  fortune  in  escaping  from  them.  The  Ala- 
mans  were  the  inhabitants  of  Surb,  and  followers  of 
Dilavar,  who  stood  in  high  favour  with  Taimur 
Shah.  We  halted  in  an  open  field,  eighteen  miles 
distant,  and  slept  at  night  in  the  bosom  of  the  hills, 
near  the  village  of  Duab,  where,  we  hear,  Mr. 
Wolff  was  robbed.  A  deep  stream  of  water  runs 
very  rapidly  towards  the  north,  and  fertilizes  the 
whole  valley. 

May  27. — We  marched  towards  Khurram,  a  dis- 
tance of  thirty  miles.  Our  route  lay  through  a 
beautiful  valley. 

Having  followed  the  left  bank  of  the  Duab  river, 
which  led  us  to  a  ruined  village  named  Rui,  we 
rested  there  for  two  hours,  and  marching  again, 
reached  the  top  of  the  pass  called  Kotal  Rui,  when 
we  perceived  the  head  of  the  Hindu  Kush,  lying 
north-^ast,  covered  with  snow.  The  weather  be- 
came at  once  changed,  and  the  air  had  an  Indian 
warmth.  Before  we  got  to  our  camp,  we  passed  by 
a  caravan  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain.  They 
inquired  of  us  whether  the  Kabul  road  was  safe, 
and  on  learning  that  a  body  of  robbers  was  watching 
the  Qara  Kotal,  they  were  thrown  into  great  alarm, 
and  prolonged  their  stay  at  Rui  till  the  arrival  of 


the  next  qafila»  which,  they  said^  would  overtake 
them  in  a  day  or  two. 

Having  forded  the  river  Duab,  we  passed  through 
beautiful  and  fertile  villages,  which  extended  on 
each  side  of  us.  There  were  numerous  handsome 
gardens,  which  produced  delicious  fruits  in  great 
quantity.  The  soil  is  irrigated  by  brooks,  conducted 
from  the  river  and  fountains,  and  edged  by  red 
grass,  the  shadow  of  which  in  the  water  had  a  beau- 
tiful appearance. 

My  servant,  a  Kashmiri  Hindu,  native  of  Labor, 
who  had  a  very  bad  temper,  was  cooking  the  dinner 
in  the  open  field  of  the  mosque.  The  Moham- 
medan boys,  observing  his  Hindu  fashion  of 
cooking,  threw  stones  and  the  dung  of  horses 
at  him,  near  the  cooking-pots,  which  made  them 
impure,  and  excited  the  indignation  of  the  servant. 
He  ran  after  the  boys  with  a  drawn  sword  in  his 
hand,  and  would  have  wounded  them,  but  I  pre- 
vented him  from  doing  so,  otherwise  we  had  been 
all  destroyed. 

May  28. — A  march  of  twenty  miles  brought  us 
to  a  very  fine  and  rich  village,  called  Haibak,  be- 
longing to  Mir  Morad  Beg,  but  controlled  by  his 
son-in-law,  named  Baba  Beg.  Haibak  is  surrounded 
by  a  small  range  of  hills,  and  is  situated  in  a  beau- 
tiful spot.  The  caravans  of  Bokhara  and  Kabul, 
which  pass  here  on  their  route,  are  obliged  to  pay 
very  heavy  duties.  A  market  is  held  on  Mondays 
at  Haibak.     The  Hindus  are  also  shopkeepers ;  the 


langua^fe  they  speak  is  Persian,  and  they  look  very 
like  the  Mohammedans.  Gardens  extend  over  all 
the  country ;  the  fruits  are  exported  in  large  quan- 
tities to  Khulum,  &c.  A  river  waters  the  fields  and 
gardens,  and  gives  the  country  a  very  striking 

The  ruler  has  a  few  evil  habits,  which  I  cannot 
describe  minutely.  He  shuns  the  love  of  females. 
He  has  robbed  his  father,  and  after  receiving  many 
presents  from  Mr.  Moorcroft,  he  plundered  him 

Upon  entering  Murad  Beg's  country,  we  were 
compelled  to  use  some  caution.  Captain  Bumes 
and  Mr.  Gerard  wrapped  up  their  faces,  and  thus 
sheltered  from  the  hot  rays  of  the  sun,  the  incon- 
venience was  not  felt. 

Our  route  was  very  agreeable  to-day.  Nothing 
was  seen  except  meadows  containing  fruit-trees, 
which  were  now  ornamented  with  blossoms,  and 
some  had  unripe  fruit.  Great  part  of  the  road  had 
been  rendered  difficult,  on  account  of  some  ava- 
lanches which  occurred  a  few  years  ago.  For  the 
same  reason  the  path,  which  is  commanded  on  both 
sides  by  high  mountains,  has  become  dangerous. 
We  passed  on  our  way  by  the  village  named  Dar 
Daman,  which  was  beautified  by  orchards  and 
streams.  Natural  grottoes  and  arches  are  frequent 
in  this  part  of  the  hill. 

May  29. — We  got  up  very  early  in  the  morning, 
being  afraid  lest  we  should  be  recognized  by  the 

BALK,    AND   BOKHARA.  97 

TiHagers,  and  entered  an  extensive  plain,  partly  cul- 
tivated. The  sun  was  growing  hotter  every  day. 
Snakes,  scorpions,  and  centipedes  are  numerous  in 
this  quarter.  We  stopped  at  noon  in  a  valley, 
where  I  wrote  my  diary  in  a  gloomy  cave,  and 
under  constant  apprehension  of  being  bitten  by 
these  animals.  After  taking  some  rest,  we  pro- 
ceeded to  Ghazniak,  a  distance  of  eighteen  miles. 
Every  village  is  known  here  from  the  qilah,  or  fort, 
being  named  after  its  head-man. 

May  30.  Khulum,  fifteen  miles  distant. — We 
prosecuted  our  journey  after  midnight,  with  the 
view  of  getting  into  the  town  at  dark,  so  that  none 
could  see  us ;  however,  our  prudence  was  fruitless, 
for  the  officers  knew  who  we  were.  We  feared 
much  from  Mir  Morad  Beg,  the  chief  of  Qunduz, 
who  behaved  very  ill  to  Mr.  Moorcroft,  and  seems 
to  treat  every  one  in  the  British  service  in  the 
same  manner. 

Before  we  reached  Khulum,  we  met  on  the  road 
an  old  man,  who  had  taken  a  slave  from  the  Hazara 
country,  and  brought  him  here  to  the  market  for 
sale.  He  was  mounted  on  horseback,  and  his  hands 
were  tied  behind  his  shoulders.  When  I  asked 
him  his  native  country,  instead  of  replying,  he  lifted 
up  his  head,  sighed,  and  cried  with  a  loud  voice : 
this  grieved  me  exceedingly. 

May  31.  Khulum. — We  were  making  ourselves 
ready  to  start,  when  we  received  a  message  from 


98  FROM   PE8HAW£B  TO    KABUL, 

Chiman  Das,  a  Hindu,  that  we  should  not  leave  the 
place  without  the  order  of  the  respected  Mir,  and 
his  prime  minister,  Atma  Ram.  On  this  we  all  felt 
regret  and  alarm.  I  proceeded  to  the  bazar,  to 
purchase  a  few  things,  but  in  reality  to  satisfy  my 
curiosity.  I  found  it  full  of  people,  on  account  of 
its  being  market-day.  Instead  of  shops,  I  saw  some 
irregular  places  roofed  with  mats  and  wood,  which 
looked  incapable  of  withstanding  the  rain.  The 
drapers  were  more  numerous  here  than  any  other 
merchants.  They  were  generally  Mohammedans, 
with  some  Hindus. 

June  1.  —  Chiman  Das,  our  guardian,  invited 
me  to  dine  with  him,  and  inquired  of  me,  what 
brought  me  to  such  a  distant  country.  I  made 
an  excuse,  and  told  him,  that  I  was  travelling  in 
search  of  my  elder  brother,  who  quarrelled  with 
his  family,  and  left  it  without  a  livelihood.  He  did 
not  believe  me,  but  laughed,  and  said,  there  was 
no  necessity  to  tell  an  untruth,  because  he  knew 
well  that  I  was  a  Persian  secretary  attached  to 
Farangis,  but  that  I  need  not  fear. 

This  country  is  called  Turkistan,  but  the  Qizal 
Bashis  of  Kabul  have  named  it  Kafristan,  or 
Country  of  Infidels,  on  account  of  the  slave-trade. 
The  inhabitants  are  Turks,  or  Uzbegs.  Pity,  jus- 
tice, wisdom,  and  policy  are  entirely  unknown 
here.  The  men,  both  of  high  and  low  rank,  are 
very  cruel,  and  consider  plunder  as  a  perfect  trade, 

BALK,    AND    BOKHARA.  99 

and  are  fond  of  slave-dealing.  The  productions 
are  fruits,  barley,  and  wheat ;  the  soil  is  not  very 

The  houses  in  this  part  of  the  country  have  round 
roo^  without  rafters. 

Mohammed  Beg's  manner  of  living  affords  reason 
to  expect  his  speedy  death;  The  character  of  his 
late  father  is  spoken  of  in  terms  of  high  praise.  He 
was  ambitious,  but  an  excellent  judge  of  mankind. 

Mir  Murad  Beg,  the  ruler  of  the  country,  is  in 
person  short  and  thin ;  he  has  very  small  and  gloomy 
eyes,  and  no  regular  beard»  only  a  few  hairs  on  his 
chin.  He  is  an  Uzbeg,  which  signifies,  in  Turki,  an 
independent,  and  also  the  king  of  his  own  house. 
He  is  said  to  be  unacquainted  with  justice  and 
mercy,  those  ornaments  of  human  nature.  Crimi- 
nals he  condemns  to  slavery,  along  with  their  &mily. 
His  standing  army  is  a  few  hundred  men,  but  in 
time  of  war  he  can  collect  nearly  twenty  thousand, 
both  horse  and  foot,  each  selected  from  separate 
families.  This  custom  prevails  throughout  the  whole 
country  where  we  are  travelling  now.  Towards 
Kabul  he  rules  as  far  as  Kamard,  and  towards 
Bokhara,  to  the  kotal  named  Abdu.  His  residence 
is  at  Qunduz,  and  in  that  direction  he  commands  a 
large  territory  in  Badakhshan,  and  also  the  base  of 
the  Hindu  Kush.  He  is  not  popular,  in  conse- 
quence of  his  fondness  for  the  slave-trade.  He  is  a 
more  enterprising  man  than  his  father,  who  was 
dependant  on  Bokhara;    but  his  death  made  the 

H  2 


name  of  Murad  Beg  so  famous  in  the  country,  and 
his  power  so  much  respected  by  the  people,  that  in 
a  short  period  he  was  recognized  as  independent 
chief  of  Qunduz,  and  almost  of  the  whole  of  the  rich 
valley  of  the  Oxus.  He  possessed  himself  of  more 
countries  than  any  of  his  predecessors  had.  He 
holds  a  princely  court,  consisting  of  people  of  dis- 
tinction. Numerous  maces  of  silver  are  borne  in 
the  hands  of  tall  and  stout  Uzbegs,  who  call  out, 
"  Long  live  our  Mir !"  and  keep  order  in  the  court. 
Debauchery,  which  he  had  carried  to  an  extreme 
point,  has  now  produced  fits,  which  succeed  each 
other  at  frequent  intervals,  and  have  rendered  him 
unable  to  transact  business.  His  treatment  of  the 
merchants  is  not  extortionate,  as  we  heard  before ; 
he  never  takes  more  duty  than  is  authorized  by  the 
Koran,  and  that  is  called  Chihal  eky  or  upon  forty 
rupees'  goods,  one  rupee.  His  behaviour  towards 
Mr.  Moorcrofb  was  tyrannical,  as  we  had  learned  in 
India ;  but  I  was  informed,  by  a  man  of  authority, 
who  received  also  a  large  present  from  him,  that  all 
his  misfortunes  arose  from  the  covetous  acts  of 
one  of  his  companions,  who  fabricated  numerous 
stories  against  Mr.  Moorcroft,  and  repeated  them 
secretly  to  the  Mir,  which  caused  the  lamented 
gentleman  to  be  looked  upon  as  a  spy  and  not  a 
horse-merchant.  However,  this  treachery  was  not 
concealed  from  Mr.  Moorcroft,  who  parted  instantly 
with  his  greedy  companion. 

Atma  Ram,  a  Hindu  inhabitant  of  Peshawer,  who 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  101 

Stands  very  high  in  Mir  Murad  Beg's  favour,  pos-- 
sesses  a  great  influence  over  him.  He  bears  the 
title  of  Diwan  Begi,  or  the  prime  minister.  The 
^hole  business  of  the  country  is  managed  through 
his  intervention.  Notwithstanding  he  adheres  to  all 
the  customs  of  the  Hindu  religion,  and  is  partial  to 
his  countrymen,  yet  he  is  respected  by  all  Moham- 
medans, and  none  venture  to  throw  a  slander  on 
his  character.  Being  a  man  of  distinction,  he  keeps 
a  great  number  of  Mohammedan  slave-girls  and 
boys,  which  privilege  is  not  allowed  to  any  other 
Hindu  in  Turkistan.  He  also  has  a  warlike  spirit, 
and  sometimes  boasts  that  his  heroism  has  placed 
the  Mir  in  the  chieftainship  of  so  many  countries. 
He  was  a  poor  shopkeeper  in  Peshawer,  which  he 
left  in  the  hope  of  improving  his  fortunes.  He  is 
now  master  of  immense  wealth.  Though  he  took 
a  large  sum  of  money  from  Mr.  Moorcroft,  he  did 
his  best  in  his  favour,  and  he  gives  charity  to  poor 

June  2. — In  the  morning  we  were  informed  by 
Chiman  Das,  that  the  gentlemen  were  expected  to 
appear  in  the  presence  of  the  Mir,  on  whose  will 
depends  our  departure  to  Bokhara.  On  this  report 
we  were  all  alarmed,  and  expected  a  disagreeable 
result.  His  cruelty  towards  English  travellers 
sometimes  led  me  to  reflect,  that  the  murder  of  us 
would  be  a  trifle  in  the  eyes  of  a  savage  ruler  like 
the  Mir ;  and  at  other  times  I  imagined  that  he 
might  send  us  to  some  remote  country,  whence  we 


could  not  communicate  with  India.  I  fancied, 
again,  that  he  might  imprison  us  for  some  time,  and 
release  us  after  taking  a  large  sum  of  money. 

Vexed  with  these  tormenting  thoughts,  I  went 
to  breakfast  with  Chiman  Das,  who,  looking  in  my 
face,  asked  the  reason  of  the  melancholy  upon  it. 
When  I  told  him,  he  took  me  into  a  private  room, 
and  slowly  asked  me,  whether  these  Farangis  were 
come  to  see  the  country,  or  in  reality  on  the  route  to 
Europe  ?  In  the  former  case,  he  should  advise  the 
Diwan  Begi  to  take  a  considerable  sum  of  money 
from  them,  a  part  of  which  should  come  into  my 
hands.  After  a  great  many  discussions,  I  was 
obliged  to  make  a  story,  which  convinced  him  that 
the  gentlemen  were  poor,  and  going  to  their  native 
country.  In  tliis  conversation  the  tears  stood  in  my 
eyes,  at  which  the  good-natured  and  mild-hearted 
Chiman  Das  smiled,  and  put  his  right  hand  on  my 
head.  He  said  to  me,  that,  on  my  account,  he  would 
do  his  best  to  get  leave  for  the  gentlemen  to  depart 
without  delay ;  and,  by  the  grace  of  Grangaji,  he 
hoped  that  we  should  succeed  in  our  object,  and  go 
to  Bokhara  immediately.  So  he  started  to  Qunduz, 
in  company  vnth  Mr.  Bumes,  whose  perseverance 
appeared  to  vie  vdth  the  anxiety  and  melancholy 
which  appeared  on  his  feice. 

June  3. — Our  dress  and  manner  of  living  shewed 
our  poverty,  and  we  never  changed  clothes  imtil 
they  disappeared  under  filth  and  vermin.  On  our 
route  to  Khulum,  we  were  sometimes  obliged  to 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  103 

sleep  in  dark  rooms,  where  the  beds  were  made  of 
the  dung  of  horses  and  sheep ;  and  often  we  passed 
seToral  restless  nights  in  an  open  field,  fearing  the 
attack  of  robbers.  Our  breakfast  was  made  on 
horseback,  and  it  consisted  of  pieces  of  dry  bread, 
baked  six  or  seven  days,  and  of  a  bit  of  meat  and 
cheese.  We  drank  water  out  of  the  leather  bottle 
which  hung  against  the  saddle.  Captain  Bumes 
and  Mr.  Gerard  used  their  fingers  instead  of  kniyes 
and  forks,  and  their  hands  for  spoons ;  our  towels 
were  the  sleeves  of  our  shirts.  We  combed  our  hair 
with  the  nails  of  our  fingers,  and  brushed  our  teeth 
with  a  piece  of  wood. 

The  winter  in  this  town  is  very  cold,  and  snow 
falls  here  for  three  months;  the  summer  is  ex- 
tremely hot.  The  fervid  rays  of  the  sun  bum  the 
faces  of  the  men,  and  make  them  so  black,  that  they 
are  hardly  distinguished  by  their  acquaintances. 
The  thirst  continually  felt  by  the  people  is  quenched 
by  the  use  of  tea  mixed  vnth  milk  and  salt.  The 
thermometer  stood  in  the  day  at  88  degrees,  and 
in  the  open  air  it  reached  93  to  97. 

June  4. — On  my  setting  off  to  breakfiast  with  my 
host,  I  happened  to  pass  through  the  bazar  or 
market.  A  great  multitude  of  people  came  about 
me,  and  I  could  scarcely  obtain  a  passage  through 
the  mob.  All  the  men  looked  strange  to  me,  not 
only  from  their  blue  dresses,  but  their  language, 
manners,  and  countenances,  which  are  quite  dif- 


ferent  from  ours.  A  market  takes  place  here  on 
Mondays  and  Thursdays,  when  people  from  the 
distance  of  twenty  or  thirty  miles  assemble  for  the 
purpose  of  trade.  The  flour  here  was  much  better 
and  cleaner  than  that  of  Hindustan. 

A  few  days  before  our  arrival,  a  merchant  came 
from  Badakhshan  with  some  camel-loads  of  goods, 
in  the  sale  of  which  he  suffered  a  great  loss.  He 
had  a  knowledge  of  Persian.  Owing  to  his  large 
family  in  his  native  country,  having  endured  much 
grief  from  his  losses,  he  became  mad,  and  did  not 
care  whether  he  was  dressed  or  naked.  As  he  was  a 
Shia,  all  the  Sunnis  at  Khulum  treated  liim  barba- 
rously;  some  threw  stones  at  him,  and  others  struck 
his  head  with  sticks. 

I  visited  two  slave-girls  taken  by  Alamans,  and 
sold  to  a  certain  merchant  at  Khulum.  One  of 
them  was  young,  and  the  other  of  middle  age.  The 
former  was  fair,  and  had  a  red  dress  with  a  black 
turban,  which  much  enhanced  her  beauty.  She  was 
happy,  and  appeared  nowise  to  regret  her  situation. 
Slaves  may  change  their  masters  whenever  they 
wish,  or  take  a  dislike  to  them. 

June  5. — I  had  the  greatest  pleasure  in  receiving 
a  kind  letter  from  Mr.  C.  E.  Trevelyan,  secretary  to 
the  Governor-General  of  India.  He  has  been  the 
cause  of  my  studying  English,  and  gave  great  atten- 
tion to  me  while  he  was  at  Delhi.  A  copy  of  it 
follows ;  he  also  wrote  to  his  brother  in  London,  to 

BALK,    AND    BOKHARA.  105 

give   me,   on  his  account,   £100  for  my  pocket- 

"  My  Dear  Mohan  Lai, — 

^^  I  have  written  to  Captain  Bumes  about  you,  and  sent 
him  a  letter  of  introduction  to  my  relations  in  England,  which 
lie  will  give  yon  or  not,  according  to  circumstances. 

"  Wherever  you  go,  act  in  such  a  way  as  to  raise  the  reputa- 
tion of  your  country,  friends,  and  the  college  to  which  you  owe 
all  your  adyantages. 

"  Yours  sincerely, 

(Signed)         "  C.  E.  Trevelyan." 

The  inhabitants  of  Khulum  are  fair,  tall,  and 
look  as  if  they  were  brought  up  in  hardship.  They 
are  vulgar,  ignorant,  and  dirty.  Disputes  respect- 
ing religion  are  a  frequent  cause  of  tumult  among 
them ;  but  although  they  are  not  acquainted  with 
one  word  of  its  tenets,  they  are  so  bigoted,  as 
to  pretend  to  be  strict  observers  of  the  Moham- 
medan faith.  They  keep  their  heads  entirely 
shaved,  and  allow  a  few  hairs  to  grow  on  their  chins, 
which  does  not  appear  like  a  regular  beard.  They 
quarrel  upon  a  trifling  matter,  and  maltreat 
strangers.  They  wear  trowsers,  which  hang  down 
a  little  above  their  ankles,  while  a  shirt  covers  the 
whole  body.  They  are  in  the  habit  of  wearing 
boots  as  well  as  shoes.  Their  waist  is  always  tied 
with  a  piece  of  cloth.  They  put  on  skin  and  wool- 
len clothes  even  in  the  hot  days,  when  the  thermo- 
meter is  at  90  degrees. 


JuTie  6. — In  the  neighbourhood  of  our  residence 
there  were  two  Blave-boys,  eight  or  nine  years  of 
age.  One  of  them  was  purchased  by  a  Moham- 
medan merchant,  who  did  not  treat  him  well,  and 
had  a  mind  to  dispose  of  him  at  Bokhara.  The 
other,  who  had  a  beautiful  face,  was  bought  by  % 
Hindu  banker,  who  cherished  him  like  his  own  son. 
He  was  well  clothed  and  fed.  The  Hindu  filled  his 
pocket  with  coppers  to  buy  what  he  liked,  and  di- 
verted him  with  playful  acts.  Notwithstanding  all 
these  attentions,  the  poor  boy  sat  for  two  or  three 
hours  in  a  gloomy  place,  keeping  his  head  between 
his  knees  and  crying  with  a  loud  Toice,  thinking  of 
his  wretched  parents.  His  shrieks  touched  my 
breast,  and  his  master  was  not  pleased  to  hear  them, 
but  he  could  not  send  him  back  to  his  parents ;  as 
neither  he  nor  the  boy  himself  knew  where  they 
lived.  I  sat  generally  with  him,  and  endeavoured  to 
amuse  him.  One  day,  his  eyes  filled  with  tears,  he 
said  in  Persian,  in  a  very  low  tone,  that  he  did  not 
lament  in  consequence  of  his  own  condition,  but  for 
that  of  his  young  sister,  who  was  also  taken  captive 
and  transported  for  sale  to  Bokhara.  He  said, 
though  he  is  better  off  than  the  other  slaves,  yet 
the  arrow  of  love  and  recollection  of  her  and  his 
aged  parents  (who  had  only  one  son  and  daughter) 
had  pierced  his  heart.  I  was  quite  astonished  at 
the  sense  and  gravity  of  the  boy,  who  spoke  fluently. 

I  looked  with  impatience  for  the  return  of  Mr. 

BALK,    AND    BOKHARA.  107 

Barnes,  from  whom  we  did  not  hear  till  the  fifth 
day.  We  passed  the  whole  nights  in  counting  the 
stars,  and  the  days  in  thinking  of  his  troubles,  as  he 
was  only  attended  by  two  servants.  We  were  in- 
formed that  the  Mir  was  hurried  down  from  Qunduz 
to  Khanabad,  and  that  Mr.  Barnes  was  also  obliged 
to  follow  him. 

June  7. —  Khulum  receives  annually  numerous 
loads  of  tea,  which  is  plentifully  used  here,  and 
generally  exported  to  Bokhara.  Silk  is  largely 
produced  in  this  country,  and  passes  through  Kabul 
in  the  route  to  Multan.  The  sand  gathered  from 
the  bed  of  the  Oxus  yields  a  great  quantity  of  gold. 
The  caravans  of  Bokhara  and  Kabul,  which  in 
summer  pass  successively  to  Khulum,  have  rendered 
it  very  populous  and  rich ;  the  former  usually  bring 
Russian  articles,  and  the  latter,  goats'  skins  of  Kabul, 
and  Indian  commodities.  Large  pieces  of  stamped 
silver,  which  are  brought  to  Khulum  by  the  Yarkand 
caravan,  are  sent  to  the  mints  of  Kabul  and  Bok- 
hara, where  they  are  coined.  They  have  the  shape 
of  a  boat,  or  of  a  half-piece  of  coco-nut,  and  the 
weight  generally  is  150  rupees.  They  contain  very 
pure  silver,  and  are  called  yamu :  their  native  place 
is  the  frontier  of  China. 

JwM  8. — We  were  highly  delighted  to  see 
our  enterprising  companion,  Mr.  Bumes,  who,  after 
an  absence  of  six  days,  returned  to  allay  our  fearo. 
What  was  wonderful,  he  came  from  Khanabad  upon 
the  same  hoise,  without  stopping  anywhere,  after 


satisfying  Murad  Beg's  curiosity,  and  our  real  cha- 
racter was  no  longer  mysterious.  Our  departure 
being  urgent,  Mr.  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard  started 
early  in  the  morning,  without  taking  any  yictuals 
and  clothes  with  them. 

Before  Mr.  Bumes  left  Khulum,  be  presented 
Chiman  Das,  our  useful  friend,  with  twenty  ducats, 
through  me,  which  he  at  first  refused  to  accept* 
saying  that  he  would  be  happy  to  give  me  some 
remembrance  instead.  At  length,  however,  he 
took  them.  He  told  me,  when  he  was  at  Qunduz, 
he  did  not  allow  Mr.  Bumes  to  speak  one  word 
with  the  Mir,  and  that  he  himself  answered  Murad 
Beg's  questions.  Indeed  he  was  of  great  use  to 
us,  and  Mr.  Bumes  was  highly  obliged  to  him. 
When  I  quitted  the  city  he  accompanied  me  to 
without  the  gate,  where  we  encamped  for  the 

When  I  was  breakfasting  with  Chiman  Das,  an 
earthquake  happened  in  Khulum.  The  doors  of  the 
room  in  which  we  sat  began  to  shake  so  violently, 
that  I  was  afraid  of  the  roofis  falling  in.  I  ran 
immediately  out  of  the  room,  and  stood  in  an  open 
place  till  it  ceased.  My  host  related  to  me  that, 
a  few  months  ago,  the  famous  city  of  Badakhshan 
suffered  a  good  deal  from  an  earthquake,  and  that 
12,000  people,  perished.  The  country  of  Khulum 
is  subject  to  earthquakes. 

June  9. — At  the  dawn  of  day,  I  came  back  to 
Khulum,  to  Chiman  Das,  and  solicited  a  body  of 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  109 

horsemen  to  accompany  me  as  far  as  there  was  any 
danger  from  robbers,  and  which  be  promised  to  send 
me  at  eve,  at  Khush  Rabat,  a  ruined  village  on  our 
road.  After  sunset  we  were  joined  by  an  escort, 
and  proceeded  to  Mazar,  a  distance  of  thirty 

Our  course  continued  all  night  through  a  large 
desert,  where  neither  village,  tree,  nor  water  was  to 
be  seen.  We  passed  on  our  road  the  Abdu  Kotal, 
which  is  said  to  be  the  residence  of  robbers. 

June  10. — We  halted  at  Mazar,  on  account  of 
the  heat  of  the  day,  and  put  up  in  the  same  place 
where  Mr.  Trebeck  died  of  a  fever.  I  was  very 
sorry  not  to  meet  Mr.  Bumes  at  Mazar,  as  he  had 
left  it  for  Balk.  All  the  property  of  Mr.  Moor- 
croft  was  confiscated  by  the  ruler  of  Mazar,  on  the 
death  of  Mr.  Trebeck. 

In  the  twilight  of  evening  I  proceeded  to  visit 
the  Mazar,  which  at  that  time  was  numerously 
peopled.  The  Mazar  has  three  doors,  and  each  of 
them  gives  an  idea  that  it  leads  to  a  noble  edifice. 
I  entered  a  very  magnificent  dome,  where  I  ob- 
served a  beautiful  room  of  wood-work,  adorned  with 
green  velvet,  having  no  steps  inside.  Numerous 
miracles  are  said  to  have  been  wrought  here  :  many 
blind  men,  by  applying  its  sacred  earth  to  their 
eyes,  have  recovered  perfect  sight. 

June  11. — ^A  march  of  fifteen  miles  brought  us  to 
the  ancient  place  called  Balk,  or  Bactria.  Our 
course  was  almost  entirely  through  plains,  bordered 


on  both  sides  with  beautiful  gardens.  We  crossed 
on  the  road  two  or  three  streams  of  muddy  water. 

This  was  formerly  a  very  large  and  populous  city, 
but  at  present  nothing  is  to  be  seen  except  a  mass 
of  ruins  and  dust.  Orchards  are  scattered  in  eveiy 
spot;  their  fruits  are  not  wholesome  to  strangers, 
who  get  sick  by  eating  them.  The  bazar  of  Balk, 
though  broad,  is  irregularly  roofed  with  rafters, 
bay,  and  mud.  The  shopkeepers  are  all  Moham- 
medans ;  the  Hindus  reside  in  saraes.  The  shops 
are  always  shut  up,  except  on  Tuesday,  when  they 
are  open,  and  scarcely  one  lamp  burning  in  the 
bazar  causes  it  to  have  a  dismal  appearance  at 
night.  Without  the  city  of  Balk  is  an  old  mud 
fort,  called  Chihal  Grazi,  which,  people  say,  in  the 
night  increases  in  its  height.  I  wished  to  stop  and 
verify  the  fact,  but  our  caravan  started  at  the  veiy 
eve.  Balk  is  said  to  be  the  mother  of  cities,  and 
to  have  been  peopled  by  Noah's  son.  The  buildings 
in  former  days  extended  as  far  as  Mazar,  and  their 
roofe  were  so  near  to  each  other,  that  a  goat  climbed 
up  one  of  the  roofs  in  Balk,  and  descended  next 
day  at  Mazar,  whither  his  master  followed  him  also. 
This  story  tends  to  prove  that  Balk  was  one  of  the 
largest  cities  in  Turkistan. 

An  Uzbeg  officer  of  the  custom-house  came  to 
search  our  baggage,  and  inquired  of  the  nazir 
regarding  our  fellow-traveller ;  he  informed  him  of 
my  Persian  knowledge,  and  the  journey  which  I 
intended  to  go.     He  looked  at  me  attentively,  and 


sent  a  message  by  the  Qafila  Bashi  to  me,  saying,  if 
I  stopped  at  Balk,  and  would  enter  his  office,  he 
would  be  happy  to  give  me  a  salary  of  400  rupees 
per  month ;  but  I  civilly  refused  the  offer.  In  the 
evening  he  came  himself  to  the  sarae  on  horseback, 
and  sat  near  my  lodgings.  First,  he  paid  me  the 
compliment  of  the  country.  Then  he  gave  me 
a  piece  of  paper,  which  contained  two  or  three 
Persian  verses.  The  following  is  a  translation  of 
the  first  of  them  :^ 

^'  If  you  sit  on  my  head  and  eyes,  I  will  bear 
yon  pleasantly,  because  you  are  agreeable." 

I  stood  up  immediately,  and  did  not  speak  with 
him  at  all,  though  he  often  told  me  to  sit. 

By  the  pale  light  of  the  moon.  Captain  Bumes 
and  Mr.  Gerard  took  an  opportunity  to  visit  the 
still  paler  relics  of  the  much-lamented  Mr.  Moor- 
croft,  for  whom  I  could  not  but  acquire  respect 
within  the  small  circle  of  our  own  party;  and 
though  a  stranger  to  his  worth,  I  identified  my 
feelings  with  those  of  others.  The  bigoted  Mo* 
hammedans  denied  the  remains  a  spot  for  burial. 
Mr.  Grerard  told  me  that  his  grave  is  marked  by  a 
water-course.  Mr.  Trebeck  reposes  at  Mazar,  and 
seems  to  have  been  less  obnoxious  to  the  people. 

Mr.  Bumes  had  delivered  his  passport  to  the 
nazir,  to  take  care  of  it,  when  he  went  to  Qunduz. 
He  asked  him  to  return  it,  but  the  nazir  replied 
that  it  was  lost.  Mr.  Bumes  burst  into  a  passion, 
and  told  us  to  be  ready  to  fight  with  the  nazir,  with 


swords  and  pistols ;  but  meanwhile  the  nazir  was 
informed  of  this,  and  sent  us  the  passport  imme- 
diately by  his  servant. 

June  12. — ^Our  course  at  night  partly  lay  through 
the  ruins  of  ancient  Bactria,  and  partly  through  a 
desert  which  abounded  with  thorny  bushes,  on 
which  the  camels  feed.  We  crossed  several  brooks 
shaded  with  plants.  On  our  right  hand  we  saw  an 
old  wall  running  towards  the  north  about  three 
miles,  which  is  said  to  be  the  remains  of  the  ancient 
palace  of  Ebrabim  Adham.  When  the  day  became 
sultry,  we  encamped  in  a  bushy  plain  near  the 
village  of  Hamdabad,  having  travelled  a  distance 
of  twenty  miles.  Our  residence  was  surrounded 
with  dirty  rivulets,  which  watered  fields  of  melons, 

June  13. — We  commenced  our  march  very  early 
in  the  morning.  The  clear  moon  cast  shadows  upon 
the  surface  of  the  earth,  which  was  ornamented  with 
green  shrubs.  The  melon  and  wheat  fields  in  some 
places  reireshed  our  sight. 

We  passed  on  the  road  the  fort  of  Chuchuk, 
which  is  situated  in  a  vast  and  beautiful  plain.  It 
has  a  solid  and  defencible  appearance.  A  ditch  of 
water,  broader  than  that  of  Delhi,  flows  round  the 
citadel,  and  gives  an  appearance  of  security  to  its 
walls,  which  command  the  surrounding  country  for 
about  ten  or  twelve  miles ;  a  large  village  is  within 
view  of  it. 

On  our  right  hand  we  had  a  sight  of  the  two 

BALK,    AND   BOKHARA.  113 

Tillages  named  Zaidan  and  Larbalun.  They  are 
placed  amongst  fine  gardens  of  different  sorts  of 
fruits.  The  fields  of  com  were  ripe,  and  the  water 
ran  in  eveiy  place.  The  houses  on  this  side  of 
Khurram  are  built  with  round  roofs ;  no  rafters  are 
used  in  them.  They  are  inhabited  by  Tajiks,  who 
have  a  clean  and  fine  appearance. 

Uncultivated  land  is  seen  everywhere,  though 
fit  for  agriculture.  Husbandmen  are  very  scarce 
in  this  country,  for  two  reasons,  viz.:  First,  the 
tyrant  Murad  Beg  makes  descents  upon  the  right 
bank  of  the  Oxus,  where  he  pillages  the  hamlets, 
catches  men,  women,  and  children,  and,  commit- 
ting great  depredations,  retreats  to  his  residence  at 
Qunduz.  His  chapaws  (forays)  in  this  country  have 
continued  long,  and  it  is  reduced  to  a  state  of  the 
most  distressful  bondage.  Though  often  repulsed, 
yet  he  obtains  his  end  of  spoiling  the  country,  and 
carrying  away  the  people  with  their  moveables. 
Second,  the  villagers,  being  addicted  to  plunder, 
are  very  careless  of  agriculture ;  every  man  of  the 
village  has  a  few  horses  to  ride  on,  for  the  purpose 
of  making  these  chapaws.  The  land  on  this  side  of 
Mazar  is  well  adapted  for  cultivation.  The  water 
washes  every  spot,  and  is  conducted  by  Hazrat  Ali 
through  the  mountain  of  Band  Barbar,  which  stands 
at  the  distance  of  one  day's  march  from  Bamian.  The 
water  is  divided  into  eighteen  rivers,  which  are 
commonly  called  the  "  Eighteen  Streams  of  Balk." 
It  is  a  great  pity  that  such  a  fine,  level,  and  rich 



country,  abounding  with  water,  is  left  to  the 
negh'gence  of  savages,  who  take  no  trouble  to  till 

We  reached  Murdian  at  noon,  a  distance  of 
sixteen  miles,  and  put  up  outside  of  the  Tillage,  in 
an  open  field,  where  the  hot  sun  caused  us  much 
annoyance.  South  of  the  village  is  a  range  of  hills, 
which  commences  from  Mazar,  and  ends  towards 
the  south-west  of  our  camp.  There  were  many 
gardens  in  that  direction. 

June  14. — Our  march  continued  all  night  in  a 
desert,  destitute  of  water.  In  some  places  the 
earth  looked  green,  and  in  others  dry ;  but  no  wells 
are  seen  on  this  side  of  Kabul. 

Before  we  marched,  two  Turkmans  on  horseback 
passed  by  our  camp,  and  said  that  a  body  of  robbers 
were  watching  the  road.  They  saw  all  our  baggage 
and  men  from  a  distance,  and  immediately  turned 
their  horses  at  full  speed.  A  conversation  took 
place  in  our  caravan,  and  we  concluded  that  these 
Turkmans  had  hurried  down  to  give  news  of  us  to 
the  rest  of  their  associates. 

Whilst  we  were  travelling,  sometimes  on  the 
right  hand  and  sometimes  on  the  left,  we  observed 
a  blaze  of  fire,  which  caused  suspicion  in  our  mind 
that  there  might  be  some  robbers  waiting  for  us. 
At  last  we  reached  a  vast  plain,  twenty  miles  dis* 
tant.  There  was  a  running  brook  of  water,  and  a 
few  Turkmans'  tents  were  pitched.  On  the  south- 
east, a  mountain  was  in  our  view,  and  on  the  north 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA^  115 

a  hillock.  The  thermometer  stood  at  95""  in  the 
open  air,  but  the  nights  were  still  cold. 

June  15. — A  march  of  eighteen  hours  brought  us 
to  a  place  called  Haji  Salah,  situated  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Oxus  (Amu  or  Jaihun) ;  the  distance 
was  thirty-two  miles. 

We  passed  on  our  route  by  a  structure  which 
appeared  from  a  distance  like  a  tope»  or  solid 
mound ;  but  I  was  surprised  to  find  that  it  was  a 
vaulted  well,  and  that  a  reservoir  of  water  was 
usually  kept  there  in  old  days,  but  now  it  is  dry. 
The  vault  had  steps  to  descend.  The  thickness  of 
the  wall  may  be  reckoned  three  yards,  and  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  structure  100  paces.  Its  depth 
is  said  to  be  thirty  feet. 

Our  course  led  us  sometimes  west,  and  sometimes 
east,  but  we  met  no  village  or  cultivation,  except 
a  jangal  of  Jahu,  a  kind  of  valuable  shrub  used 
in  India  for  making  baskets.  We  journeyed  over 
sand,  which  caused  annoyance  both  to  men  and 
quadrupeds.  Before  we  reached  our  camp,  we  saw 
a  few  houses  of  mud,  and  also  a  few  kbirghas  in- 
habited by  a  savage  race  of  Turkmans.  Our 
approach  to  their  lodgings  brought  a  considerable 
number  of  children  and  women  to  look  at  us ;  they 
came  to  our  camels,  and  accompanied  them,  laugh- 
ing at  us.  The  figure  of  the  women  was  nearly  like 
that  of  European  ladies.  As  the  road  was  a  little 
dangerous,  we  had  taken  a  badraqah,  or  body  of 
horsemen,  for  protection.     They  were    all  Turk- 



mans,  wearing  black  caps,  and  having  broad 

Jwne  16. — We  halted  on  the  brink  of  the  Amu, 
in  consequence  of  the  other  qafila  crossing,  which 
reached  the  bank  one  day  before  us.  The  mariners 
do  not  allow  the  second  caravan  to  pass  till  the  first 
one  has  crossed.  They  are  Uzbegs,  speak  the  Turkish 
language,  and  have  boats  of  a  singular  shape,  which 
are  rowed  in  a  curious  manner. 

The  river,  after  washing  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Badakhshan  hills,  runs  very  slowly  towards  the 
north.  Its  water  is  muddy ;  it  contains  one-fortieth 
part  of  earth.  A  low  range  of  the  northern  moun- 
tains diminish  gradually  towards  the  west,  and 
command  the  pass  of  the  river.  The  islets  which 
occur  in  the  middle  of  the  river  render  the  passage 
difficult.  The  breadth  of  the  river  is  six  times 
greater  than  that  of  the  Jamna,  and  the  boat  crosses 
the  current  twice  or  thrice  in  a  day.  The  boatmen 
are  strong,  but  not  skilful.  When  they  row  they 
make  a  great  noise,  which  is  never  heard  in  India. 
The  river  is  not  fordable  at  any  season,  but  it  can- 
not be  bridged  at  this  ferry.  The  book  called  Zafar 
Namah  gives  us  information,  that  Taimur  the  Great, 
on  his  route  to  India,  threw  a  bridge  across  it ;  but 
when  we  measured  the  breadth  of  the  river,  we 
could  scarcely  believe  it. 

June  17. — We  took  two  hours  and  twenty-five 
minutes  in  crossing  the  Oxus,  which  was  divided 
into  two  currents ;  one  of  them  goes  slowly,  and  has 

BALK^   AND   BOKHARA.  117 

a  depth  of  twelve  feet ;  the  other»  which  runs  rapidly 
by  the  right  bank,  is  eighteen  feet  deep.  The  mode 
of  crossing  the  river  is  very  singular  indeed*  Boats 
are  dragged  by  horses,  while  the  rowing  is  stopped. 
I  need  not  say  much  about  the  Amu,  as  a  good 
description  of  it  is  given  in  Mr.  Bumes's  joumaU 
whose  long-anticipated  expectations  regarding  this 
celebrated  river  were  now  realized.  The  right  bank 
is  entirely  covered  with  pulas,  a  kind  of  grass  used 
for  making  chhappars  in  India.  The  reeds  used 
for  Persian  pens  also  grow  here  abundantly. 

June  18. — We  took  our  departure  very  early  in  the 
morning,  and  having  passed  through  a  plain  covered 
with  different  sorts  of  bushes,  we  halted  in  an  open 
field,  from  which  place  the  tents  of  the  Turkmans 
were  nearly  two  miles  distant.  The  sun  was  ex- 
ceedingly hot,  and  we  were  supplied  with  water 
from  the  neighbouring  stream.  We  beheld  the  low 
range  of  the  western  hills,  which,  after  succeeding 
each  other,  make  a  semicircle,  and  run  towards  the 
south-east;  but  their  appearance  is  not  remark- 

We  travelled,  according  to  the  custom  of  Asiatics, 
on  camels,  through  a  tract  of  country  which  had 
the  decided  features  of  a  desert.  We  found  the 
heat  extremely  harassing,  not  from  the  degree  of  it, 
but  from  our  having  no  means  to  temper  the  hot 
air,  being  cooped  up  in  our  camel-baskets.  They 
were  covered  with  blankets,  and  were  about  four 
feet  long,  and  nearly  three  wide,  without  the  smallest 


space  for  rolling  about.  We  were  without  water, 
and  not  unfrequently  without  any  solid  food,  as 
there  was  no  fiieL  All  day  the  temperature  of  the 
air  varied  from  100  to  107  degrees.  Through  the 
baskets  the  sun's  rays  darted  like  fire ;  then  came 
the  wind  of  the  desert,  loaded  with  sand,  and  made 
the  camel-baskets  quiver. 

Jwfhe  19. — Having  journeyed  all  night  through  an 
arid  dasht,  we  reached  Shor  Quduz,  twenty-three 
miles  distant.  On  each  side  of  us  were  clifis  with- 
out vegetation.  Numerous  wells,  with  small  mouths, 
and  of  great  depth,  are  found  in  this  desert ;  but 
the  water  they  contain  is  salt,  and  is  only  used  by 
quadrupeds.  The  earth  is  exceedingly  parched,  and 
fit  for  the  passage  of  artillery.  I  suffered  much 
from  thirst,  and  remembered  the  hardships  of  All's 
family,  which  were  caused  by  the  scarcity  of  water 
in  the  dasht  of  Karbala.  Our  route  continued  to 
lead  us  through  an  immense  plain,  where  armies 
might  combat  with  each  other. 

Jur^  20.— Before  sunrise  we  arrived  at  the  well 
called  Qiz  Quduz,  after  journeying  the  whole  night. 

People  who  have  never  been  in  the  desert,  and 
have  not  undergone  the  torment  of  thirst,  can 
scarcely  believe  our  sufferings.  I  shall  never  for- 
get mine;  my  tongue  stuck  to  my  palate,  my 
parched  lips  burned  with  the  heat  of  fire,  and 
my  throat  was  so  dry,  that  I  could  not  speak.  I 
imprudently  drank  the  salt  water,  which  increased 
my  thirst. 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  119 

Qiz  means,  in  Turki,  ^  a  virgin,'  and  Quduz^  '  a 
well/  The  virgin  here  referred  to  was  a  native  of 
the  Hazara  country,  and  believed  Panjtan.  When 
she  was  travelling  through  this  desert,  she  found  it 
without  water.  Then  she,  in  company,  with  her 
mother,  excavated  a  well,  which  contains  now  a 
very  sweet  and  wholesome  water,  and  will  no  doubt 
perpetuate  the  name  of  the  girL 

We  chanced  to  meet  a  caravan  of  Bokhara, 
which  consisted  of  two  hundred  camels,  besides 
numerous  ponies,  loaded  with  commercial  articles. 
The  merchants  of  Bokhara  pay  their  visits  twice  or 
thrioe  to  Kabul,  and  bring  with  them  great  quan- 
tities of  silk,  and  Russian  lace,  sugar,  paper,  &c. 

June  21. — Having  travelled  over  a  dreadful 
dasht,  we  encamped  by  a  well  in  a  plain,  and 
watered  our  thirsty  camels.  There  we  observed  a 
few  tents  of  Turkmans ;  they  possess  large  herds  of 
cattle,  and  live  upon  meat,  curd,  and  bread.  They 
feed  their  horses  generally  with  flesh,  and  give  them 
salt-water  to  drink.  They  do  not  much  mind  the 
cold  of  the  winter,  which  they  pass  in  tents,  half- 
buiied  under  the  snow.  Plundering  the  caravans  is 
the  proper  occupation  of  these  Turkmans.  They 
have  plenty  of  Qizal  Bash  slaves,  who  become 
attached  to  their  wives,  and  by  such  means  they  are 
set  at  liberty. 

I  fell  into  discourse  with  a  slave,  a  native  of  Ni- 
shapur,  who  had  the  charge  of  the  family  of  a 
respectable  Turkman.     My  companion,  Haji,  asked 


him,  why  he  did  not  make  a  friend  of  his  master's 
wife,  who  would  release  him  ?  The  slave  replied, 
*'  It  is  a  great  sin  to  fall  in  love  with  the  master's 
relations,  and  much  disgrace  to  get  freedom  by  such 
base  means."  He  hopes  to  be  liberated  through  the 
favour  of  God,  and  never  to  commit  the  crime  of 
adultery.  We  know,  by  the  conduct  of  this  poor 
creature,  that  a  spirit  of  temperance  and  faith  still 
prevails  among  the  Qizal  Bash,  though  they  contend 
with  troubles  in  the  state  of  slavery. 

We  discerned  a  range  of  hills  on  our  N.E.,  covered 
with  snow,  the  rays  of  the  sun  upon  which  pre- 
sented a  marvellous  scene  to  travellers.  We  were 
all  wondering  what  could  be  their  height  and  dis- 
tance ;  we  had  expected  a  level  plain  in  Turkistan, 
but  mountains  are  still  the  prevailing  feature  of  the 

June  22. — Having  passed  all  night  in  travelling, 
we  put  up  at  Qarshi,  a  distance  of  twenty-five  miles. 
Our  route  was  betwixt  the  hills,  the  sand  of  which 
was  moving  and  rolling  about ;  but  it  was  fortunate 
that  we  had  water  all  the  way.  My  residence  waa 
in  a  very  cool  room,  situated  in  the  bosom  of  a 
beautiful  orchard.  The  shadow  of  the  Sufaidah 
trees,  which  grow  straight  to  a  great  height,  was 
refreshing  to  the  eyes  of  the  people  who  sat  under 
them,  and  the  leaves,  shaking  and  reflecting  the 
brightness  of  the  sun,  had  a  striking  appearance. 
One  might  imagine  they  were  covered  with  silver. 

Captain  Bumes  and  Dr.  Gerard  were  seized  with 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  121 

fever,  as  well  as  two  servants,  and  a  tea-merchant, 
who,  after  lingering  eight  or  ten  days  in  Bokhara, 
died.  Dr.  Grerard,  though  still  an  invalid,  and  Mr. 
Bumes,  attended  him  at  his  sarae,  but  their  services 
were  unavailing. 

JuTie  23. — We  halted  in  Qarshi  for  the  purpose 
of  resting  ourselves. 

Saturday  is  a  market-day  here :  I  proceeded  to 
examine  the  bazar  in  company  with  a  respectable 
merchant.  The  shops  were  crowded  vrith  purchasers 
who  came  from  the  distant  villages  to  buy  neces- 
saries for  the  week.  I  found  little  amusement  in 
the  curiosities  in  this  place.  Numerous  butchers' 
shops  were  filled  with  carcasses  of  sheep.  The 
drapers,  who  occupy  nearly  thirty  shops,  generally 
have  Persian  articles  for  sale.  On  my  return,  I 
passed  through  an  old  mosque,  which  was  adorned 
with  a  variety  of  beautiful  colours.  The  appearance 
was  indeed  romantic,  and  even  gave  an  idea  of 
antiquity.  Inscriptions,  both  in  the  Persian  and 
Arabic  character,  ornamented  the  high  arch  of  the 
edifice,  but  they  were  all  illegible. 

Qarshi  is  larger  than  Khulum.  The  buildings 
are  much  better  than  those  at  Balk.  The  men, 
mounted  on  horses  or  asses,  go  to  the  bazar  to  buy 
commodities.  The  place  is  celebrated  for  good 
tobacco  and  sweetmeats.  The  great  bazar  is  not 
neatly  roofed,  and  canals  run  through  every  place ; 
but  few  of  them  contain  water.  Numerous  gardens 
filled  with  trees  form  a  boundary  to  the  town,  within 


which  all  the  \realthy  classes  reside ;  mechanics  and 
tradesmen  live  in  huts  under  the  trees.  The  soil  is 
naturally  arid,  but  the  labour  of  the  farmers  has 
much  improved  it.  The  fruits  were  plentiful  in 
gardens ;  but  the  glas,  or  cherry,  was  the  one  most 
agreeable  to  my  taste.  This  fruit  is  larger  than  the 
falsa  in  India,  but  exactly  resembles  it  in  outward 
appearance.  The  tanks  in  the  gardens  were  dried 
up.     Silk  is  produced  in  large  quantities. 

The  winters  are  very  cold,  the  streets  and  bazars 
being  covered  with  snow,  which  remains  nearly  three 
months,  and  becomes  as  hard  as  a  solid  rock.  The 
summer  is  exceedingly  hot,  and  the  wells  become 
sometimes  dry. 

The  son  of  the  prime  minister  rules  this  town 
with  great  justice  and  impartiality.  The  people  are 
Uzbegs,  and  are  computed  to  be  nearly  13,000. 
They  all  are  of  the  Sunni  sect,  but  do  not  attend 
strictly  to  the  laws  of  their  religion.  They  are  dirty, 
and  their  aspect  fully  corresponds  with  the  barbarity 
of  their  manners.  The  men  who  are  affected  vnth 
leprosy  are  not  allowed  to  touch  anybody,  and  are 
generally  exiled. 

On  my  return  from  the  bazar,  I  asked  my  com- 
panion to  shew  me  the  house  of  a  slave-dealer ;  so  I 
was  conducted  through  numerous  hot  streets,  and 
after  a  short  walk,  I  got  into  the  caravansarae  where 
the  merchant  resided.  He  received  me  with  courtesy 
and  sent  for  three  women  from  the  room  next  to 
his  own.     They  sat  unveiled,  and  their  master  asked 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  123 

me  which  of  the  three  I  liked  the  best.  I  pretended 
to  select  the  younger  one ;  she  had  regular  features 
and  most  agreeable  manners,  her  stature  was  elegant, 
and  her  personal  attractions  great.  On  my  choosing 
her,  the  others  retired  to  their  lodgings,  and  she  fol* 
lowed  them,  but  sat  in  a  separate  room  guarded  by 
an  old  slave.  The  merchant  toldme  to  go  to  her,speak 
to  and  content  her.  After  a  good  deal  of  conversa- 
tion, she  felt  pleased  with  my  choice ;  but  told  me  to 
swear  not  to  sell  her  again.  She  was  thirteen  years 
of  age,  and  an  inhabitant  of  Chatrar,  a  place  near 
Badakhshan.  She  said  that  she  belonged  to  a  large 
fiimily,  and  had  been  carried  off  by  the  ruler  of  the 
country,  who  reduced  her  to  slavery.  Her  eyes 
filled  with  tears,  and  she  asked  me  to  release  her 
soon  from  the  hands  of  the  oppressive  Uzbeg.  As 
my  object  was  only  to  examine  the  feelings  of  the 
slave-dealer,  and  also  to  gratify  my  curiosity,  and 
not  to  purchase  her,  I  came  back  to  my  camp  with- 
out bidding  farewell  to  the  merchant. 

June  24. — An  early  march  of  sixteen  miles  led  us 
through  Karasan,  which  was  encircled  by  numerous 
gardens  and  dry  rivulets,  but  in  some  places,  the 
water  was  flowing  beautifully.  They  branch  off 
from  the  river  of  Shaihar  Sabz,  which  also  washes 
the  face  of  Qarshi.  Every  village  on  this  side 
of  Qarshi  is  watered  by  the  same  stream  in  turn. 
The  fields  of  wheat  were  quite  ripe,  and  the  surface 
of  the  country  had  a  very  parched  appearance. 
When  I  was  walking  in  the  bazar,  the  people  took 


me  for  an  Afghan,  although  I  was  not  dressed  like 

The  water  in  this  village  was  full  of  small  red 
vermin,  which  rendered  the  people  sick  who  used  it 

June  25. — We  reached  Khush  Mubarak,  at  the 
meridian  of  the  sun,*  having  travelled  a  distance  of 
twenty  miles.  We  saw  no  water  in  the  road,  but 
many  dry  brooks.  The  village  had  two  small  ponds 
of  unpalatable  water.  The  day  was  excessively  hot, 
and  I  passed  a  quantity  of  blood  from  my  nose.  The 
hot  wind  blew  very  sharply,  and  we  were  extremely 
thirsty.  Travelling  on  this  side  of  Balk  is  very 
fatiguing ;  the  scarcity  of  water,  the  want  of  fiiel, 
and  of  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  the  fear  of  robbers 
in  the  way,  are  annoyances  to  travellers. 

JuTie  26. — A  night  march  of  twenty-six  miles 
brought  us  to  a  place  called  Qaraval.  Here  was 
a  well  of  tolerable  water  near  to  a  noble  but 
ruined  sarae,  built  by  a  late  king  of  Bokhara^ 
named  Abdullah  Khan  Uzbeg,  who  reigned  at  the 
period  of  Akbar  the  Great.  He  has  filled  this  part 
of  the  country  with  numerous  monuments,  and  de- 
serves the  highest  praise  for  his  liberality  in  making 
places  and  wells  which  refresh  thirsty  travellers. 
He  constructed  a  fine  edifice  for  his  own  residence 
near  the  sarae,  in  which  I  sat  for  some  time,  and 
was  pleased  to  think  that  this  was  the  place  of  the 
great  King  of  Turkistan,  of  whom  I  had  read  in  the 
book  of  Abul  Fazal.    It  has  a  large  well,  and  stands 


on  a  vast  plain.  The  sarae  is  a  place  for  travellers 
to  comfort  themselves  in,  particularly  when  the  sun 
is  oppressive.     No  one  lives  there  at  present. 

Our  route  was  very  pleasant  and  lay  over  a  dry 
and  level  plain.  In  the  twilight  of  evening,  we 
reached  an  abdar-khanah,  or  large  well,  which  con- 
tained fine  and  cold  water,  from  whence  we  filled 
the  leathers  or  mashks,  fearing  we  might  not  get 
water  again  on  the  road.  We  passed  in  the  morn- 
ing, on  our  route,  a  large  village  totally  ruined ;  but 
the  mud  buildings  are  worthy  of  praise  for  their 
durability.     Wasps  were  abundant  here. 

June  27. — We  entered  this  morning  the  city  of 
Bokhara,  which  is  encompassed  by  sandy  suburbs. 
The  walls  are  surrounded  by  an  irregular  line  of 
trees,  and  protected  by  dry  ditches.  We  passed 
through  two  gates :  the  first  had  an  appearance  of 
strength  and  solidity;  but  the  walls  on  each  side 
are  very  weak ;  the  other  gate  is  not  strong.  It 
opens  into  a  small  square,  divided  into  four  streets 
facing  each  other.  The  square  is  occupied  by 
numerous  cooks,  who  expose  in  their  shops  various 
sorts  of  bread,  &c.  A  small  part  of  the  road  out- 
side of  the  gate  is  lined  on  both  sides  by  graves ; 
they  were  four  times  larger  than  those  I  saw  in 
India,  and  built  with  bricks  and  mud. 

Mr.  Bumes  was  ur^ed  by  some  particular  reason 
1»  live  separate  from  us,  and  I  told  every  one  that 
I  did  not  know  who  he  was ;  but  this  secret  was 
not  long  concealed. 


June  28. — Mr.  Bumes  paid  a  visit  to  the  Qosh 
Beg],  or  prime  minister,  by  whose  civil  treatment  he 
seemed  highly  obliged.  He  told  us  not  to  write  while 
we  stayed  at  Bokhara,  as  he  well  knew  that  all 
Europeans  are  in  the  habit  of  doing  so,  and  our  touch*- 
ingpen  and  ink  would  create  a  suspicion  in  the  mind 
of  the  king,  who  might  throw  some  diflScuIty  in  our 
way.  Many  spies  roved  about  to  inform  the  king 
what  was  going  on  in  the  city.  On  this,  we  fixed  an 
hour  for  writing  at  midnight,  doing  so  unobserved. 

June  29.  — An  early  walk  led  me  through  the 
bazar  called  Sarafan,  where  I  observed  two  Mo- 
hammedans mounted  on  camels,  guarded  by  four 
sepoys,  who  had  only  whips  in  their  hands.  They 
were  ordered  to  be  scourged  by  the  Qazi  for  not 
saying  their  morning  prayers,  and  for  sleeping  after 
the  sun  was  up.  This  sort  of  occurrence  happens 
every  day  at  Bokhara,  and  the  punishment  is  pub- 
licly inflicted.  Some  are  chastised  for  smoking, 
some  for  drinking,  and  others  for  snuffing :  these 
practices  being  prohibited  by  the  law  of  Moham- 
med. The  guilty  person,  mounted  on  a  camel,  calls 
out  in  the  following  manner :  "  This  is  the  punish- 
ment for  a  person  who  does  not  recite  his  prayers. 
He  who  will  smoke  shall  suffer  like  him ;  snuffing 
is  the  cause  of  the  distress  which  he  endures  now 
patiently."  The  Qazi,  who  is  said  to  be  guilty  of 
some  misdemeanors  himself,  has  no  power  to  seize 
the  criminal  in  his  own  house,  because  the  Qazi  uses 
his   authority  according  to  the  following  proverb: 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  127 

^  the  Qasi  is  of  no  use  in  the  house."  The  Hindus 
gmoke  in  the  carayansarae,  which  privilege  is  not 
allowed  to  Musalmans.  I  was  surprised  at  the  foolish 
prejudices  of  the  bigoted  Mohammedans  of  this  coun- 
tiy,  who  prohibit  smoking  tobacco,  but  allow  it  to  be 
sold  publicly. 

June  30. — In  the  evening  I  went  to  see  the 
religious  place  of  the  Musalmans,  named  Idgah, 
which  is  situated  out  of  the  city.  It  is  a  fine  build- 
ing, and  has  five  doors,  and  two  reservoirs  of  water 
inside.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  mud  wall  inclosing  a 
meadow.  Trees  of  numerous  sorts  of  fruits  enhance 
the  beauty  of  the  spot. 

On  my  return  I  passed  through  the  famous  street 
of  the  Jews,  where  I  scarcely  saw  a  man  or  a  woman 
devoid  of  beauty.  All  of  them  were  handsome, 
delicate,  and  attractive.  Their  eyes  were  alluring, 
and  their  persons  enticing,  though  every  one  looked 
half  sottish.  They  were  gazing  out  of  the  door  at 
those  who  passed  through  the  street.  They  are  the 
most  delicate  of  any  people  I  have  seen  between 
Delhi  and  Bokhara.  I  am  sure  if  any  Indian,  who 
is  a  worshipper  of  beauty,  should  come  to  Bokhara, 
he  would  undoubtedly  be  a  victim  to  the  charms  of 
these  Jewesses.  Their  dress  is  of  a  curious  fashion, 
calculated  to  entice  the  hearts  of  men.  No  fewer 
than  3,000  Jews  are  said  to  inhabit  Bokhara. 

The  people  of  Bokhara  are,  generally  speaking, 
complaisant,  bold,  strong,  and  good  riders.  They 
can  endure  hunger,  cold,  and  fatigue,  and  travel  a 


distance  of  ten  days'  journey  in  two,  never  even 
dismounting  from  their  horses  till  they  have  reached 
their  destined  place.  Their  dress  is  generally  two 
or  three  cloaks,  which  cover  each  other,  and  white 
turbans.  They  tie  a  scimitar  to  their  waist,  ride 
either  horse  or  ass,  and  sometimes  take  their  wives 
up  behind  them.  They  never  wash  themselves  with 
water,  but  clean  themselves  with  a  piece  of  clay. 
If  any  man  dares  take  water,  either  according  to 
the  custom  of  his  own  country,  or  from  a  regard  to 
cleanliness,  he  is  considered  by  the  Sunnis  to  be  an 
infidel,  or  Kafar  Qizal  Bash.  Many  of  their  habits 
shew  a  gross  want  of  personal  purity.  They  go  at 
the  same  time  to  say  their  prayers,  and  are  said  to 
consider  themselves  very  cleanly  and  religious  men. 
The  women  have  but  little  virtUe.  They  are  fair, 
with  red  cheeks,  and  have  elegant  and  charming 
manners.  They  are  covered  with  a  gown  from 
head  to  foot,  and  have  a  black  thin  veil,  which 
sometimes  they  lift  up  in  the  streets,  and  pretend 
that  none  have  seen  them.  They  bind  a  white 
turban  upon  a  handkerchief,  which  conceals  their 
head,  and  hangs  as  far  as  their  waist.  The  bad 
women  are  called  jahab  or  qatah.  The  present 
king  enforces  more  strictly  than  his  predecessors 
the  outward  observance  of  morality.  The  Hindus 
and  Jews  of  Bokhara  are  not  allowed  to  mount  on 
horseback,  and  can  tie  neither  turban,  cloths,  nor 
shawls  round  their  waist.  Their  dress  consists  of  a 
.cloak  and  skin  cap,  which  distinguishes  them  from 

BALK,    AND    BOKHARA.  129 

the  Mohammedan  sect ;  and  also  a  small  pieces  of 
thin  rope,  which  they  tie  round  them.  The  Musal- 
mans,  in  lieu  of  washing  their  hands  and  mouths, 
wipe  them  with  a  quantity  of  thread,  which  is 
loosely  tied  together,  and  very  seldom  changed. 
The  population  of  the  city  is  170,000  souls. 

July  1. — I  was  visited  by  a  crowd  of  Hindus, 
who  came  merely  to  inquire  of  me  what  was  our 
object  in  making  such  a  long  journey.  Some  of 
them,  who  were  little  acquainted  with  the  English 
customs,  said  to  each  other,  that  we  were  travelling 
only  for  the  purpose  of  learning  the  state  of  the 
country.  Among  them  was  a  sepoy  deserter  from 
the  Company's  service.  He  was  a  very  cunning 
man,  and  his  smiling  shewed  his  ignorant  comrades 
that  he  knew  all  the  designs  of  the  English,  as  well 
as  their  politics,  which  they  called  tricks. 

The  prevailing  religion  at  Bokhara  is  Sunni ;  the 
followers  of  other  creeds,  though  not  vexed,  are 
scornfully  treated.  The  Qizal  Bash,  or  Shias,  who 
follow  the  principles  of  Ali,  and  do  not  believe  in 
the  three  friends  of  Mohammed,  are  treated  with 
indignity  by  the  Sunnis,  who  molest,  and  even  sell 
tiiem,  at  their  own  pleasure.  All  punishments  are 
inflicted  by  the  Qazi,  who  is  the  head  of  the  law. 
The  people  are  very  bigoted,  and  call  a  Shia  by  the 
name  of  Kafar,  and  even  think  him  much  worse 
than  the  Hindus.  The  Musalmans  can  abuse  both 
Jews  and  Hindus,  who  must  bear  it  patiently: 
they  are  considered  such  a  base  and  unclean  people 



that  none  can  buj  them.  If  a  Jew  or  Hindu  falls 
in  love  with  a  Mohammedan  girl,  he  communicates 
it  to  the  king,  who  makes  him  a  Musalman,  and 
tells  the  parents  of  the  girl  to  give  her  in  marriage 
to  him. 

Jtdy  2  to  4. — When  the  sun  was  extremely  hot, 
I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  king  pass  through 
the  bazar,  on  his  road  to  the  great  mosque.  He 
was  mounted  on  a  horse  not  well  caparisoned,  but 
his  equipage  had  a  grand  and  imposing  appearance. 
At  the  head  there  was  a  horseman,  bearing  a  mace, 
who  called,  with  a  loud  voice,  "  Long  live  our  king, 
the  protector  of  the  Islam  religion  !  '*  The  proces- 
sion consisted  of  about  thirty  horsemen. 

July  5. — I  passed  through  the  bazar  called  Jubar, 
and  feasted  my  eyes  with  numerous  curiosities. 
The  people  suspected  me  to  be  a  foreigner,  though 
I  had  dressed  myself  like  one  of  them ;  and  some 
were  surprised  that  I,  not  being  a  European,  had 
a  knowledge  of  the  English  and  Persian  lan- 

The  government  of  Bokhara  is  monarchical,  that 
is,  the  king  is  the  head,  and  in  his  name  all  business 
is  managed.  Notwithstanding  his  authority  is  limited 
by  the  law  of  Mohammed  called  Shariat,  yet  he 
rules  sometimes  according  to  his  own  will.  It  is 
very  odd  that  his  arbitrary  power  is  praised  by  every 
person,  with  numerous  good  wishes  for  his  life.  A 
thief  is  either  sentenced  to  be  thrown  on  the  hard 
grpund  from  a  high  menar,  where  his  body  is  broken 

BALK,    AND   BOKHARA.  131 

to  pieces,  or  put  into  a  dark  dungeon,  called  kana- 
khanah,  in  which  he  is  attacked  by  insects,  which 
kill  him  in  two  or  three  days.  When  the  day  is 
closed,  and  the  drum  is  beaten,  all  intercourse  of 
the  people  ceases,  and  none  dare  venture  to  walk  in 
the  streets.  There  are  three  hundred  kotwals  in 
the  city,  who  rove  all  night  in  the  lanes/ and  cry, 
"  bedarbash  "  (or  *  be  awake ') !  In  the  time  of  war, 
every  soul  is  obliged  to  pay  money  to  the  king,  for 
the  purpose  of  supplying  the  troops  with  necessaries. 
The  inhabitants  say,  the  tongue  of  the  king  is  the 
foundation  of  the  law. 

Jtdjf  6  to  8. — In  company  with  a  few  Shikarpuris, 
I  went  to  a  garden  inclosed  by  a  mud  wall.  The 
fruit-trees  appeared  to  want  water. 

The  climate  of  Bokhara  is  healthy.  The  people 
are  not  subject  to  any  disorder,  except  the  guinea- 
worm,  or  rishtah,  which  molests  them  much.  It 
is  like  a  thread,  and  springs  up  from  every  limb  of 
the  body ;  sometimes  it  breaks  into  pieces,  and 
obliges  the  sufferer  to  linger  in  bed  for  four  or  five 
months,  during  which  time  he  undergoes  the  most 
terrible  pain.  Birds,  cats,  dogs,  and  all  sorts  of 
quadrupeds,  suffer  from  the  same  disease.  The 
winter  is  exceedingly  cold,  and  the  snow  falls  day 
and  night,  making  considerable  arches  over  the 
houses.  It  remains  on  the  roof  for  nearly  three 
months.  The  people  pass  these  days  very  plea-^ 
santly;  they  drink  tea,  eat  meat,  put  on  warm 
clothes,  and  sit  round  the  fire.     The  summer  is  not 



hotter  here  than  at  Balk  and  Khulum,  where  the 
people  are  generally  afflicted  with  fever  and  dysen- 
tery. We  felt  the  nights  and  mornings  cold,  like 
the  winter  of  India,  and  during  the  day  all  wear 
two  or  three  cloaks,  and  never  perspire. 

Jtdy  9  to  11. — At  noon  I  happened  to  pass 
through  the  Tim  Bazar,  which  was  built  by  the  late 
Abdullah  Khan.  The  shops  are  built  in  separate 
alleys,  which  form  the  sides  of  a  square.  They  are 
occupied  by  merchants,  who  have  a  large  quantity 
of  Russian  articles  for  sale. 

The  soil  is  rich  and  productive.  Com,  fruits,  and 
silk  are  plentiful ;  the  last  is  a  profitable  article  of 
commerce.  Tobacco  and  rice,  though  cultivated  at 
Bokhara,  are  not  so  good  as  in  Qarshi.  Opium 
is  planted  here  abundantly,  and  also  mulberry- 

In  the  evening,  the  king,  attended  by  the  minis- 
ters of  his  pleasure,  set  off  on  an  excursion,  which 
he  finds  more  agreeable  than  staying  in  the  city. 
The  preparations  for  the  trip  were  very  poor ;  a  few 
rotten  tents  were  loaded  on  mules,  and  the  cook 
was  on  the  back  of  a  pony,  bearing  some  copper- 
pots  in  a  bag  behind  him. 

Jtdy  12. — On  my  return  from  the  Tim  Bazar, 
Mr.  Burnes  told  me  to  go  to  Sarvar  Khan,  who 
was  very  anxious  to  see  me.  In  the  meantime  he 
sent  for  me  by  his  boy.  He  received  and  dismissed 
me  with  courtesy,  and  talked  a  long  time  with  me 
familiarly.     He  is  a  good  man,  and  a  great  friend  of 

BALE,   AND   BOKHARA*  133 

the  Qosh  Begi.  His  civil  attentions  pleased  Mn 
Buraes,  who  gave  him  many  thanks  in  return,  and 
also  a  few  letters  of  introduction  to  his  friends 
in  India.  Sarvar  Khan  is  a  rich  merchant  among 
the  Lohanis,  and  his  traffic  extends  to  a  great  extent 
towards  Persia  and  Russia. 

Jvly  13. — I  paid  a  visit  to  the  college  at  noon, 
and  had  a  long  altercation  with  the  Maulavis  in 
Persian.  They  were  of  course  in  possession  of 
knowledge,  but  had  not  a  good  pronunciation. 
Every  person  at  Bokhara  had  a  greater  desire  to 
write  well  than  to  acquire  learning.  They  examined 
me»  and  then  said,  ^  AUaho  Akbar !  how  is  it  possible 
that  a  Kashmerian  at  such  an  early  age  should  be 
versed  in  a  science  of  which  the  Mohammedans  at 
Bokhara  are  destitute ! "  One  of  them,  who  was 
older  than  the  others,  spoke  civilly  to  me,  and  said, 
if  I  would  be  an  Uzbeg,  I  should  indeed  be  the 
Plato  of  the  time.  At  last  he  laughed,  and  conjured 
me  either  to  become  like  him,  or  make  him  like 

Jtdy  14. — An  evening  walk  led  me  through  the 
Registan,  which  is  a  fine  bazar  at  Bokhara.  Though 
there  are  not  many  shops  erected,  yet  during  market- 
time  many  merchants  and  people  assemble  in  such  a 
crowd,  that  the  passengers  find  it  difiicult  to  pass 
through  the  mob  without  rubbing  against  each  other. 
The  residence  of  the  king,  which  is  not  like  a  palace, 
but  a  poor  building,  comprises  a  very  large  and  mag- 
nificent mosque,  painted  with   numerous   colours. 


Every  man  beheld  me  with  astonishment,  and  called 
after  me  "  Azadahwar,''  which  means  *  fop  ;'  though 
my  dress  was  poor  and  dirty. 

The  present  king  of  Bokhara,  named  Nasmllah 
Khan,  is  a  fair  and  good-looking  man,  twenty-five 
years  of  age,  and  has  a  small  beard,  which  becomes 
him.  He  is  religious,  and  very  severe  and  just  in 
his  court ;  among  the  few  vices  attributed  to  this 
monarch  is  ambition,  which  induced  him,  at  the  com- 
mencement of  his  reign,  to  send  some  people  to 
murder  his  brother,  who  had  also  a  claim  to  the 
throne,  and  he  then  established  himself  king.  This 
conspiracy  was  carried  into  effect  by  the  sagacity  of 
the  Qosh  Begi.  He  anticipated  that  the  murder 
would  be  ultimately  imputed  to  him ;  and  in  order 
to  divert  the  minds  of  the  people  to  different  ob- 
jects, he  undertook  the  study  of  the  Shariat,  and 
pretended  to  be  the  most  religious  man  in  Turkistan. 
The  cruelty  with  which  the  king  treated  his  brothers 
rendered  him  very  obnoxious  in  the  eyes  of  some 
noblemen  who  dreaded  his  power,  and  who  ceased 
not  to  give  him  uneasiness  till  they  were  all  be- 
headed. Notwithstanding  this,  the  king  has  now 
obtained  a  degree  of  glory  which  was  never  enjoyed 
by  his  predecessors.  The  chieft  of  Sabzshaihar,  Sar 
marqand.  Balk,  and  Qarshi,  do  him  homage  for 
their  possessions.  No  enemy  appears  now  to  give 
him  the  least  annoyance,  or  to  excite  alarm,  except 
Persia ;  but  an  army  from  that  quarter  would  have 
great  difficulty  in  invading  Bokhara,  on  account  of 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  135 

the  barren  road.  In  this  state  of  prosperity,  the 
king  is  establishing  tranquillity,  and  repairing  the 
evils  which  the  country  has  suffered  by  his  cruelty 
towards  his  brothers.  He  never  clothes  himself  gor- 
geously, and  is  not  attended  by  a  numerous  retinue. 
The  intervals  of  business  are  spent  in  prayers  and 
meditations,  and  reading  the  Koran. 

July  15. — We  were  informed  that  the  prince  of 
Persia  had  departed  from  Mashad  with  the  intention 
of  conquering  the  city  of  Herat,  which  is  ruled  by 
one  of  the  Saddozai  family,  named  Kamran.  In 
this  emergency  he  had  recourse  to  the  ruler  of 
Kabul,  who  refused  him  succour.  He  had  sent  an 
envoy  to  the  king  of  Bokhara  to  solicit  his  assist- 
ance against  Abbas  Mirza,  who  was  at  the  head  of  a 
numerous  army.  We  heard  that  his  troops  con- 
sisted of  bold  men,  in  high  spirits,  and  eager  to 
fight ;  that  they  are  strongly  attached  to  him,  and 
capable  of  braving  hardships.  Kamran's  request  of 
aid  was  not  complied  with  by  the  king  of  Bokhara 
at  the  day  we  quitted  that  city;  but  the  chief  of 
Khiva  had  gone  to  relieve  Kamran,  at  the  head  of 
20,000  horsemen.  He  is  the  most  tyrannical  man 
of  the  time ;  he  had  pitched  his  camp  near  Marv, 
between  Khiva  and  Herat,  as  he  was  afraid  of 
leaving  his  country,  which  might  be  invaded  by  the 
Persians  by  the  way  of  Astrabad.  There  are  many 
Russian  slaves  at  Hurganj,  who  were  extremely 
alarmed  on  learning  the  devastation  caused  by  the 
army  of  Abbas  Mirza  at  Herat. 


Jtdy  16. — We  continued  at  Bokhara  to  hear  the 
rumours  which  related  to  the  power  of  the  prince  of 
Persia,  and  the  weakness  of  the  sovereigns  of  Kho- 
rasan  and  Turkistan. 

Bokhara  is  the  largest  and  most  populous  and 
wealthy  city  in  the  whole  region  of  Tartary.  The 
splendid  mosques  and  magnificent  colleges,  which 
are  360  in  number,  contain  students  who  are  un- 
qualified both  in  the  Persian  and  Arabic  languages, 
but  they  write  a  very  good  hand.  The  houses  are 
mostly  of  one  story  high ;  some  of  them  of  more 
than  two;  they  are  neatly  constructed  of  mud, 
wood,  and  mats,  which  prevent  the  falling  of  the 
dust  from  the  roof.  The  doors  of  the  buildings  are 
of  the  usual  size ;  but  they  are  covered  with  filth. 
The  shops,  which  are  clean,  are  generally  opened 
after  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  because  their 
owners  never  come  out  of  their  houses  till  they 
have  finished  drinking  their  tea.  The  shops  are 
closed  at  three  o'clock  at  noon,  when  their  masters 
go  in  the  Registan,  and  adorn  that  market  by 
spreading  forth  neat  articles  for  sale.  The  large 
bazar,  which  is  roofed,  has  a  very  striking  appear- 
ance. The  shops,  which  succeed  each  other  in 
a  straight  line,  present  a  splendid  sight.  They 
are  ornamented  with  beautiful  China-ware  and 
Russian  bottles,  against  which  hang  large  but 
thin  pieces  of  tin.  The  sellers  are  generally  hand- 
some boys.  The  beauty  of  this  bazar,  which  was 
erected  by  the  late  king,  is   beyond   my  descrip- 

BALK,   AND   BOKHABA.  137 

tion.  The  streets  are  of  moderate  size,  but  heaps 
of  earth  lay  against  the  walls  of  the  houses.  There 
are  a  few  wells  in  the  city,  and  their  water  is 
scarcely  used ;  but  the  tanks,  which  are  plentiful  at 
Bokhara,  are  filled  with  the  water  of  the  Samar- 
qand  river,  the  clean  and  brisk  current  of  which, 
after  washing  numberless  villages  in  the  way, 
flows  for  ten  days  to  the  city,  in  the  course  of  a 
month.  So  short  a  space  of  time,  not  more  than 
twenty  days,  renders  the  water  so  unwholesome, 
that  the  people  who  use  it  are  attacked  with  the 
sickness  of  the  guinea- worm. 

Bokhara  is  said  to  have  been  the  shelter  of  the 
Mohammedan  faith,  and  is  consequently  entitled 
^^  Bokhara  Sharif ^'^  or  *  Holy  Bokhara.'  If  any 
person  says  that  the  walls  of  the  city  are  not  per- 
pendicular, he  is  looked  on  as  an  infidel  by  the 
inhabitants.  The  Mullahs  of  a  remote  period  have 
praised  Bokhara  in  the  following  manner : — 

'*  Samarqand  is  the  light  of  the  face  of  the  world ; 
Bokhara  is  the  strength  of  the  Islam  faith.  If 
Mashad  had  not  the  tomb  of  Iman  Raza,  it  would 
be  the  place  of  the  outcasts  in  the  earth."' 

The  caravansaraes,  which  have  a  grand  appear- 
ance, exceed  the  number  of  those  at  Kabul,  and 
most  of  them  are  inhabited  by  Hindu  merchants. 

Juhf  17. —  Maulavi  Babajan,  who  became  my 
great  friend,  desired  me  to  call  at  his  house,  where 
he  had  prepared  a  rich  dinner  for  me.     When  the 


entertainment  was  over,  we  began  to  read  poetry, 
which  my  host  liked  very  much.  Before  I  left  him, 
he  presented  me  with  a  Koran,  and  his  wife  with  a 
cap  made  of  silk. 

The  horses,  mules,  and  asses,  are  stronger  and 
larger  than  those  in  other  parts,  and  are  abundant 
at  Bokhara;  camels,  dromedaries,  and  sheep,  are 
numerous ;  tigers  and  wolves  are  hardly  seen  in  the 

The  annual  income  of  Bokhara  is  commonly  said 
to  be  20,000  tilas,  one  of  which  is  equal  to  six  and 
a  half  of  our  rupees.  The  duties  raised  upon  goods 
are  granted  to  the  blind,  lame,  and  poor  men ;  and 
those  of  the  country  supply  the  chiefs,  and  also  the 
army,  with  subsistence.  A  tax  of  half  a  rupee  is 
levied  upon  each  Hindu  in  the  city,  by  which  the 
king  is  furnished  with  the  necessaries  of  life. 

It  is  said  that  the  king  of  Bokhara  has  20,000 
troops,  which  are  mounted  on  swift  horses ;  some  of 
them  get  a  small  sum  of  money  as  their  yearly  pay, 
and  others  a  few  kharvars  of  com ;  but  their  irre- 
gular and  undisciplined  bravery  cannot  withstand 
the  intrepidity  of  the  Russian  and  Persian  army,  of 
which  the  king  of  Bokhara  is  extremely  afraid.  The 
people  in  this  country  fight  with  javelins,  and  cannot 
fire  on  horseback.  Here  are  about  sixty  pieces  of 
cannon,  but  no  one  is  qualified  to  use  them.  The 
gunpowder  is  very  bad. 

It  is  alleged  that  the  king  may  collect  100,000 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  139 

soldiers  from  the  villages,  in  a  time  of  great  danger; 
but  they  might  be  routed  by  10,000  regular  troops- 
It  is  probable  that  four  regiments  of  Russian  infantry 
might  easily  subdue  the  whole  of  this  country,  if 
it  had  not  natural  obstacles ;  but  I  venture  to  say, 
it  would  be  retained  in  subjection  with  great  diffi- 
culty, owing  to  the  obstinacy  of  the  people. 

Jvly  18. — As  the  Wazir  Qosh  Begi  desired  to 
see  me,  I  accompanied  the  gentlemen  with  Sarvar 
Khan.  He  sat  in  a  very  small  and  poor  house, 
with  few  men  of  rank.  On  our  entering  the  door, 
we  were  all  stopped  by  the  darwan  for  a  few  minutes, 
and  then  called  with  a  loud  voice  by  the  wazir  him- 
self, on  which  we  stepped  in  immediately.  He  was 
dressed  plainly,  and  had  on  boots  with  high  heels, 
which  habit  is  adopted  by  all  Uzbegs.  His  face  is 
fair,  and  his  beard  silvered  by  age*  He  is  tall  and 
not  very  fat,  but  his  aspect  shews  the  intrepidity  of 
his  heart.  He  was  the  chief  of  the  conspirators  who 
murdered  the  brothers  of  the  king,  in  whose  favour 
he  stands  now  very  high.  He  is  himself  a  lover  of 
trade,  which  he  carries  on  advantageously  to  a  great 
extent,  and  treats  the  other  merchants  civilly,  being 
a  most  kind  friend  to  those  who  bring  merchandise 
from  Persia.  This  policy,  of  liking  the  Persians,  is 
not  agreeable  to  the  inhabitants  of  Bokhara,  who 
secretly  call  their  Qosh  Begi  a  Qizal  Bash  slave, 
and  not  a  real  Uzbeg.  On  other  accounts  he  is 
popular,  as  well  as  the  king.  He  asked  me  a  few 
questions  respecting  our  trip,  and  also  of  my  Persian 


knowledge ;  on  bearing  my  answers  he  seemed  to  be 

The  elder  son  of  the  Qosh  Begi,  in  a  fit  of  drunk- 
enness, entered  a  house  and  violated  the  chastity  of 
a  respectable  man's  daughter,  and  presented  the 
doorkeeper  with  a  small  sum  of  money,  for  the 
purpose  of  avoiding  the  effect  of  her  father's  indig- 
nation, until  he  was  out  of  the  house.  The  heinous- 
ness  of  the  crime  exasperated  the  people  as  well  as 
the  king.  He  insisted  that  the  guilty  must  be  tried 
by  the  court  of  the  Shariat,  headed  by  the  Qazi,  and 
punished  according  to  the  book  of  faith.  After 
receiving  seventy-five  lashes  (or  durrahs),  he  wa» 
ordered  to  be  mounted  on  the  back  of  a  lean  camel. 
His  father,  the  wazir,  was  on  foot  with  him.  In 
this  base  procession,  the  wazir  made  his  son  pass 
through  the  bazar,  with  a  great  noise  of  drums,  and 
through  the  mob  of  people,  who  scoffed  at  him,  and 
praised  the  justice  of  his  fether,  who  cried  out, 
"  This  is  the  punishment  for  the  man  who  commits 

Jvly  19. — I  passed  half  of  the  day  in  writing 
the  English  figures  of  ciphering  for  the  wazir,  ac- 
cording to  his  desire,  as  he  was  anxious  to  learn  the 
numbers  written  on  his  watch.  He  often  spoke 
with  great  praise  of  the  sagacity  of  England  in  the 
arts,  which  excels,  he  says,  that  of  other  European 

Bokhara  owes  its  riches  to  the  beneficial  trade 
which  is  carried  on  there.     Its  manufactures  of  silk, 

BALK,   AND   BOKHARA.  141 

which  is  produced  here  in  considerable  quantities 
gain  annually  a  sum  of  200,000  tilas  for  the  mer- 
chants, who  supply  Russia  and  also  Multan  with 
it.  Handkerchiefs,  and  large  pieces  of  silk  cloth, 
called  Kalaghi,  are  manufactured  at  Bokhara,  and 
transported  to  Persia,  with  the  skins  of  kids  of 
Qara  Kul,  besides  those  which  come  from  Kabul. 
These  articles  cross  the  dreadful  deserts  of  Mary  on 
their  route  to  Ma^had,  from  whence  they  go  straight 
to  Persia ;  but  between  Mashad  and  Sarakhs,  where 
there  is  risk  of  robbers,  generally  they  find  some 
difficulty  in  travelling.  On  their  return  from  Persia, 
they  bring  not  only  Indian  commodities,  such  as 
pepper  and  dry  ginger,  &c.,  which  arrive  from  Bom- 
bay by  sea,  but  also  loads  of  silk  cloth,  named  khud 
baf,  &c.,  of  Isfahan. 

Kabul  supplies  Bokhara  with  valuable  shawls  of 
Kashmir,  as  well  as  English  manufactures ;  and  in 
return  the  merchants  take  a  great  quantity  of 
Russian  sugar,  paper,  lace,  &c.,  and  also  the  ftmous 
horses  of  Turkistan.  The  caravans  of  Bokhara, 
which  generally  consist  of  4,000  or  5,000  camels, 
loaded  with  oriental  articles,  formerly  sent  to  Russia 
through  the  road  of  Khiva,  once  a  year,  conveyed 
their  beautiful  goods  to  the  rich  market  of  Makria 
for  sale ;  but  now  the  tyranny  of  Alah  Quli  Khan 
has  obliged  the  merchants  to  discontinue  their 
intercourse  through  Khiva  to  Astrakan.  The  cara- 
vans start  from  Turkistan  as  soon  as  the  winter  is 


over,  and  come  back  to  Bokhara  before  it  snows. 
They  bring  brocade,  banka,  tea,  nankeen,  steel,  iron, 
lace,  sugar,  silk  cloths,  &c. 

Mullah  Rahim  Shah,  a  respectable  merchant  at 
Kabul,  bought  Kashmiri  shawls  for  17,000  rupees, 
and  with  them  from  Bokhara  he  made  forty-seven 
marches  to  Orenburg,  and  from  thence,  after  eleven 
days,  he  arrived  at  the  celebrated  market  of  Makria, 
in  Russia.  When  he  was  acquainted  with  the  rates 
of  merchandise,  he  hurried  down  to  Moscow  with 
loads  of  shawls,  where  he  realized  34,000  rupees, 
besides  paying  the  transit  duty,  amounting  to  200 
rupees,  which  is  taken  in  Russia  as  a  duty  upon  a 
single  piece  of  shawl,  whether  it  values  100  rupees 
or  1,000. 

Russia  seems  to  be  proud  of  the  reputation  she 
has  gained,  by  her  traffic  with  the  countries  border- 
ing upon  the  Caspian  Sea.  Every  article  neatly 
laid  in  the  shops  of  Bokhara  had  a  beautiful  appear- 
ance, and  gave  an  idea  of  the  influence  of  trade 
which  is  gaining  ground  in  Central  Asia.  The 
trade  in  tea,  which  is  much  used  at  Bokhara,  is 
extremely  advantageous.  It  not  only  comes  by  the 
route  of  Russia,  but  even  through  the  straight  road 
of  Samarqand,  Yarkand,  Kashghar,  Khulum,  and 
Qunduz.  The  silver  pieces,  each  of  150  rupees 
value,  called  yamu,  always  come  to  Bokhara,  where 
they  are  coined  into  small  pieces.  They  are  made 
on  the  frontier  of  China. 

BALE,   AND   BOKHARA.  143 

Jvhf  20. — We  had  intended  to  start  the  next 
morning  for  Mashad,  and  were  making  ourselves 
ready.  In  the  meantime,  Maulvi  Mirza  Sadiq  and 
Babajan  came  and  presented  me  with  an  ink-case. 
They  told  me  to  peruse  the  Koran  every  morning, 
and  believe  in  it,  which  would  save  me  from  the 
fire  of  hell,  and  conduct  me  to  paradise. 

The  Bokhara  painters  possess  a  good  deal  of 
merit.  The  works  of  Palang  Posh,  or  the  bed- 
coverings,  called  Kalaghi,  are  generally  admired. 
Khudi  Begi  Khan  is  an  elegant  poet  at  Bok- 

The  original  language  of  the  Bokhara  people  is 
Turki,  but  in  the  town  they  speak  Persian. 

We  have  been  respectably  received  and  civilly 
treated,  though  we  can  scarcely  call  it  kindness ; 
yet  what  had  we  to  expect  ?  and  on  reflecting  upon 
the  thousand  perils  which  had  been  represented  to 
me,  even  by  my  friends,  as  accompanying  our  foot- 
steps, and  the  few  which  have  really  occurred,  I 
conceive  we  have  been  most  fortunate ;  for  we  were 
all  looked  on  as  Kafars,  and  were  not  permitted  to 
ride  in  the  city.  Like  other  infidels,  we  were 
obliged  to  submit  to  be  distinguished  by  a  peculiar 
dress :  this  is  a  black  cap,  and  a  rope  round  the 
waist.  Captain  Bumes  and  Mr.  Gerard  suffered 
the  same  restraints  as  others,  which  to  them 
must  have  proved  very  troublesome.  I  was  sur- 
prised to  see  them  walking  on  foot  in  the  hottest 
day,  to  feast   their  eyes,  while  the  gentlemen  in 


India  never  move  a  span  without  calling  ^Bard 
chhdtdlouor  We  had  no  opportunity  of  .speaking 
with  the  king,  being  without  a  letter  to  his  holy 
majesty;  but  we  saw  him  several  times  on  the 



Jvly  21. — Having  obtained  the  king's  passport, 
through  the  kindness  of  the  Wazir,  we  took  leave  of 
Bokhara  in  the  evening,  and  put  up  near  the  gate, 
in  an  open  field.  There  was  a  report  among  the 
people  that  the  king  had  sent  some  soldiers  to  put 
us  to  the  sword  on  the  road,  as  we  were  considered 
by  his  majesty  to  be  spies,  and  not  travellers. 

I  left  with  great  regret  many  Mohammedan 
friends,  particularly  Babajan  and  Mirza  Sadiq, 
who  stood  high  in  the  late  king's  favour.  They 
prayed  and  begged  of  heaven  that  I  might  once 
more  meet  them  at  Bokhara ;  and  one  of  their 
associates  repeatedly  prayed  me  to  lift  up  some 
earth  at  the  gate,  and  throw  it  away  in  some  other 
distant  place.  I  asked  him  the  meaning  of  this, 
and  he  replied  that  the  walls  of  the  city  of  Bokhara 
Sharif  are  watched  by  angels,  who  ask  the  favour 
of  God  to  bring  back  the  earth  with  the  man  who 
had  lifted  it  up  at  the  time  of  starting.  I  did 
accordingly,  to  please  the  man,  but  in  reality  I  con- 
sidered it  a  foolish  idea.  I  never  felt  it  so  cold  in 
July  as  I  did  here ;  the  thermometer  stood  at  70 

Jvly  22. — We  marched  early  in   the  mornings 



and  put  up  in  a  village  called  Takatut,  a  distance  of 
thirteen  miles. 

Our  route  was  over  green  plains,  which,  in  some 
places,  were  still  dry.  The  brooks  of  water  were 
running  in  some  spots,  however,  though  the  earth 
looked  thirsty.  It  was  a  very  hot  noon,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  I  had  no  inclination  to  dine,  but 
to  drink  water  in  great  quantity.  The  fields  were 
tilled,  and  appeared  richer  than  those  we  beheld 
between  Balk  and  Bokhara. 

Jvly  23. — We  halted  at  Takatut,  on  account  of 
the  Qafila  Bashi,  who  had  remained  behind  us  at 
Bokhara.  He  came  at  night,  and  said  that  the 
Qosh  Begi  had  recommended  us  very  much  to  his 
care,  and  had  told  him  to  make  very  short  marches 
till  we  crossed  the  Oxus;  perhaps  that,  through 
such  delay,  the  Hurganjis,  who  encamp  on  the 
road,  might  return  to  their  place;  otherwise,  he 
advised  him  to  go  by  another  way,  or  else  we  should 
be  robbed. 

Jvly  24. — A  march  of  nine  miles  brought  us  to 
Paikar,  ruled  by  the  mother  of  the  king.  On  our 
right  hand  were  a  dry  desert  and  sandy  hills ;  on  oar 
left,  numerous,  villages,  which  had  a  fine  view.  In 
the  same  direction,  we  visited  a  most  beautiful 
river,  which  pours  down  from  the  stream  of  Samar- 
qand,  and  fertilizes  the  neighbourhood  of  Bokhara. 
The  villages  are  numerous,  from  the  fertility  of  the 

Jvly  25.— An  early  march  brought  us  to  Mira- 


bad,  where  there  is  a  scarcity  of  water.  Our  route 
was  very  pleasant,  and  our  eyes  were  refreshed  by 
viewing  the  verdure  which  adorned  and  beautified 
the  land.  The  earth  is  richly  cultivated,  on  account 
of  less  duties  being  taken  by  the  king,  and  of  the 
vigilance  of  the  husbandmen.  It  is  covered  with 
numerous  lines  of  small  mud  forts,  which  stand 
on  extensive  green  fields. 

Jvly  26,  27. — We  halted  at  Mirabad,  and  were 
informed  that  Alah  Quli  Khan,  the  ruler  of  Khiva, 
had  fixed  his  camp  in  Marv,  through  which  the 
caravan  must  pass  on  its  way,  and  very  likely  be 
robbed,  and  have  to  pay  him  half  the  value  of  the 
goods.  A  rumour  also  prevailed  among  the  people, 
that  two  thousand  of  his  camels  had  perished,  for 
need  of  water. 

Jvly  28  to  31. — We  continued  in  Mirabad,  wait- 
ing the  departure  of  the  Hurganji  to  his  capital,  as 
none  of  the  caravans  dared  venture  to  set  out  while 
he  was  on  the  road  to  Marv.  He  took  by  force  a 
quantity  of  commodities  from  the  first  qafila.  All 
the  merchants  thought  of  going  back  to  Bokhara, 
and  living  .  there  till  they  got  an  answer  from 
Mohammed  Mir  Beg  Yuz  Bashi,  the  collector  of 
Marv,  to  whom  they  wrote,  that  if  he  entertained 
any  views  of  justice,  and  of  encouraging  trade,  they 
would  move  to  Mashad,  and  pay  him  the  usual 
duties;  otherwise,  on  receiving  the  answer,  they 
would  go  back  to  Bokhara,  and  wait  for  a  better 



Augtist  1  to  5. — We  continued  at  Mirabad,  and 
heard  that  the  king  of  Bokhara  had  summoned  all 
his  chiefs,  and  remarked  to  them,  that  so  long  as 
the  Hurganji  encamped  in  Marv,  the  caravan  of 
Mashad  could  never  expect  security  in  their  jour- 
ney ;  and,  being  exasperated,  he  turned  to  his  cour- 
tiers, and  said,  he  would  not  endure  the  tyranny  of 
that  oppressor  of  the  poor  merchants,  who  were 
the  source  of  riches  in  every  country.  These  words 
prompted  two  of  his  resolute  chiefs  (who  commanded 
5,000  smart  cavalry)  to  gratify  their  monarch,  by 
attacking  the  Hurganji ;  but,  in  the  meantime, 
Alah  Quli  Khan  returned  to  Khiva. 

Augmt  6  to  13. — We  still  remained  in  Mirabad, 
and  were  informed  that  the  Hurganji  had  moved 
to  his  capital,  but  had  left  a  body  of  2,000  horse- 
men on  the  road  to  Mashad,  near  Marv,  protected 
by  a  small  fort,  which  he  had  newly  built. 

The  Jfemales  in  this  place  are  very  simple.  They 
believed  my  servant  to  be  a  girl,  as  he  had  long 
hair,  like  themselves,  which  is  not  the  custom  with 
their  males. 

Aiytist  14.  Mirabad. — We  were  happy  to  receive 
the  Indian  newspapers,  through  the  kindness  of  M. 
AUard.  They  contained  a  great  deal  of  informa- 
tion, and  inquiries  about  Mr.  Moorcroft ;  whether 
he  had  reached  the  city  of  Bokhara,  or  had  died  on 
his  way  ?  On  learning  this,  I  thought  it  incumbent 
upon  me  to  write  a  few  words  about  his  fate. 

This  enterprising,  but  unfortunate  traveller  was 


received  by  the  king  of  Bokhara  with  honour  and 
distinction,  on  account  of  his  wealth  and  respect- 
ability as  a  merchant ;  and  having  made  presents  to 
the  king,  he  was  permitted  to  ride  within  the  city 
on  horseback,  and  to  enjoy  other  privileges  which 
were  denied  to  us.  It  was  after  his  return  from 
Bokhara,  and  when  he  was  proceeding  in  search 
of  Turkman  horses  in  the  district  of  Balk,  at 
Andkho,  that  he  was  attacked  by  fever,  and  died. 
The  circumstances  attending  his  decease,  though 
not  of  a  suspicious  nature,  yet  are  not  sufficiently 
clear  to  dispel  all  doubts ;  but  the  most  reasonable 
conclusion  is,  that  his  death  was  natural.  The 
people  of  England,  and  even  those  of  India,  have 
but  a  iaint  idea  of  the  vast  fatigue  and  labour  of 
Mr.  Moorcroft,  or  of  the  multiplied  hardships  and 
difficulties  which  beset  him,  from  the  beginning  to 
the  end  of  his  long  journey,  and  which  even  con- 
tinued to  pursue  him  beyond  the  grave,  as  his 
remains  were  scarcely  allowed  a  burial-place  at 
Balk,  owing  to  the  bigoted  zeal  of  the  inhabitants. 

Mr.  Moorcroft  has  left  a  name  of  humanity  and 
wisdom,  that  vdll  long  be  remembered  in  Turkistan ; 
and  future  travellers  will  recollect,  with  feelings 
of  pride,  that  the  English  character  was  first  rightly 
estimated  in  those  distant  regions  by  the  noble 
conduct  of  that  lamented  individual,  who  braved 
every  kind  of  danger  for  the  honour  and  interests  of 
his  country,  and  terminated  his  life  in  that  cause. 
Mr.  Moorcroft's   books,   papers,  and  some   manu- 


scripts,  are  at  Mazar,  a  town  about  twelve  miles 
east  of  Balk.  I  regret  that  we  could  make  no 
attempt  (without  risking  suspicion  of  our  motives) 
to  procure  them.  Many  of  Mr.  Moorcroft's  papers 
and  journals  have  been  recovered  by  the  exertions 
of  Mr.  Fraser,  at  Delhi,  and  by  him  arranged,  and 
sent  to  Calcutta.  It  struck  us  as  singular,  that  the 
first  notice  of  his  labours  should  be  communicated 
to  us  at  the  very  spot  where  his  adventures  occur- 
red, and  that  we  should  read  such  pleasing  intelli- 
gence in  the  renowned  city  of  Bokhara.  It  was 
more  gratifying  from  its  having  been  sent  to  us  by 
M.  Allard,  and  being  the  only  home  news  we  have 
received  since  crossing  the  Indus. 

Augtist  15. — A  few  days  before  our  leaving  Mira- 
bad,  rumours  reached  us  of  the  approach  of  a 
Russian  embassy  to  Bokhara,  and  that  the  whole 
population  of  that  city  was  in  terror  and  confusion. 
These  reports  appear  to  have  been  premature,  as 
nothing  further  has  been  heard  of  it.  An  envoy, 
however,  was  expected  at  Bokhara,  and  sooner  or 
later  may  arrive.  The  last  mission  from  the  court 
of  St.  Petersburg,  I  believe,  was  in  1820,  and,  as 
far  as  I  could  learn,  it  was  not  received  with  any 
conspicuous  favour.  The  people  of  Bokhara  are 
evidently  timid,  and  having  an  interest  in  the  trade 
with  Russia,  they  do  not  discourage  intercourse  with 
that  nation,  but  they  greatly  fear  her  power.  The 
Russians,  on  the  other  hand,  treat  the  Uzbegs  with 
contempt,  which  tends  to  create  a  mutual  dislike. 


If  the  English  Government  would  come  forward, 
and  establish  relations  with  Bokhara,  either  commer- 
cial or  political,  it  would  acquire  the  good-will  and 
confidence  of  those  remote  nations,  which,  in  case  of 
war  with  Russia,  would  become  our  allies.  There 
is  no  other  power  likely  to  anticipate  our  intentions 
at  present;  but  no  time  ought  to  be  lost.  The 
Qosh  Begi,  the  minister,  behayed  to  us  in  a  man- 
ner that  leaves  no  room  to  doubt  his  sincerity. 
He  said  that^English  chintzes  would  be  very  accept- 
able articles  of  trade. 

August  16- — We  set  out  for  Mashad,  in  company 
with  a  caravan  which  consisted  of  fiffcy  camels. 
Our  course  lay  till  eve  over  a  country  which  was 
naturally  dry,  but  improved  a  good  deal  by  the 
industry  and  skill  of  the  husbandmen.  The  produc- 
tions of  these  cultivated  places  are  not,  however,  suf- 
ficient to  supply  the  neighbouring  towns,  when  they 
suffer  a  dearth.  The  deserts  now  came  in  sight, 
and  we  were  surprised  to  see  the  sandy  hills  shifting 
their  situation  by  the  violence  of  the  wind.  Near 
sunset  we  reached  Ardal,  a  barren  village,  thinly 
peopled.  Here  there  was  a  mud  fort,  beautifully 
constructed,  which  indicated  the  existence  of  mili- 
tary art  among  this  savage  tribe. 

August  17. — A  march  in  the  night  brought  us 
through  the  sandy  deserts,  where  there  was  neither 
vegetation  nor  water.  We  several  times  lost  the 
proper  road,  though  we  were  escorted  by  Turkmans. 
The  route  is  veiy  fiitiguing  on  account  of  the  deep 


sand,  which  is  unfavourable  for  carts.  Before  we 
arrived  at  the  bank  of  the  Oxus,  we  proposed  to 
direct  our  course  through  a  long  chain  of  beautiful 
villages,  in  which  a  number  of  trees  and  verdant 
spots  appeared.  Irrigation  was  supplied  by  rivulets 
of  muddy  water  branching  from  the  river. 

Having  crossed  the  Oxus,  at  the  ferry  named 
Betik,  we  entered  the  territory  of  Khorasan,  the 
greater  part  of  which  is  ruled  by  Fatah  Ali  Shah. 
We  put  up  on  the  bank,  which  was  covered  vrfth 
bushes.  There  were  three  currents  in  the  river, 
which  were  crossed  by  three  boats.  The  depth  of 
the  main  stream,  on  measurement,  was  found  to  be 
four  and  a  half  fathoms.  Nadir  Shah,  on  invading 
Bokhara,  constructed  a  bridge  across  the  Oxus,  near 
a  place  called  Kiliif,  two  marches  west  of  that  city ; 
the  chains  of  iron  which  were  used  in  it  are  still  de- 
posited in  the  Bokhara  magazine ;  they  are  very 
thick.  Thirty  boats  are  sufficient  to  form  a  bridge 
across  the  river  in  this  season ;  but  in  time  of  snow, 
double  that  number  is  required.  Each  boat  is  rowed 
by  two  men,  who  exert  a  great  deal  of  strength. 
They  cross  the  river  four  times  a  day,  though  thefe 
are  shoals  in  many  places.  The  last  winter  was 
so  severe  here,  that  this  magnificent  river  was 
frozen  up  for  three  months,  and  all  the  caravans 
passed  over  it  on  the  ice. 

August  18. — Having  followed  the  left  bank,  we 
reached  Charju,  a  distance  of  nine  miles.  Our  route 
lay  amongst  the  natural  plants  of  aslasstis,  which 


extended  as  far  as  the  limit  of  human  vision.  The 
neighbourhood  of  the  river  has  been  highly  favoured 
by  the  branching  streams,  which  run  very  sharply, 
to  quench  the  thirst  of  the  fields  and  increase  the 
wealth  of  the  inhabitants.  We  passed  over  many 
brooks  on  small  wooden  bridges,  which  were  too 
dangerous  and  tottering  for  the  feet  of  the  camels. 

August  19,  20. — We  remained  at  Charju,  for 
the  purpose  of  reposing  ourselves  and  of  purchasing 
provisions  for  our  future  journey.  I  went  to  the 
bazar  to  gratify  my  curiosity ;  but  there  were  only  a 
few  shops,  which  had  manufactures  of  silk.  The 
merchants  were  all  Jews.  On  Monday  a  market 
was  held,  and  I  set  out  with  great  pleasure  to  see  it. 
I  apparelled  myself  like  an  Uzbeg,  concealing  my 
hair,  which  is  the  peculiar  mark  by  which  a  man  of 
a  different  nation  in  Turkistan  is  recognized.  I 
saw  a  respectable  man  sitting  in  a  shop,  who  called 
to  me,  "  O  MuUdy  Sddm  Alaiham^  and  after  a  little 
talk,  he  brought  a  cup  of  tea  boiled  with  milk,  and 
wished  me  to  drink.  I  made  an  apology  for  de- 
clining, telling  him  that  I  was  last  night  attacked 
with  fever,  and  that  the  drinking  of  tea  might  in- 
crease my  illness.  He  replied,  "  Very  well ;  you 
are  right." 

Charju  produces  a  great  quantity  of  melons,  of  a 
new  kind  and  a  peculiar  taste.  I  procured  some 
seeds  to  carry  with  me  to  India.  The  bazar  was 
full  of  Turkmans,  with  black  caps  on  their  heads, 
who  had  a  savage  countenance. 


Charju  is  called  the  western  boundary  of  Bokhara, 
and  is  ruled  by  the  sovereign  of  that  city.  It  is  a 
small  town,  but  has  a  magnificent  mud  fort,  sur- 
roimded  by  a  very  large  ditch.  The  houses  in  the 
fort  amount  to  about  2,000,  but  most  of  them  are 
uninhabited  and  nearly  falling  to  the  ground.  All 
the  structures  are  composed  of  mud  and  bambus. 
The  public  granaries  and  arsenals  are  abundantly 
supplied.  The  walls  are  not  strong ;  the  engines 
for  firing  on  the  enemy  are  placed  along  the  walls ; 
the  garrison  is  poor  and  miserable. 

August  21. — We  left  Charju  in  the  afternoon, 
and  passed  through  a  rich  country.  We  were 
amused  at  the  sight  of  horses  used  (instead  of  bul- 
locks) for  tilling  and  watering  the  fields.  We  passed 
a  few  rivulets,  and  afterwards  fell  into  the  dry 
mouth  of  a  perfect  dasht  (desert).  We  halted  in  a 
waterless  place,  or  chuly  nine  miles  distant. 

On  our  route  we  happened  to  meet  seven  miser- 
able individuals,  who  had  been  made  slaves  by 
Turkmans,  and  were  on  their  way  to  the  market  of 
Bokhara  for  sale.  Two  of  them  were  young  and 
beautifiil  boys,  and  others  had  long  beards.  The 
poor  souls  were  forced  by  the  cruel  Turkmans  to 
walk  on  foot,  without  shoes,  in  such  a  fiery  desert. 
Their  hands  and  necks  were  fisistened  together  in  a 
line  with  a  long  iron  chain,  which  was  very  heavy 
and  troublesome  to  their  bare  necks.  They  were 
crying,  and  appeared  to  be  exhausted  with  hunger 
and  thirst,  while  their  oppressive  drivers  were  deaf 


to  their  entreaties.  They  were  Shias,  and  inhabi- 
tants of  Qayan,  a  place  in  Persia.  They  saluted  us, 
shedding  a  flood  of  tears  at  the  same  time.  Mr. 
Barnes  gave  them  a  melon,  which  quenched  their 
thirst  a  little.  It  was  a  very  dreadful  sight  indeed, 
and  I  was  astonished  to  think  how  hard  were  the 
hearts  of  the  Turkmans. 

I  am  proud  of  the  customs  and  laws  of  the  English 
Government,  which  is  an  enemy  to  slavery.  In  my 
humble  opinion,  the  enslaving  of  people  will  soon 
bring  an  enlightened  nation  to  rule  in  this  country, 
where  the  laws  savour  of  nothing  but  despotism,  and 
are  framed  according  to  the  will  of  a  despot. 

August  22. — We  passed  the  whole  night  in  tra- 
velling through  a  sandy  desert,  which  I  am  informed 
lies  as  far  as  the  ancient  place  called  Marv.  We  saw 
not  a  single  drop  of  water  in  the  road,  and  encamped 
in  a  chul,  named  Qaraval,  eighteen  miles  distant. 
Here  was  an  old  roofed  well,  which  had  not  much 
sweet  water.  Trees  of  Jahu  appeared  on  every 
side ;  their  wood  is  used  for  fuel. 

August  23.  —  Our  march  continued  at  night 
through  the  barren  desert,  where  no  tree  was  to  be 
seen.  The  road  was  very  bad  for  the  poor  animals, 
from  the  sandy  cliffs  which  intersected  it,  though  it 
had  a  noble  appearance  at  a  distance.  There  were 
many  natural  arches  of  sand,  which  looked  very  beau- 
tiful, and  the  sand,  I  was  informed,  resembled  that  of 
the  sea-shore,  and  in  some  places  it  was  up  to  the 
knees  of  our  camels.     The  road  is  not  marked,  and 


on  this  account  every  caravan  is  obliged  to  take  a 
Turkman  as  a  guide,  who  goes  in  the  dark,  without 
mistaking  the  path,  by  the  help  of  the  stars.  We 
halted  in  a  chul  called  Bilqowa,  a  distance  of  ten 
miles.  We  passed  on  the  road  a  very  high  menar, 
celebrated  by  the  name  of  Lata  menar,  where,  on 
account  of  the  heat  of  the  day,  a  quantity  of  blood 
flowed  from  my  nose. 

August  24. — We  took  our  departure  about  mid- 
night, and  travelled  through  a  sandy  desert,  where 
we  did  not  see  a  single  bird.  All  the  road  was  des- 
titute of  water,  and  we  were  now  among  a  barbarous 
race  of  Turkmans,  and  were  obliged  to  take  great 
precaution  in  concealing  our  real  character.  We 
hid  our  cooking-pots,  which  would  have  appeared 
very  strange  to  their  eyes,  and  satisfied  ourselves  with 
dry  and  stale  victuals,  which  made  me  very  unwell. 
We  put  up  in  a  chul,  eighteen  miles,  where  there 
was  a  scarcity  of  water. 

August  25. — A  march  in  the  night  of  eighteen 
miles  brought  us  to  a  dasht  (or  desert),  called  Sairab, 
which  contained  three  wells  of  salt-water.  The 
road  continued  as  yesterday.  We  saw  two  dead 
camels  on  the  way,  which  perhaps  fell  a  sacrifice  to 

August  26. — We  journeyed  at  night  over  a  level 
ground,  which  seemed  to  be  fruitfiil.  On  our  route 
we  passed  by  a  well  which  contained  tolerably  good 
water,  and  after  eight  hours  we  reached  Uzkhu,  a 
distance  of  eighteen  miles.     There  were  two  tents 


of  Tarkmans,  who  came  to  see  our  caravan,  and 
laughed  at  us. 

August  27. — We  moved  at  night  over  a  table- 
land ;  our  road  was  betwixt  the  wells  inclosed  by 
walled  villages,  which  presented  nothing  but  a  heap 
of  ruins  and  dust.  We  encamped  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Marv  river,  in  a  place  called  Shah 
Rukh,  a  distance  of  sixteen  miles.  Here  were  about 
sixty  tents  of  Turkmans,  regularly  formed,  which 
had  a  beautiful  appearance.  All  the  Turkmans, 
with  their  little  ones,  came  to  see  the  qafila,  but 
we  hid  ourselves  in  our  camel-baskets.  This  part 
of  the  country  is  known  by  the  name  of  Marv, 
which  was  once  a  very  populous  town.  It  was  for- 
merly under  the  Persian  yoke,  and  latterly  has 
been  governed  by  Bokhara ;  but  the  weakness  of 
the  latter  city  invited  the  barbarous  ruler  of  Khiva 
over  to  invade  and  to  command  that  ancient  place. 
The  first  inhabitants  of  Marv  were  all  Qizal  Bash, 
who  live  now  in  Bokhara. 

The  city  of  Marv,  which  was  surrounded  by  nu- 
merous tents  of  Turkmans,  is  ruined  by  the  negli- 
gence of  the  present  ruler. 

August  29. — We  continued  at  Shah  Rukh : 
here  the  officers  of  the  Khiva  custom-house  came 
and  took  duties  from  the  merchants,  who  gladly 
paid  six  and  a  half  rupees,  or  a  tila,  upon  goods  of 
265  rupees  value.  They  are  very  simple  in  their 
searching,  and  even  in  their  laws,  as  they  neither 
examine  the  merchandise  nor   count  the  loads   of 


the  camels.  They  believed  what  the  merchants 
said  to  them,  and  took  what  they  gave  them.  We 
were  told  by  our  companions  to  hide  ourselves  from 
their  eyes,  as  they  were  foes  to  Europeans,  In 
the  territory  of  Khiva,  travellers  are  often  deprived 
of  their  property,  and  even  of  their  life, 

August  29. — We  set  out  early  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  passed  over  rich  ground.  The  huts  of  the 
Turkmans  extended  as  far  as  our  eyes  reached. 
They  do  not  cultivate  more  than  suflSces  for  their 
own  wants.  The  productions  are  wheat,  maki 
javar,  melons,  &c.  The  females  are  very  hand- 
some, fair,  and  of  good  size.  Their  dress,  and 
even  their  bonnets,  which  resembled  that  of  Eu- 
ropean ladies,  added  splendour  to  their  beauty. 
We  were  ascending  very  high  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  river,  expecting  to  have  a  place  to  ford  over,  as 
there  was  no  boat  on  the  stream.  Along  our  route 
were  green  bushes,  in  which  we  saw  herds  of 
camels,  horses,  and  sheep,  feeding.  Their  drivers 
were  slaves,  burnt  with  the  sun,  and  suffering  both 
hunger  and  thirst. 

A  good  breed  of  smart  horses  cover  the  face  of 
this  country,  and  are  fed  with  great  care.  We 
crossed  the  river  at  noon  on  camels,  and  let  our 
horses  swim  up  the  current.  The  river  may  be 
crossed  on  a  bridge,  constructed  of  two  small  boats; 
it  is  not  rapid,  but  deep  in  many  places.  This 
water  bears  also  the  name  of  the  Tajan  river,  when 
it  reaches  that  country,  and  then  falls  into   the 


0x118.  We  baited  on  the  left  bank  (thirteen  miles 
distant),  which  was  oyerrun  by  a  jangal  of  Jahu 

August  30. — We  followed  the  left  bank  of  the 
MaiT  river,  and  journeyed  through  a  jangaL  Our 
route  began  gradually  to  be  agreeable :  we  passed 
through  a  flourishing  tract,  adorned  with  green 
crops  and  the  tents  of  Turkmans,  whose  labours  in 
cultivation,  with  which  they  are  familiar,  were  pro- 
ductive. The  brooks  of  water  branching  from  the 
river  enriched  the  fields.  The  Turkmans  have  not 
much  money,  but  possess  a  considerable  number  of 
fot  dumbas  (sheep),  fine  horses,  and  strong  camels, 
which  they  call  treasure :  every  family  is  furnished 
with  about  200  or  300  quadrupeds. 

We  reached  Marv,  a  distance  of  sixteen  miles, 
where  we  were  surrounded  by  a  swarm  of  savage 
Turkmans,  who  looked  at  us  with  wondering  eyes. 
We  met  three  taking  a  slave  to  Bokhara  for  sale. 
He  was  indulgently  allowed  to  ride  on  horseback 
behind  one  of  the  Turkmans ;  the  other  two  were 
stationed  one  on  each  side,  lest  he  might  run 

August  31. — We  recommenced  our  journey 
towards  Sarakhs,  and  passed  on  our  road  two  dry, 
large  roofed  wells,  dug  by  Abdullah  Khan.  One 
of  them  was  placed  before  the  door  of  a  handsome 
structure,  which  had  fallen  into  decay.  There  was 
lying  on  the  ground  the  corpse  of  a  man  cut  in  two 
pieces,  supposed  to  be  a  Turkman,  killed,  perhaps, 


when  asleep,  by  his  slave,  who  escaped  to  his  native 
country  with  the  horse  and  arms  belonging  to  his 

We  saw  nine  wells  on  the  way,  which  were  filled 
with  dirt.  We  had  loaded  two  camels  with  water 
at  our  last  station,  with  which  we  allayed  our  thirst 
in  this  parched  desert.  We  put  up  in  a  chul, 
called  Bacha  Bagh,  eighteen  miles  distant. 

September  1. — We  continued  our  march  in  the 
night  through  a  jangal  of  large  and  thorny  bushes  : 
we  saw  no  animals  excepting  two  hares.  On  our 
left  hand,  we  had  a  grand  sight  of  the  Mashad 
hills,  and  also  of  the  mirage^  or  surab,  which  was  in 
the  same  direction.  There  was  no  water  on  the 
road,  nor  any  where  we  encamped.  We  put  up  in 
a  parched  plain,  twenty-two  miles  distant  irom  our 
last  station. 

September  2. — A  march  of  thirteen  hours,  or 
twenty-eight  miles,  brought  us  to  Sarakhs,  where 
we  gave  water  to  our  poor  animals,  which  had  had 
none  for  two  days.  We  met  on  the  way  a  dry 
well,  and  three  robbers  on  horseback,  with  spears 
in  their  hands.  Their  horses  were  of  beautiful 
symmetry.  They  remarked  to  our  guides  that 
they  had  just  returned  from  the  frontier  of  Persia 
disappointed,  not  having  been  able  to  seize  an 
asir,  or  slave.  They  also  said  that  their  party 
consisted  of  seven  persons,  four  of  whom  were 
seized  by  Qizal  Bash,  in  an  attack,  from  whom 
they  had  escaped  with  great  difficulty.     At  eve  we 


saw  again  four  robbers,  returning  in  the  same 
manner,  dejected,  from  Masbad.  Their  aspect, 
manners,  and  conversation  with  our  party,  evinced 
that  they  were  Alamans. 

Our  road  for  some  distance  lay  through  cane- 
plantations,  and  then  over  a  table-land,  as  we  were 
descending  into  a  very  law  country. 

Sept  3,  4. — We  remained  at  Sarakhs,  which 
is  a  very  large  place,  inhabited  by  Turkmans,  who 
live  now  independent ;  they  have  been  occasion- 
ally subject  to  the  ruler  of  Khiva,  and  very  rarely 
to  that  of  Mashad.  They  have  elected  among 
themselves  a  jury  of  twelve  persons,  and  have  con- 
sented to  be  guided  by  their  advice,  and  that 
justice  should  be  administered  in  their  name.  They 
are  called  dqsaqdl,  which  means,  in  Turki,  *  silver 
beard.'  There  are  very  few  houses,  which  are  of 
mud,  irregularly  built.  The  Turkmans  occupy  small 
and  fine  reed  tents,  which  are  beautifully  adorned 
inside  with  silken  flowers ;  they  stretched  over  an 
extensive  plain,  and  numbered  about  3,000.  The 
Turkmans  make  the  doors  of  their  tents  opposite 
each  other,  by  which  means  they  generally  have  an 
open  square  between  them.  Sarakhs  contains  fifty 
Jews  and  one  Hindu,  who  are  employed  in  traffic. 
There  are  about  1,500  Qizal  Bash  slaves,  a  great 
number  of  whom  are  chained,  like  criminals.  The 
beauty  of  the  slave-girls  (who  are  not  less  than  a 
thousand)  exposes  them  to  the  brutality  of  the 
Turkmans  and  their  guests. 



Sarakhs  contains  two  mud  forts,  neatly  built,  one 
of  which  is  situated  upon  a  rising  ground ;  it  sends 
4,000  horsemen  in  time  of  war,  but  they  make  no 
great  stand,  even  against  an  inferior  enemy.  They 
have  no  large  guns.  Mr.  Wolff,  the  missionary, 
was  taken  a  prisoner  by  the  people  of  Sarakhs,  and 
released  after  two  days,  not  being  considered  of 
much  value,  as  he  told  us,  in  Kabul. 

Sept  5  to  7. — Through  fear  of  700  Alamans,  who 
lately  went  to  attack  the  suburbs  of  Mashad,  our 
caravan  stopped  in  Sarakhs,  where  we  were  also 
frightened  by  a  Turkman,  who  took  us  for  spies ; 
but  he  was  conciliated  by  a  small  present.  We 
concealed  our  papers,  and  ceased  to  write,  or  even 
speak  with  each  other. 

We  heard  that  the  Persian  ambassador,  on  his 
way  to  Herat,  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Alamans 
of  Sarakhs,  who  always  plunder  on  that  road.  He 
was  lodged  in  a  tent,  like  other  prisoners,  but  not 
so  badly  treated.  This  shews  the  spirit  of  the 
Turkmans,  who  dared  to  seize  even  the  ambassador 
of  Persia,  while  Abbas  Mirza  was  himself  present, 
at  the  head  of  an  army,  in  Mashad. 

Sept  8,  9. — We  were  in  Sarakhs,  upon  the  return 
of  the  Alamans  from  Mashad :  their  booty  consisted 
of  115  slaves.  Our  pity  was  excited  by  the  shrieks 
of  the  poor  children,  some  of  whom  were  deprived 
of  their  clothes.  What  a  weak  spirit  the  Persian 
ruler  shews,  in  not  checking  this  cruel  practice  of 
the  Turkmans,  who,   after  several  days'  journey. 

FROM    BOKHARA   TO    MASH  AD.  163 

make  inroads  into  the  heart  of  the  Mashad  territory, 
and  always  return  with  impunity  ! 

The  pony  of  Mr.  Bumes,  which  was  a  great 
£BiYOurite  of  his,  was  stolen  in  the  night,  and  we 
were  afraid  to  complain  to  the  aqsaqal,  as  we  might 
be  known. 

Sept  lO, — We  were  distressed  to  hear  the  screams 
of  the  slaves,  who  came  to  the  grave  of  a  saint, 
adjoining  our  camp,  imploring  his  mercy  for  their 
release.  Grief  makes  men  foolish,  or  they  would 
have  tried  some  means  to  escape,  rather  than  have 
recourse  to  a  dead  body,  which  can  never  set  them 

Previous  to  our  arrival  at  Sarakhs,  a  slave,  having 
found  a  good  opportunity,  laid  his  master  and  wife 
dead  on  the  bed,  mounted  a  smart  horse,  and  ran 
away  at  midnight  to  Mashad.  This  circumstance 
caused  all  the  Turkmans  to  be  cautious  of  their 
slaves,  and  also  to  treat  them  severely. 

Sept.  11. — We  moved  from  Sarakhs  early  in  the 
morning,  and  having  traversed  an  extensive  plain, 
halted  in  a  desert,  destitute  of  water,  at  twenty 
miles'  distance.  At  eve  we  were  joined  by  some 
horsemen  of  Sarakhs,  who  came  to  convey  us  as  far 
as  Darband  Muzdaran,  a  range  of  high  hills,  which 
ran  between  Khorasan  and  Persia.  The  robbers 
generally  conceal  themselves  in  the  cavities  of  this 
mountain,  and  attack  the  caravans  suddenly.  To 
guard  against  an  incident  of  this  kind,  all  the  people 
of  the  qafila  loaded  their  guns,  and  drew  sharp- 



edged  swords,  and  thns  we  began  to  travel.  We 
passed  the  dry  bed  of  a  large  stream,  which,  in 
spring,  rises  from  Herat,  and  washes  the  base  of  the 
Mashad  hills.  Jahu  plants  cover  the  ground,  which 
are  used  as  fuel. 

Sept  12. — A  march  in  the  night  led  us  by  a  fine 
and  clear  rivulet,  in  which  grass  was  growing  six 
feet  high.  We  ascended  the  range  of  the  Muzdaran 

Our  route  was  very  pleasant,  being  through  green 
valleys,  in  which  were  different-coloured  pebbles. 
At  the  base  of  the  Darband  is  situated  a  fort,  which 
was  formerly  held  by  the  Persians,  but  now  is  fallen 
to  decay,  from  the  continual  attacks  of  the  Turk- 
mans. There  is  a  fine  garden  in  its  vicinity,  which 
convinced  me  that  Persia  must  be  a  more  agreeable 
country  than  the  dry  regions  of  Turkistan.  The 
orchard  is  furnished  with  a  fountain,  which  throws 
out  hot  water,  owing,  it  is  said,  to  a  miracle  wrought 
by  Hazrat  Ali.  There  was  formerly  a  Persian 
guard,  to  protect  passengers  fr^m  the  Alamans ;  but 
a  few  days  ago  they  were  invaded  by  the  Turkmans, 
and  deprived  of  their  horses.  The  guard,  being 
unable  to  contend  with  them  any  longer,  fled  to 

We  halted  in  an  open  field,  twenty-six  miles  dis- 
tant, which  was  surrounded  at  a  distance  by  hills, 
and  adorned  by  a  beautiful  brook. 

Sept  13. — We  travelled  all  night  through  the 
barren  hills,  and  the  dawn  of  day  was  anxiously 


expected  by  the  whole  party,  who  appeared  tired  of 
the  dark.  We  reached  a  fertile  spot,  a  distance  of 
thirty  miles,  where  we  rested  till  evening,  and  then 
passed  on  our  road  through  many  villages  spoiled  by 

Tibris,  a  fine  walled  village,  contains  very  few 
inhabitants,  who  are  harassed  by  the  Tartars.  Some 
time  ago  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Alamans,  and  most 
of  the  residents  made  slaves.  On  our  approach,  the 
villagers  ran  up  to  us,  shedding  a  flood  of  tears,  and 
called  at  once  ^^  Aglm^  Salam  Alai  kumf'  One 
was  inquiring  about  his  daughter,  son,  and  vnfe ; 
and  another,  about  his  brother,  sister,  and  father,  in 
the  hope  of  receiving  a  satisfactory  answer,  which 
we  could  not  give,  respecting  their  relations  detained 
in  slavery. 

About  midnight,  when  winding  our  way  along 
the  bank  of  a  small  stream,  amongst  long  grass,  and 
in  a  dreary  valley,  we  were  suddenly  alarmed  by 
the  cry  of  *'  Alamans,"  upon  which  the  caravan 
quickened  its  pace,  and  collected  together  in  a 
compact  circle :  all  the  camels  were  sitting  down, 
trembling,  as  if  aware  of  the  danger.  We  expected 
to  be  attacked  by  Turkmans :  our  horsemen,  con- 
sequently, formed  themselves  into  a  line  in  front ; 
but  after  waiting  a  short  time,  we  were  agreeably 
garprised  to  find  that  there  were  no  robbers,  and 
the  people  we  suspected  were  families  returning 
home,  who  were  also  afraid  of  us.  The  spot  where 
this  occurred  was  very  wild,  and  fitted  for  a  chapaw, 


or  attack ;  and  as  a  large  body  of  Alamans  had 
lately  been  plundering  near  Mashad,  we  had  some 
cause  for  alarm.  This  gave  me  an  opportunity  of 
seeing  the  manner  in  which  the  preparations  for  the 
defence  of  a  caravan  were  made.  The  scene  was 
rather  interesting  than  otherwise,  as  several  of 
our  party  had  pistols  without  powder,  and  blunt 
swords,  without  courage  to  fight ;  so  that,  had  we 
been  really  attacked,  much  confusion  and  noise  must 
have  arisen  from  those  foolish  would-be  heroes. 

Sept  14. — A  journey  in  the  night  brought  us  to 
the  holy  city  of  Mashad,  where  we  found  the  gates 
shut  up  till  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning.  This 
custom  continued  for  a  long  time,  on  account  of  the 
great  fear  of  the  Alamans,  who  generally  attack  the 
place  the  very  moment  the  sun  rises. 

On  our  approach  to  the  city,  the  people  came  to 
visit  the  caravan ;  they  were  all  beautifully  shaped 
arid  dressed,  which  put  us  in  mind  of  the  showy 
people  in  India.  We  got  first  into  an  Uzbeg  sarae  ; 
but  having  no  room  there,  we  were  obliged  to  go  to 
another,  which  was  next  to  it.  Though  the  sarae 
was  very  small,  yet  it  was  thickly  peopled  by  cloth- 

I  attempted  to  examine  the  bath  at  Mashad^ 
where  none  but  Mohammedans  are  allowed  to 
enter.  I  nearly  risked  my  character,  as  the  mer- 
chants, who  suspected  me  to  be  a  Christian,  in  the 
late  journey,  were  present ;  but,  luckily  for  me,  they 
could  not  recognize  me  in  the  Persian  attire,  which 


I  bad  purposely  put  on.  I  bathed,  and  was  rubbed 
with  a  hairy  bag  by  a  barber  so  swiftly,  that  I  felt 
my  body  very  light  and  healthy. 

Sept.  15.  Mashad.  — We  were  called  upon  by 
Mrs.  Shee,  an  Armenian  lady,  who,  after  the  death 
of  her  former  Mohammedan  husband,  embraced 
Christianity,  and  married  Captain  Shoe.  She  gave 
us  a  house  near  her  own  residence,  and  entertained 
us  with  extreme  civility.  Captain  Shoe  at  that  time 
was  absent  at  Qochan. 

In  the  evening,  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the 
holy  tomb  of  Imam  Raza,  which  exceeds  all  my 
powers  of  praise. 

The  mosque  is  a  very  noble  edifice ;  it  is  situated 
on  the  right  of  the  Hazrat.  There  were  many  per- 
sons there,  arranged  in  rows,  who  were  ardently  en- 
gaged in  their  evening  prayers,  and  I  imitated  them. 
The  mode  of  praying  with  these  people  is  quite  dif- 
ferent from  that  of  the  Indian  Shias.  Their  hands 
hang  down  to  their  knees,  and  their  prayers  begin 
and  end  in  the  name  of  ^^  Amir  ul  Mominin  AH  an 
vdi  UUah^  which  I  never  heard  in  India.  When  I 
finished  the  prayers,  as  the  other  people  did,  I  had 
the  honour  to  enter  the  room  where  the  holy  body  of 
the  Imam  reposes.  The  place  was  full  of  men,  and 
had  a  very  magnificent  and  awful  appearanca  The 
room  was  lighted  up  by  chandeliers,  which  brightened 
every  spot.  At  the  head  of  the  Imam  was  a  party 
of  old  and  respectable  Sayads,  who  were  engaged  in 
the  perusal  of  the  Koran. 


The  door  of  the  room,  where  all  the  people  are 
obliged  to  prostrate  themBelves,  is  almost  entirely 
made  of  silver.  On  my  entering  through  the  cell,  a 
man  with  a  green  turban  came  to  me  and  said, "  Your 
pilgrimage  to  Hazrat  will  be  acceptable,  if  you  tell 
ine  to  recite  the  Ziyarat  Namah  in  your  name 
before  the  grave,"  which  he  said  was  an  important 
duty  for  the  pilgrims.  I  gave  him  a  couple  of 
qaran,  or  silver  coins,  on  which  he  first  brought  me 
near  the  Pinjrah,  a  room  made  of  gold  and  silver 
sticks,  and  then  told  me  to  kiss  the  lock  which 
hung  upon  the  door.  The  lock  is  opened  twice  in  a 
year,  for  the  purpose  of  taking  out  the  money  which 
the  pilgrims  throw  upon  the  body  of  the  Imam, 
through  the  holes  of  the  Pinjrah,  or  cage.  The 
man  read  the  Ziyarat  Namah  on  the  four  sides  of 
the  grave;  it  contained  numerous  blessings  upon 
the  holy  souls  of  the  descendants  of  Ali,  and  the 
names  of  fourteen  Masums  and  twelve  Imams ;  and 
many  blessings  upon  their  godly  souls.  I  took  leave 
of  the  grave,  after  making  a  few  bows,  as  the  others 
did,  and  was  very  fortunate  indeed  in  not  being 
known  to  the  men  of  the  shrine  as  a  person  of 
a  different  country. 

Sept.  16  to  22. — We  paid  a  visit  to  the  young 
prince,  Khusrau  Mirza,  the  ruler  of  Mashad,  and 
had  the  pleasure  of  viewing  the  palace,  or  Arg» 
where  the  royal  family  resided.  The  place  has 
a  splendid  appearance,  but  shews  much  decay. 
The  Arg  stands  by  itself,  and  is  very  strongs  from 


being  surrounded  bj  a  deep  ditch ;  the  back  part  of 
it  is  defended  by  the  weak  wall  of  the  city.  Twelve 
gems  may  easily  take  the  Arg.  On  the  northern  part 
of  it  is  a  very  large  depot  of  all  kinds  of  military 
Mores.  A  ^irit  of  improvement  has  been  intro- 
duced there  through  the  sagacity  of  European  (^cers. 
Khusrau  Mirza,  the  younger  s<m  of  Abbas  Mirza,  is 
a  very  good-looking  prince ;  he  is  accustomed  to 
speak  quickly,  which  all  Persian  princes  think 
characteristic  of  the  royal  family.  He  in  his  early 
age  was  sent  to  St.  Petersburg,  to  make  an  apology 
for  the  murder  of  the  Russian  embassy  at  Tehran, 
which  happened  in  the  following  manner :  The  gen- 
tlemen of  the  Russian  mission  resolved  to  gain  the 
freedom  of  a  Georgian  woman,  who  had  been  taken 
a  slave,  and  sold  to  some  nobleman  at  Tehran.  In- 
stead of  applying  to  her  master,  they  determined  to 
get  her  away  by  force  when  an  opportunity  occurred. 
She  had  embraced  the  Mohammedan  religion,  and 
married  a  mah  of  rank,  by  whom  she  had  a  number 
of  children.  Though  averse  to  the  design  of  the 
Russians,  she  was  seized  on  her  way  to  the  bath. 
Upon  this  a  quarrel  took  place  among  the  Persians 
and  Russians,  and  both  parties  prepared  to  fight.  The 
Russians  fired,  and  killed  many  Persians,  who,  how- 
ever, afterwards  were  victors,  and  also  guilty  of  the 
ambassador's  murder.  The  Shah,  though  he  endea- 
voured to  prevent  the  tumult,  and  the  attack  upon 
the  persons  of  the  misdon,  could  not  control  the 
violence  of  the  people. 


On  the  arrival  of  Khusrau  Mirza  in  Russia,  the 
report  of  the  beauty  of  his  features  and  person  made 
a  great  noise ;  and  the  Empress  paid  him  a  visit, 
and  treated  him  with  great  honour  and  distinction. 
It  is  said  that  she  asked  the  prince  what  had 
induced  him  to  trouble  himself  to  make  such  a  long 
journey :  "  I  am  come  to  see  the  Emperor,  and  to 
ask  pardon  for  the  massacre  of  the  Russian  em- 
bassy," replied  the  prince.  "  The  affair  which  has 
caused  you  the  fatigue  of  such  a  long  journey  is  a 
trifle,  not  worthy  of  the  Emperor's  notice,"  was  the 
reply  of  the  Empress.  She  affected  the  prince  much 
by  procuring  the  pardon  of  the  murder  at  Tehran, 
and  by  resigning  the  claim  of  Russia  to  Tabriz,  along 
with  200,000,000  rupees,  which  the  Persians  had 
promised  to  pay  the  Russian  government,  according 
to  the  late  treaty  made  during  the  war.  The  man 
who  gave  me  this  information  told  me  (whether 
truly  or  not,  I  cannot  say)  that  the  prince  was  not 
allowed  to  see  the  Emperor  for  forty  days. 

The  inhabitants  of  Mashad  were  delighted  to 
hear  that  the  strong  fort  of  Qochan  had  been  taken. 
All  the  shops  were  decorated  with  handsome  bot- 
tles, filled  with  green  and  red  water,  which,  having 
a  lamp  placed  at  the  back  of  them,  had  a  beautiful 
appearance.  In  the  company  of  Mr.  Bumes  and 
Dr.  Gerard,  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  illu- 
mination in  the  bazar,  which  put  me  in  mind  of 
the  night  of  the  Divali,  a  particular  feast  among 
the    Indian    Hindus.      We    passed    through    the 


Khayaban  Pain,  where  we  visited  the  paper  image 
of  TJmar,  containing  fire-works,  and  which  was 
afterwards  blown  up  by  the  people,  with  the  follow- 
ing cry: 

"  j&r  bad  zat  Umar  shikast ! "  or  *  the  head  of  the 
unfaithful  Umar  is  broken ! ' 

Umar  was  one  of  the  favourites  of  Mohammed, 
and  considered  by  the  Sunnis  a  successor  of  the  pro- 
phet, which  the  Persians  do  not  believe.  This  scene 
was  strange,  and  shewed  what  bigoted  principles  the 
Persians  entertain,  compared  with  the  Sunni  sect, 
who  only  admit  the  three  friends  of  Mohammed 
to  have  succeeded  him,  while  his  heroic  son-in-law, 
named  Hazrat  Ali,  was  left  on  the  brink  of  dis- 

Sept  23. — We  quitted  Mashad  early  in  the 
morning,  and  took  the  road  to  the  camp  of 
H.  R.  H.  Abbas  Mirza.  Our  route  was  pleasant. 
The  villages  are  surrounded  with  mud  walls,  which 
looked  very  conspicuous  in  this  vast  plain :  they 
are  situated  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Muzdaran  hills, 
which  extend  on  both  sides  of  the  road,  and  in  the 
vicinity  of  Nishapur ;  they  are  always  covered  with 
snow.  We  put  up  in  the  open  air  near  Mirabad, 
a  strong  fort  belonging  to  Raza  Quli  Khan.  The 
distance  of  our  journey  was  estimated  at  forty  miles. 
It  was  a  very  cold  night,  and  the  thermometer 
stood  at  29  degrees. 

Sept  24. — We  passed  on  our  way  many  in- 
habited villages;    the   land    around    promised   to 


reward  the  labours  of  the  cultivators.  The  people 
of  the  village,  according  to  the  custom  of  Khora- 
san,  were  summoned  by  Raza  Quii  Khan  to  defend 
the  fort  of  Qochan  against  the  Persian  army. 
The  road  was  dry,  and  the  day  sultry.  •  We  chose 
our  ground  under  the  walls  of  Shor  Chasham,  at  a 
distance  of  thirty-two  miles.  Here  we  saw  a  few 
people  living  in  huts,  who  had  neither  barley  for 
our  horses,  nor  bread  for  us.  We  were,  however, 
lucky  in  meeting  a  man,  from  whom  we  pur- 
chased plenty  of  peaches. 

Sept  25. — We  marched  early  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  met  several  persons  going  to  Maflhad, 
through  a  regular  desert.  After  noon,  we  reached 
the  camp  in  Qochan,  where  we  were  welcomed  by 
Captain  Shee^  a  British  oflSeer  of  the  Madras  esta- 
blishment. He  ordered  a  tent  to  be  pitched  for 
me,  where,  in  company  with  Dr.  Gerard,  he  came 
to  see  me,  and  said  he  would  joyfully  provide  me 
vrith  every  thing  I  wanted.  He  told  me  a  great 
deal  about  the  battle,  and  said  what  a  strong 
place  the  fort  of  Qochan  is,  and  how  near  he  had 
made  the  trenches.  I  did  not  doubt  the  warlike 
spirit  of  this  gentleman,  whom  I  consider  the  best 
rider  among  all  the  Europeans  I  know.* 

Sept.  26  to  28.  Qochan.  — H.  R.  H.  Abbas 
Mirza  ordered  that  a  Persian  soldier  should  be 
shot  from  the  mouth  of  a  gun.  He  was  a  deserter, 
and  lately  in  the  service  of  Raza  Quli  Khan,  who 

*  Dr.  Gerard  has  since  died. 


is  also  known  by  the  name  of  Ilkbsni.  When  he 
was  bronght  to  the  mouth  of  the  gon,  luckily  for 
him,  the  prince  happened  to  come  to  the  spot,  and 
pardoned  him. 

Sept  29. — Mr.  Bumes,  at  noon,  started  for  the 
Caspian  Sea:  this  unexpected  separation  was 
very  much  felt  by  me.  He  sat  a  long  time  in 
my  tent,  and  talked  kindly  with  me.  He  gave 
me  a  certificate  and  an  official  letter  to  Govern- 
ment. He  said  that  he  was  pleased  with  my  con- 
duct, and  would  assist  me  as  much  as  he  could. 
I  accompanied  him  about  two  miles,  where  he 
squeezed  my  hand,  and  said  he  would  be  happy  to 
hear  of  my  safe  arrival  in  India.—"  Adieu,  Mohun 
Lai,  and  take  care  of  your  head,"  said  he. 

I  returned  to  my  quarters  along  with  Mr.  Borow- 
ski,  a  Polish  gentleman  in  Abbas  Mirza's  service. 
He  is  as  bold,  enterprising,  and  brave  an  officer  as  I 
have  seen  among  the  Europeans.* 

In  the  company  of  a  Persian  gentleman,  I  pro- 
ceeded into  the  fort  of  Qochan,  which  was  filled 
with  Russian  soldiers.  There  was  nothing  remark- 
able in  it;  but  misery  appeared  everywhere :  dust 
covered  the  shops,  and  melancholy  was  marked  on 
the  features  of  the  merchants. 

Khabushan  or  Qochan  is  noted  for  the  murder  of 
Nadir  Shah.  Fatah  Ali  Shah  resolved  to  take  this 
fort ;  he  came  at  the  head  of  a  numerous  army,  but 
returned  disappointed. 

*  This  gentleman  was  killed  at  Herat. 


Sept  30. — After  the  day  appeared,  in  company 
with  Mr.  Shee,  we  bent  our  route  towards  the 
turquois  mines,  and  reached  Sultan  Maidan  before 
sunset,  a  distance  of  thirty-two  miles.  On  the 
road,  we  passed  a  number  of  rich  villages.  The 
country  is  called  Kurdistan,  and  is  governed  by  the 
Ilkhani.  Sultan  Maidan  was  taken  by  the  Persians, 
after  a  siege  of  a  whole  month,  which  shews  it  to 
have  been  a  strong  place.  The  walls  are  now 
destroyed.  The  houses  are  two  stories  high.  The 
villagers  were  extremely  poor  and  oppressed ;  they, 
however,  provided  us  with  all  sorts  of  necessaries. 

Oct.  1. — A  march  of  twenty  miles  brought  us  to 
the  village  called  Madan,  which  is  upon  lofty 
ground.  It  is  surrounded  with  beautiful  orchards, 
in  which  the  sweet  melody  of  the  nightingales  was 
heard.  The  people  of  the  hamlet  were  more  civil- 
ized and  better  dressed  than  those  of  India.  They 
received  us  in  a  very  ceremonious  manner,  and  gave 
us  a  house  decorated  with  fine  carpets.  We  lived 
comfortably,  and  were  entertained  with  delicate 
victuals.  On  the  road,  we  passed  through  many 
villages,  where  the  people  presented  us  with  deli- 
cious melons,  milk,  and  bread. 

Oct.  2. — We  continued  in  Madan,  and  set  out  to 
examine  the  turquois  or  firozah  mines,  which  are 
situated  in  the  declivity  of  a  mountain,  two  miles 
from  the  village. 

We  found  the  ascent  gradual,  but  the  descent 
very  sudden ;  at  last  we  reached  the  mouth  of  a 


cayem,  which  had  been  dug  for  the  extraction  of 
the  gems,  and  entered  it,  descending  amongst  heaps 
of  rubbish  and  masses  of  rock,  till  we  could  no 
longer  see  our  way ;  but  when  the  light  appeared, 
we  had  a  view  of  the  curious  subterranean  cave,  the 
roof  of  which  was  composed  of  enormous  pieces  of 
black  rock,  which  looked  as  if  they  were  ready  to 
fall  and  crush  us. 

The  firozah  stratum  was  not  plentiful  in  this 
mine ;  it  appeared  in  some  places  in  very  narrow 
seams.  There  were  many  different  minerals  inter- 
mixed with  the  firozah,  and  most  part  of  the  rock 
contained  iron  ore,  which  sparkled  when  broken. 

Having  collected  some  specimens  in  this  mine, 
we  proceeded  to  see  others— climbing  a  steep  hill, 
and  then  descending  into  a  valley,  passing  over 
many  heaps  of  rubbish,  which  had  been  thrown  out 
of  the  mines.  We  then  entered  a  spacious  chamber, 
with  a  high  roof,  the  appearance  of  which  reminded 
me  of  the  tales  in  the  ^*  Arabian  Nights'  Entertain- 
ments." The  firozah  here  was  very  abundant,  and 
ran  along  the  walls  in  veins,  or  spots,  like  bunches 
of  grapes.  In  the  roof  of  this  grotto  were  seen  very 
delicate  hues,  resembling  that  of  lapis  lazuli,  which 
comes  from  Badakhshan,  and  is  exported  to  Russia. 
This  blue  colour  was  owing  to  the  verdigris  or 
copperas,  and  had  a  sharp,  acid  taste :  perhaps  it 
may  be  this  copper  that  gives  the  beautiful  colour 
to  the  firozah  gems.  We  also  discovered  alum,  and 
a  yellow  substance,  which  appeared  like  sulphur. 


This  mine  has  not  been  worked  for  some  time 
past.  The  people  of  Madan  content  themselves 
with  searching  among  the  old  fragments,  rather  than 
being  at  the  trouble  or  expense  of  making  new 
excavations,  which  might  reward  their  labour.  We 
visited  many  other  places,  which  had  been  dug  for 
firozah,  and  at  last  arrived  at  a  mine  where  the 
workmen  were  extracting  the  precious  stone.  The 
operations  are  very  rude ;  many  of  the  firozahs  are 
broken  and  overlooked.  Only  fragments  of  the 
firozah,  which  in  former  times  had  been  dug  out  by 
some  enterprising  miners,  were  found  here,  which, 
after  being  brought  out  of  the  mine  by  the  work- 
men, were  examined,  and  such  as  seemed  to  contain 
the  stone  were  separated  and  carried  away  on 
men's  backs,  or  on  mules,  to  a  stream  of  water,  and 
there  washed,  by  being  trodden  upon ;  when,  after 
some  hours,  the  blue  colour  of  the  firozah  was 
visible,  and  the  dross  or  rubbish  being  turned  over 
and  over,  all  the  pieces  of  the  gem  that  were  of 
value  were  picked  out,  and  put  into  an  old  shoe. 
We  did  not  observe  any  of  much  value :  the  pro- 
duce altogether  was  insignificant,  but  when  ex- 
tracted from  the  rock  that  contains  them,  and 
polished  a  little,  a  large  profit  is  realized  on  them. 

These  mines  are  monopolized  by  the  inhabitants 
of  the  village  of  Madan,  who  are  jealous  of  strangers, 
and  wish  to  keep  all  the  produce  to  themselves. 
Their  working  implements  being  few  and  weak,  the 
fall  value  of  the  mines  is  not  appreciated  by  them. 


Sometiines  water  flows  out  of  the  rock,  and  puts  a 
stop  to  further  progress.  By  the  employinent  of 
gunpowder,  and  skilful  miners  from  Europe,  a  largd 
revenue  might  be  derived  by  the  Persian  govern* 
ment ;  but  the  proprietors  are  afraid  to  spend  much 
money  in  making  discoveries,  lest  the  avarice  of  the 
king  or  governors  of  Khorasan  should  lead  them  to 
claim  a  part ;  and  whenever  a  valuable  firozali  is 
found,  it  is  carried  to  some  foreign  country,  for  fear 
of  its  being  seized ;  consequently,  there  are  few 
good  firozahs  to  be  obtained  in  Mashad.  The 
miners,  also,  are  acquainted  with  the  value  of  the 
stones,  as  their  hue  is  so  delicate,  that  it  is  affected 
by  changes  in  the  weather,  and  a  gem,  which  looks 
beautiful  one  day,  loses  its  colour  the  next.  When 
dipped  in  water,  they  assume  a  fine,  bright,  blue 
tinge :  this  method  is  often  adopted  to  deceive  the 
unwary  travellers.  The  gems  are  always  sold  in 
parcels  containing  good  and  bad,  and  at  times  turn 
out  a  profitable  speculation ;  at  others,  they  are  a 
loss  to  the  purchasers.  The  proprietors  of  the  mines 
are  so  jealous  of  foreigners,  that  they  run  away  from 
their  villages,  when  any  one  arrives  who  wishes  to 
visit  the  place,  as  we  experienced. 

The  mode  of  cutting  the  firozah  is  very  simple ;  it 
is  done  by  means  of  a  small  wheel,  which  is  turned 
by  one  hand  while  the  stone  is  applied  by  the  other, 
till  sufficiently  polished.  It  is  then  fixed  to  the 
end  of  a  small  piece  of  stick,  with  sealing-wax,  and 
exposed  for  sale. 



Oct.  3.— After  finishing  our  repast,  we  took  leave 
of  Madan,  and  passing  on  the  road  several  rich  vil- 
lages, vfre  arrived  at  a  hamlet  called  Darakht  Janz, 
a  distance  of  twenty-five  miles.  The  place  (I  would 
call  it  a  specimen  of  paradise)  was  almost  hidden 
under  lofty  mountains,  which  commanded  a  view  of 
beautiftil  gardens,  full  of  delicious  fruits. 

In  the  company  of  a  Persian  gentleman,  I  entered 
a  meadow,  where  I  beheld  small  green  trees,  loaded 
with  peaches.  I  ate  a  few  of  them,  and  found  my 
breath  very  fragrant.  Walnuts  abound  in  this  spot; 
we  were  presented  with  some  by  the  villagers. 

Previous  to  our  arrival  at  the  camp,  we  happened 
to  pass  by  a  salt-mine,  which  was  excavated  in  the 
side  of  a  mountain.  After  ascending  about  1,000 
paces,  we  began  to  descend  into  a  cavern,  which 
appeared  to  be  neglected.  The  salt  is  quite  white, 
and  if  it  were  monopolized,  and  worked  regularly,  it 
would  be  more  profitable  to  government  than  that 
of  the  Panjab.  We  observed  two  caves  rudely  dug, 
the  salt  on  the  roof  of  which  glittered  like  pieces  of 

Oct.  4. — A  march  of  twenty-five  miles  brought 
us  to  a  village  named  Firozah.  Our  route  was  ter- 
ribly fatiguing,  through  the  gorges  of  rugged  hills. 
I  dismounted  from  my  horse,  and  commenced  climb* 
ing  the  ascent  of  the  mountain,  over  which  we  tra- 
velled nearly  two  hours,  and  then  fell  into  a  plain, 
where  we  breakfasted.  It  was  dark  when  we  arrived 
in  the  village,  where  the  people  refused  to  supply 


US  with  provisions.  We  went  to  bed  quite  hungry, 
but  our  horses  were  lucky  in  getting  plenty  of 

Oct.  5. — We  traTelled  after  sunrise,  and  reached 
the  city  of  Mashad,  forty-eight  miles,  before  five 
o'clock  in  the  noon.  After  crossing  hillocks,  we 
came  into  the  plains,  where  we  passed  a  hamlet 
surrounded  with  black. tents.  They  were  occupied 
by  shepherds,  whom  we  asked  to  give  barley  to  our 
horses.  They  refused  it,  notwithstanding  we  offered 
them  money. 

On  our  road  we  came  to  a  roofed  cistern  of  fine 
water,  made  by  Mohammed  Ali.  From  this  place 
we  perceived  the  gilt  cupola  of  Imam  Raza's  tomb, 
six  miles  distant. 

Mr.  Shee  asked  us  to  live  with  him,  but  Mr. 
Gerard  refused,  on  account  of  his  having  a  family. 
However,  he  pitched  tents  for  us,  and  entertained 
US  in  a  veiy  hospitable  manner. 

Oct.  6.  Mashad.  —  His  Royal  Highness  Abbas 
Mirza  made  his  entry  into  Mashad.  The  inhabit- 
ants anxiously  climbed  on  the  broken  walls  and 
roofii  to  see  the  cortege.  He  was  mounted  on  a 
common  horse,  surrounded  by  a  few  men  on  foot,  who 
conversed  with  him  as  he  went  along.  He  had  not 
a  angle  symbol  of  royalty,  and  looked  not  equal  to 
the  least  chief  under  the  Panjab  sovereign.  He 
passed  through  a  regular  company,  who  saluted  him 
with  forty-eight  guns.  Their  dress  was  poor  and 
dirty,  and  their  arms  were  covered  with  rust.     I 



had  heard  the  Persian  dynasty  praised,  bnt  it 
appeared  nothing  on  examination.  I  imagine  that 
true  regal  pomp  is  only  seen  in  the  court  of  the 
Panjab  ruler,  whose  name  struck  my  ears  every- 
where, even  in  the  deserts  of  Turkistan.  Many 
people  imagined  that  Ranjit  Singh  was  the  only 
king  of  India. 

Oct.  7  to  9.  Mashad. — The  Persian  soldiers  were 
now  seen  on  every  spot ;  the  baths  and  shops  were 
shut  up  on  account  of  their  misconduct.  Their 
caps  were  ragged,  and  their  faces  coloured  by 

Before  evening  His  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza 
hurried  down  towards  Sarakhs,  and  the  whole  army, 
without  any  British  officer,  followed  him  next 

When  we  had  finished  our  repast,  we  went  with 
Captain  Shee  to  see  Yar  Mohammed  Khan,  vazir  of 
Herat.  He  had  a  shawl  turban  on  his  head,  and  a 
small  bottle  of  snuff  in  his  hand.  He  came  a  little 
distance  to  receive  us,  and  all  the  time  we  sat  with 
him,  he  conversed  with  Mr.  Gerard  in  a  most 
friendly,  cordial,  and  respectful  manner.  He  pre* 
sented  us  with  sugar  and  tea,  and  isaid  that  his 
master,  Prince  Kamran,  wished  to  be  friendly  with 
the  British  Government,  and  with  that  view  he  had 
commenced  a  correspondence  with  the  Governor- 
General  of  India,  through  Captain  Wade,  the 
political  agent  at  Lodiana.  He  has  sent  two  fine 
horses,  with  a  few  beautiful  carpets,  for  his  lordship. 


The  Shall,  he  said,  would  be  verj  glad  to  see  us  in 
Herat,  and  would  treat  us  Svith  the  utmost  fevour 
and  honour,  because  Dr.  Gerard  would  be  a  powers 
flil  medium  to  effect  a  friendship  between  the  two 

Yar  Mohammed  Khan  told  us  that  Shah  Shuja, 
in  Lodiana,  had  solicited  British  aid  for  the  recoverj 
of  his  throne  at  Kabul,  and  reoeiyed  for  answer, 
that  jf  he  continued  to  be  a  friend  to  Shah  Kamran, 
ef  course  he  might  be  assisted  by  the  English 
power.  In  consequence  of  this.  Shah  Shuja  has 
lately  sent  a  letter  to  him,  and  also  to  his  master, 
telling  them  both  to  write  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment, that  the  Prince  of  Herat  and  Shah  Shuja 
were  great  friends  to  each  other.  He  mentioned 
the  navigation  of  the  Indus,  for  which  the  Scindis 
had  formed  a  friendship  with  the  English,  and  he 
repeatedly  said  that  the  people  of  Herat  were 
anxious  to  follow  their  example. 

Before  evening  we  went  to  see  Mohammed 
Mirza  (the  present  king  of  Persia),  the  eldest  son 
of  His  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza.  Mr.  Borowski 
spoke  with  him  in  a  friendly  manner.  The  younger 
prince,  Khusrau  Mirza,  who  sat  next  to  his  bro- 
ther, came  out  of  the  chamber,  and  stood  re- 
spectfully before  him,  below  the  rail,  to  answer  a 
plaintiff  in  the  court,  who  was  considered  a  criminal 
for  speaking  against  such  a  worthy  prince,  and  was 
put  in  a  dungeon.  He  was  bastinadoed,  but  released 
at   the    intercession    of   Mr.  Borowski,    who    has 


great  influence  in  Abbas  Mirza's  court,  and  was 
appointed  commander-in-chief  of  the  army  in  the 
battle  of  Sarakhs. 

Oct.  10  to  19. — Having  visited  Sahan,  I  passed 
through  Bala  Khayaban,  which  has  a  small  popu- 
lation. There  were  no  splendid  shops,  but  a  few 
occupied  by  blacksmiths  and  grass-sellers.  On 
both  sides  of  the  bazar  were  some  buildings  and 
beautiful  colleges ;  a  dirty  canal  ran  in  the  centre  of 
the  road.  The  wall  of  the  city  stands  Tory  near  the 
graves  which  surround  the  edifices  in  Mashad. 

Mr.  Gerard  told  me  to  go  to  Vazir  Yar  Moham- 
med Khan,  who  received  me  kindly.  His  conver- 
sation with  me  was  full  of  kindness  and  cordiality* 
The  repast  was  brought,  and  on  my  refusing  to  eat 
it,  he  asked  me  the  reason.  I  answered,  that  I  never 
ate  any  thing  till  I  used  my  customary  medicine.  This 
weak  apology  seemed  to  satisfy  the  Vazir,  who  said 
he  was  very  sorry  to  eat  alone.  It  was  difficult  for  me 
to  refuse  civilities  from  people  whose  habits  I  dis- 
liked, and  thus  I  encountered  great  inconveniences. 
He  inquired  the  shape  of  the  English  guns,  and 
whether  Ranjit  Singh's  power  or  that  of  the  British 
was  strongest.  I  replied,  ^^0  Vazir,  though  Ranjit 
Singh  is  not  so  powerful  as  the  English,  still  he 
remains  their  only  antagonist  in  the  whole  of  India." 

The  rumour  arrived  that  the  Persians  had  taken 
Sarakhs,  and  that  the  Turkmans,  vtrith  their  women, 
were  taken  prisoners  by  the  soldiers.  The  females 
suffered  disgrace,  and  one  of  the  Jews,  a  slave-dealer 


in  Sarakhs,  was  ordered  to  be  blown  up,  and  his 
property  was  plundered  by  the  Sarbazs  or  soldiers. 

Oct  20  to  24.— I  met  Muza  Musa,  the  Vazir  of 
Khorasan,  in  Yar  Mohammed  Khan's  house.  He 
was  sent  by  Abbas  Mirza  to  ask  the  Vazir,  wfaether 
Sher  Mohammed  Khan  Sardar,  his  brother,  at  the 
head  of  an  army,  was  coming  towards  Mashad  to 
fight  with  him,  or  to  assist  him  against  Turbat.  They 
talked  a  long  time  in  whispers,  and  afterwards  left 
each  other.  The  Vazir  gave  me  a  letter  of  recom- 
mendation to  his  brother  at  Herat,  and  supplied  us 
with  an  escort. 

Yar  Mohammed  Khan,  who  was  made  the  Vazir 
of  Herat  three  years  ago,  is  a  good-looking  personage^ 
and  a  perfectly  polite  gentleman.  He  oppresses  the 
people,  but  is  liberal  to  his  relations.  He  is  knoWn 
to  be  brave,  and  a  good  warrior.  He  manages  all 
the  affairs  of  Herat,  and  is  invested  with  ample 
power ;  the  king,  I  heard,  is  a  mere  cipher. 

On  my  return,  I  perceived  a  Sarakhs  Turkman— 
a  man  of  gigantic  stature— a  fugitive  from  that  fort, 
pinioned  and  guarded  by  Persian  soldiers.  He 
was  caught  on  the  road  by  a  groom,  and  made  a 

We  were  now  tired  of  Mashad,  and  our  money 
was  expended.  In  Bala  Khayaban  we  paid  a  visit  to 
a  dirty  and  ruined  place,  where  the  bones  of  the 
famous  Nadir  Shah  reposed.  There  are  no  relics  of 
the  tomb.     His  remains  were  dug  out,  and  taken  by 


Agha  Mohammed  Khan,  who  was  made  an  eunuch 
by  him,  and  afterwards  appointed  head  of  the  kho- 
jahs  in  his  palace,  or  haramsarae ;  but,  in  reality,  he 
underwent  this  cruelty  that  he  might  die  without 
issue,  who  perhaps  would  have  made  a  claim  to  the 
throne  of  Persia.  He  was  master  of  Fatah  Ali 
Shah,  who,  in  Agha  Mohammed's  lifetime,  was  only 
called  Baba  Khan  Sardar.  The  bones  of  Nadir 
Shah  are  buried  now  beneath  the  door  of  the  Per- 
sian court  in  Tehran,  and  are  trodden  upon  by 
every  individual  who  enters  it.  Such  was  the  result 
of  his  oppressive  conduct  towards  the  people  he 
conquered,  that  Agha  Mohammed  Khan  harboured 
a  revengeful  spirit  against  him,  and,  levelling  his 
tomb  to  the  ground,  exposed  his  limbs  to  the  indig- 
nity of  being  trodden  under  the  feet  of  the  common 

Oct.  25  to  31. — I  was  sitting  in  the  shop  of  Sayafl 
Mehdi,  a  draper,  who  had  once  been  in  India,  and, 
as  we  were  speaking  the  language  of  that  country, 
the  passengers  stopped,  and  exclaimed,  that  '^  sweet 
was  our  conversation  !  "  They  asked  for  an  employ- 
ment under  me,  to  go  to  Kashmir,  which  they  called^ 
"  sighing  for  a  place  of  beauty." 

On  my  return,  I  visited  a  Sayad,  who  was  speak- 
ing with  a  person  in  Persian,  whom  I  thought  to  be 
an  Indian.  He  came  to  me,  and  asked  for  some*- 
thing,  which  I  gave  him.  Next  day  he  called  at 
my  t«nt,  and  described  the  countries  where  he*  had 


traTelled.  He  praised  Shiraz  much,  which  excited 
my  desire  to  see  the  place.  He  was  a  talkative 
man,  and  an  inhabitant  of  Lucknow. 

We  prepared  to  start  for  Herat,  escorted  by  Vazir 
Yar  Mohammed  Khan's  men ;  but  Khusrau  Mirza^ 
the  governor  of  Mashad,  prevented  us  from  going, 
setting  forth  the  difficulty  and  danger  of  the  road. 
It  was  merely  a  polite  pretence,  as,  in  reality,  he 
thought  we  should  become  friends  with  Prince 
Kamran,  before  Abbas  Mirza  settled  the  affidr  of 

The  Mohammedans  in  Mashad,  who  became 
friendly  with  me,  though  they  knew  that  I  was  a 
stranger,  having  no  prejudices,  were  exceedingly 
delighted  by  my  Persian  knowledge,  which  they 
considered  peculiar  to  their  tribe.  One  Persian, 
who  was  respected  by  the  party,  sighed,  and  said, 
if  1  would  be  a  Shia,  or  follower  of  Ali,  he  would 
willingly  marry  me  to  his  daughter,  who  would 
be  the  mistress  of  a  great  fortune  after  his  death. 
I  smiled ;  and  he  again  said  to  me,  **  Do  not  you 
think  that  the  enlightened  creed  of  the  Shias  will 
place  you  in  heaven  ?  You  will  gain  nothing  in 
other  creeds,  but  repentance."  I  said,  in  reply, 
that  the  parents  who  reared  me,  with  great  trouble^ 
expected  some  service  in  return  from  me,  when  they 
were  old^  and  I  had  done  nothing  for  them  yet. 
If  I  were  to  stay  here,  for  the  sake  of  beauty 
and  money,  without  discharging  my  filial  duty, 
how  could  I  become  a  happy  man  ?     These  words 


made  a  strong  impression  upon  his  heart.  He 
squeezed  my  hands,  and  said,  ^Afrinr  or,  **  Glory 
upon  your  thoughts!"  He  presented  me  with  a 
beautiful  inkstand  of  Isfahan;  and  said,  that  he 
hoped  to  see  me  again. 

Before  sunset,  the  Turkmans  of  Sarakhs  were 
brought  prisoners  to  Mashad.  They  were  naked 
and  barefooted,  and  tied  by  a  rope  to  each  other. 
A  Persian,  mounted  on  horseback,  was  uttering  the 
following  speech  with  a  loud  voice :  "  O  God,  make 
Nayab  Saltanat  the  renowned  c<mqueror  of  the 
world.  0  Grod,  by  the  aid  of  Panjtan,  render  Nayab 
Saltanat  superior  to  all,  as  he  has  released  the 
Mohammedan  slaves.''  The  men  and  women,  with 
their  little  children,  who  covered  almost  the  &ce 
of  the  roofis,  shops,  and  streets,  answered  the 
horseman,  Mmm"  (or  *be  it  so'),  with  the  blessing, 
**Long  live  the  deliverer  of  helpless  slaves,  ho- 
noured with  the  crown  of  glory !" 

Nat.  1. — I  had  the  honour  to  visit,  in  the  evening, 
the  holy  sepulchre  of  Imam  Raza,  and  the  great 
mosque,  which  was  crowded  by  a  multitude  of  peo- 
ple. A  venerable  person  was  at  the  head  of  the 
men,  and  behind  him  was  a  boy,  thirteen  years 
old,  reciting  the  evening  prayers  in  a  sweet  tone. 
The  other  people  followed  his  example,  sitting  and 
standing  in  an  attitude  of  devotion.  There  was  an 
inhabitant  of  Kashmir,  who,  suspecting  I  was  not 
a  native,  came  to  me ;  but  when  he  saw  me  re* 
citing  the  prayers  in  the  first  line  behind  the  priest, 


he  appeared  amazed.  When  the  prayers  were 
finished,  I  made  him  a  salam,  and  he  slowly  re* 
plied,  ^'Masha  Allah.'' 

Nov.  2. — In  our  neighbourhood  the  wedding  of  a 
beautiful  girl  took  place,  and  our  ears  were  deaf- 
ened by  the  songs,  cries,  and  laughing  of  those 
celebrating  the  nuptials. 

Nov.  3  to  10. — Dr.  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Macneill, 
the  assistant  Envoy  to  Tehran,  arrived  at  Ma- 
shad  with  an  embassy  for  His  Royal  Highness  Abbas 
Mirza.  He  came  to  see  Dr.  Gerard^  in  our 
house,  and  talked  to  me  very  kindly.  In  his 
company  we  set  out  to  visit  the  Turkmans  of 
Sarakhs.  No  one  was  allowed  to  go  inside  the 
gaol,  but,  as  we  were  high  guests,  the  door  was  in- 
stantly opened  to  us.  The  dungeon  was  so  narrow 
and  small,  that  the  unfortunate  families  sat  on  each 
other.  The  shrieks  of  the  little  children,  along 
with  those  of  their  parents,  caused  by  starvation, 
excited  the  pity  of  all.  Some  of  them  had  a  few 
pieces  of  carpet  cloth,  and  a  few  balls  of  silk,  which 
they  bartered  with  the  Persian  soldiers  for  a  bit 
of  bread.  This  traffic  continued  a  little  time 
through  the  holes  in  the  walls  of  the  prison. 
Sometimes  the  poor  prison^B  were  cruelly  de- 
ceived, and  got  nothing  from  the  people  in  return 
for  their  property.  The  cold  wind  and  rain  pierced 
their  naked  and  sickly  bodies.  There  were  dead 
camels  and  horses  lying  on  the  ground,  whose  rot- 
ten flesh  was  eaten  by  the  hungry  Turkmans,  who 


were  covered  with  mud»  and  the  blood  of  the  dead 
animals.  It  was  a  very  dreadful  scene  indeed. 
Though  the  Turkmans  had  attacked  the  Persians, 
and  made  them  slaves,  yet  still  they  treated  them 
well,  for  fear  of  their  falling  into  low  spirits  and 
sickness,  which  would  have  diminished  their  value. 
Undoubtedly,  their  punishment  exceeded  their 

Among  these  prisoners  was  a  young,  tall,  stout 
man,  named  Adinah  Qurt,  the  son  of  Mohammed 
Vardi.  He  was  the  guide  of  our  caravaa  from 
Bokhara  to  Mashad,  and  we  felt  ourselves  bound  to 
get  him  released  from  the  prince.  Mr.  Gerard  and 
Dr.  Macneill  both  applied  to  His  Royal  Highness 
for  the  freedom  of  our  old  friend,  which  he  graciously 
promised  after  investigating  his  history. 

Nov.  11  to  15.  We  sent  a  man  to  Dr.  Macneill 
with  letters  to  the  camp  of  His  Royal  Highness, 
which  was  on  the  route  to  Turbat,  where  we  were 
summoned  also  a  few  days  after. 

We  were  delighted  to  receive  a  kind  letter  from 
Major  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Campbell,  the  British 
ambassador  to  the  court  of  Persia  in  Tehran.  He  sent 
orders  to  the  Hindu  merchants,  both  in  Mashad  and 
Kabul,  to  supply  us  with  money.  However,  I  was 
quite  sorry  to  remain  so  long  in  Mashad. 

Nov.  16  to  21. — It  rained,  and  snow  covered  the 
ground.  We  met  Yar  Mohammed  Khan  on  the 
route  to  the  great  mosque,  where  he  would  not  let 
us  dismount  from  our  horses,  in  order  that  we  might 


not  have  the  ti^uble  of  remounting  them.     He 
stood  on  foot,  and  talked  about  an  hour. 

We  had  a  sight  of  the  ice-T?aIl  of  the  Nishapur 
hills,  which  looked  beautiful,  being  covered  with 
a  pure  white  sheet  of  snow. 

I  was  informed  by  a  respectable  Mohammedan, 
that  eight  years  ago,  when  a  wall  of  the  temple  of 
Imam  Raza  wa^i  going  to  be  repaired,  a  room  was 
discovered  full  of  books,  which  Mirza  HidayatuIIa, 
the  head  priest,  tried  to  read,  but  could  not :  the 
letters,  he  said,  were  neither  Arabic  nor  Persian, 
but  some  strange  character. 

Not).  22  to  28. — When  I  got  up  in  the  morning, 
I  was  quite  surprised,  on  casting  my  eyes  upon  the 
walls  and  houses,  to  see  them  thickly  covered 
with  snow.  People  with  spades  were  employed  to 
remove  the  snow  from  the  roo&  and  walls,  and  at 
last,  when  it  was  gathered  and  thrown  into  a  heap, 
it  looked  like  white  hillocks.  There  was  not  a 
span  of  ground  which  was  not  silvered  with 

Mr.  Beke  started  this  morning  for  Europe,  and 
bade  me  farewell  in  a  most  friendly  manner. 

The  city  of  Mashad  is  surrounded  by  a  weak 
wall,  and  a  small  ditch.  It  has  eight  gates,  two  of 
which  are  blocked  up.  It  is  called  Mashad-i- 
moqaddas  (or  Holy  Mashad),  from  its  being  the 
burial -place  of  Imam  Raza,  the  descendant  of 
Mohammed  and  Ali.  His  sepulchre  is  a  magnificent 
edifice,  and  is  situated  in  the  heart  of  the  city: 


Towards  the  foot  of  the  grave  there  is  a  bazar, 
called  Pain  Khayaban,  and  one  on  the  side  of  the 
head  named  Bala  Khayaban.  The  latter  bazar  is 
not  inhabited;  it  is  occupied  by  shops  like  the 
former  one.  These  two  bazars  project  from  the 
gates  of  the  Sahan  (terrace),  and  always  contain  a 
crowd  of  people.  The  third  gate  of  the  Sahan 
conmiaads  a  beautifiil  sight  of  the  magnificent 
bazar,  which  has  a  romantic  aspect.  Every  shop 
is  hid  under  gaudy  and  splendid  chintzes  of  French 
and  English  manufacture.  Coarse  Russian  articles 
are  seen  in  great  quantity,  but  look  ugly.  The 
bazar  is  shaded  with  wood  and  mats,  which  exclude 
the  rays  of  the  sun.  The  Saqqab  Khanah,  or 
watering-place,  stands  in  the  bosom  of  the  Sahan, 
over  a  canal,  which  forms  two  semicircles,  extending 
towards  the  two  above-mentioned  Khayabans. 
It  was  built  by  Nadir  Shah,  and  is  now  nearly 
reduced  to  decay. 

Harun  Rashid  is  buried  near  the  silver  door  of  the 
shrine,  under  the  feet  of  Imam  Raza,  and  his  head 
is  trodden  by  the  feet  of  pilgrims,  who  visit  the 
holy  tomb. 

When  Alexander  flourished,  he  happened,  it  is 
said,  to  pass  through  Khorasan,  and  encamped  in 
the  place  where  the  city  of  Mashad  is  erected,  and 
pitched  his  tent  on  the  very  spot  where  the  bones 
of  Imam  Raza  now  repose.  It  is  added,  that 
Alexander,  when  asleep,  had  a  dream,  which  in- 
spired him  with  terror.     He  started,  rose  suddenly. 


and  immediately  sent  for  his  vazir,  Aristotle,  who, 
when  acquainted  with  the  dream,  said  to  Alexander, 
that  a  holy  man  would  be  buried  on  this  spot. 
He  built  a  quadrangular  edifice,  with  an  inscrip* 
tion,  to  let  posterity  know  what  was  foretold  by  his 
vazir.  Imam  Raza  was  poisoned  in  the  year  A.H. 
203,  and  buried  within  the  same  walls  which  had 
been  built  by  Alexander. 

The  vazir  of  Sultan  Sanjar,  the  king  of  Mary, 
who  reigned  700  years  ago,  had  a  beautiful  son, 
who  was  afflicted  with  leprosy.  His  high  situation 
prevented  the  government  from  banishing  him  from 
the  country,  as  they  do  all  lepers ;  the  ruler,  there- 
fore, ordered  him  to  choose  a  permaQent  place  out 
of  the  city  of  Marv,  where  he  passed  his  time  in 
hunting  expeditions.  One  morning,  when  he  went 
to  the  chase,  he  beheld  a  handsome  deer;  he  ran 
his  horse  a  long  way,  but  could  not  shoot  it.  After 
a  hard  struggle,  the  poor  animal  reached  the  suburbs 
of  Mashad,  where  the  horse  of  the  hunter  would  not 
put  another  step  forward.  The  rider  was  obliged 
to  dismount,  where  he  was  told  by  somebody,  that 
there  was  a  grave  of  a  holy  man,  and  that  it  was 
disrespectful  to  go  near  it  on  horseback.  Upon 
hearing  this,  he  ofiered  prayers,  and  implored  Imam 
Raza  to  take  away  the  disorder.  His  entreaties 
were  effectual,  and  his  leprosy  disappeared,  without 
leaving  a  single  mark  on  his  perso^i. 

The  colleges  in  Mashad  are,  first,  Mirza  Salah ; 
second,  Haji  Hasan ;  third,  Mulla  Mohammed ; 
fourth,  Fazil  Khan ;  fifth,  Mulla  Haji ;  (sixth,  Mirza 


Jafar ;  seventh,  Madrasah  of  Saduddin,  situated  in 
Pain  Khayaban. 

I  accompanied  a  Persian  gentleman  to  the  Ma- 
drasah of  Abdul  Khan,  where  I  saw  a  few  boys 
reading,  some  in  one  part  of  the  Madrasah,  and  some 
in  another.  A  number  of  books,  with  their  leaves 
separated,  were  lying  on  mats,  and  covered  with 
dust.  I  said  to  my  companion,  "  Why  do  not  these 
students  keep  their  books  in  niches  or  on  shelves  ?*' 
He  replied,  that  the  master  of  the  college  had  neither 
niches  nor  shelves,  because  he  thought  it  improper 
to  place  books  on  shelves,  beyond  the  sight  of  the 
students,  who,  perhaps,  might  fancy  it  a  trouble  to 
get  up  to  take  the  books  from  off  them. 

To  the  north-west  of  the  mausoleum  of  Imam 
Raza  stands  a  very  conspicuous  college,  two  stories 
high,  which  is  not  entirely  finished.  The  present 
king  of  Persia  founded  this  Madrasah,  and  sent  money 
to  his  sons,  or  to  the  rulers  of  Khorasan,  to  build  the 
place ;  but  their  sordid  avarice  did  not  permit  them 
to  supply  the  Madrasah  with  funds,  and  thereby  carry 
into  effect  the  good  intentions  of  their  father.  This 
college  is  always  crowded  with  barbers  and  watermen, 
instead  of  students ;  such  is  the  covetousness  and 
carelessness  of  the  government. 

Gauhar  Shad,  a  relation  of  the  great  Taimur,  con- 
structed a  very  lofty  gilt  dome,  which  stands  over  the 
tomb  of  Imam  Raza,  and  is  seen  by  travellers  twelve 
miles  from  the  city  of  Mashad. 

The  country  of  Mashad  is  not  fertile,  and  has  very 
barren  suburbs.     There  are  neither  gardens,  nor  is 


the  land  much  cultivated;  yet  the  exertion  of  the 
husbandmen  supplies  the  citizens,  who  fill  these 
stores.  The  fruits  in  Mashad  are  brought  from  the 
neighbouring  hills,  and  fill  the  shops  of  Pain  Khay- 
aban  till  the  end  of  April,  when  the  weather  is  like 
the  winter  of  India. 

The  trade  of  Bokhara  with  Persia  has  rendered 
Mashad  the  most  populous  and  wealthy  city  in  Kho- 
rasan.  The  lamb-skins  of  Qara  Qui,  a  Tillage  in 
Bokhara,  are  highly  yalued  in  Persia.  They  are 
used  for  caps,  which  have  a  beautiful  shape,  and  are 
much  better  than  those  of  the  Tartars.  The  rich 
men  of  Persia,  who  are  fond  of  showy  dress,  generally 
kill  a  pregnant  sheep,  the  skin  of  the  young  of  which 
is  afterwards  taken  off,  and  covered  with  cloth  and 
cotton,  to  prevent  the  effects  of  the  sun  and  air. 
The  skin  of  such  a  young  lamb  is  delicate,  soft,  and 
light.  The  finest  lambnskiti  cap  is  valued  in  Tehran, 
and  other  places  in  Persia,  at  thirty  rupees.  The 
caravan  of  Bokhara,  which  frequents  Mashad  during 
the  course  of  the  year,  brings  considerable  quan- 
tities of  these  skins. 

The  shawls  of  Kirman,  and  the  sugar  of  Yazd,  are 
the  most  important  articles  of  sale  in  Mashad.  The 
green  tea  comes  from  Bombay,  and  the  black  from 
Russia ;  but  the  former  is  cheap,  and  liked  by  the 
inhabitants.  The  French  chintzes,  &c.  are  showy, 
and  of  high  price.  The  English  chintzes,  on  account 
of  their  cheapness,  are  a  good  deal  used,  and  much 
more  showy  than  the  Russian  chintzes.     The  latter 



ure  dear,  and  not  beautiful.  The  shawls  of  Rinnan 
are  exported  to  Turkistan,  and  there  used  for  tur- 
bans. The  finest  shawls,  which  are  called  maharmat, 
sell  for  thirty  rupees.  They  are  made  of  Kashmir 

The  people  of  Mashad,  though  fair,  are  not 
handsome.  The  natives  of  Tehran  and  Tabrez, 
who  reside  here,  are  beautiful.  Their  dress  is  de- 
licate. The  sleeves  of  their  qaba,  or  coat,  are 
tight,  like  those  of  the  people  of  Labor.  They 
are  clean,  polite,  ceremonious,  and  much  more  gen- 
teel than  the  Afghans  and  Uzbegs,  who  are  rude 
in  their  living  as  well  as  attire.  In  short,  the  Per- 
sians are  next  to  the  Indians  in  every  thing,  and 
above  other  nations,  except  Europeans.  All  ranks 
in  Persia  keep  boys  in  their  service,  to  bring  water 
and  the  qalian.  A  boy  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  years 
of  age,  named  Haidur  Ali,  in  the  service  of  Abbas 
Mirza,  became  very  intimate  with  me  when  we  went 
to  pay  a  visit  to  his  royal  highness.  We  were 
anxious  to  see  him,  and  tried  to  have  a  discourse 
with  him,  but  without  success,  as  his  absence  for  a 
minute  (as  I  heard  from  other  people)  was  known 
to  the  prince,  who  would  not  allow  him  to  go  any- 
where alone.  At  last  we  began  to  correspond, 
which  is  considered  as  a  half-meeting.  One  morning 
he  sent  me  a  Russian  box  to  put  paper  in,  with  a  pro- 
mise that  he  would  come  to  my  tent  in  the  evening. 
I  sent  him  my  very  best  thanks,  along  with  a  beau- 
tiful silk  sheet  of  Bokhara,  which  he  received  very 


t^ivilly.  He  came  when  dark  to  my  tent,  and  stopped 
and  talked  for  two  hours*  His  countenance  was 
graceful,  and  his  elevated  eyebrows  over  his  heavy 
eyelashes  looked  very  singular  and  charming.  His 
white  cheeks  and  ruby  lips  shewed  the  delicacy  of 
all  his  limbs.  His  curled  locks,  behind  his  ears, 
hung  on  a  marble  neck,  and  his  eyes  were  azure. 
I  have  never  seen  a  boy  of  such  beautiful  appear- 
ance and  elegant  manners.  When  he  took  leave 
of  me,  he  said  he  hoped  that  we  should  meet  again. 
We  rose  up  and  kissed  each  other,  according  to  the 
custom  of  Persia.  I  praised  his  locks,  which  hung 
like  black  snakes  on  his  white  face ;  he  laughed  and 
repeated  the  following  verse  : 

**  The  lock  of  the  Persian  and  the  waist  of  the 
Indian  are  curling." 

"Adieu,  my  dear  Mirza,"  were  his  last  words 
when  he  left  me. 

Nat.  29. — We  took  our  leave  of  the  holy  city  of 
Mashad  for  Mahmudabad,  where  Dr.  Macneill  was 
with  his  royal  highness,  and  Captain  Shoe  came  a 
little  way  with  us.  When  he  took  leave,  he  squeezed 
my  hand,  and  said,  he  hoped  I  should  have  a  plea- 
sant journey  to  India.  The  sun  began  to  lose  its 
warmth,  and  we  galloped  our  horses  towards  Sang- 
bast,  twenty-four  miles'  distance.  All  the  road  was 
covered  with  a  thick  bed  of  snow,  in  which  our 
horses  sunk  to  their  knees.  Night  overtook  us, 
and  we  had  not  fallen  in  with  our  servants  or 
our  baggage.     Though   we   were  ignorant   of  the 

0  2 


road,  yet  we  were  lucky  enough  to  reach  Sang* 
baat  safe,  at  dark,  after  crossing  a  rivulet.  Dr. 
Gerard  was  sick  and  tired,  and  sat  on  the  ground, 
holding  the  bridle  of  his  horse,  while  I  began  to 
search  for  our  servants,  but  could  not  find  them. 
I  bought  barley  for  our  horses  from  a  needy  Per- 
sian soldier,  to  whom  Dr,  Gerard  paid  ten  rupees 
for  a  draught  of  watcir  and  n  piece  of  bread.  We 
passed  the  night  very  uncomfortably,  sleeping  upon 
frozen  ground.  Our  neighbours  were  Persian  sol- 
diers, who  stole  the  bridles,  &c.  off  our  horses. 
Sangbast  is  a  very  cold  place ;  because  two  stones 
will  stick  to  each  other  from  the  extreme  cold, 
therefore  it  is  called  Sangbast. 

Nov.  30. —  We  got  up  in  the  morning,  and 
came  back  to  Mashad,  and  did  not  meet  any  of 
our  servants.  We  stopped  in  a  tailor's  house,  named 
Rajab  Ali,  who  provided  us  with  warm  clothes, 
and  behaved  very  respectfully  to  us.  We  hired 
a  man  whom  we  sent  to  seek  our  servants.  He 
found  them  wandering  in  a  snowy  valley.  At 
length  they  reached  Mashad,  tired,  and  almost  fro- 
zen to  death.  My  Indian  servant,  who  was  used 
to  a  hot  climate,  suffered  severely  from  the  snow, 
so  that  his  feet  and  hands  were  benumbed,  and 
he  had  lost  his  spirit  and  senses.  After  two  days 
he  recovered,  and  crying  said,  **  This  is  not  a  conn- 
try,  but  hell,  created  by  the  devil,  and  not  by 
Almighty  God." 

Dec.  1  to  4. — We  continued  in  Mashad  on  ac- 


count  of  Dr.  Gerard's  illness,  and  thought  of  remov- 
ing towards  Turbat,  to  the  camp  of  Abbas  Mirssa. 
Captain  Shee,  who  came  to  see  us,  said  that  he 
wotdd  give  us  one  of  his  sergeants  to  conduct  us 
to  Turbat.  We  brought  two  pony-loads  of  bar- 
ley for  our  horses,  and  also  other  necessaries,  and 
we  purchased  a  great  quantity  of  charcoal,  tea, 
and  sugar,  for  ourselves. 

Dec.  5. — We  were  very  happy  to  leave  Mashad, 
accompanied  by  a  European  sergeant,  in  the  service 
of  the  Honourable  Company,  lately  in  Persia  with 
his  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza.  Captain  Shoe 
came  with  us  about  three  miles,  and  on  leaving  us, 
to  return  to  the  city,  wished  us  a  successful  journey. 
The  clouds  threatened  a  fall  of  snow,  which  was 
already  six  inches  deep  on  the  ground.  We  passed 
on  the  road  two  ruined  buildings,  and  about  evening 
we  got  into  Shari&bad,  a  small  village,  twenty-four 
miles'  distance,  the  boundary  of  Turbat.  It  is  for- 
tunate in  having  a  very  good  caravansarae,  which 
was  covered  with  snow.  Our  baggage  and  servants 
were  loaded  with  icicles.  My  face  was  secured  by  a 
skin  cap,  of  peculiar  shape,  which  created  laughter 
among  the  other  travellers.  It  was  made  in  a  form 
of  my  own  invention,  and  covered  all  my  head,  ears, 
and  neck,  except  the  eyes. 

Dec.  6. — A  march  of  sixteen  miles  brought  us  to 
Kafar  Qilah,  a  small  village,  on  a  rising  ground. 
There  were  no  inhabitants,  except  a  few  Persian 
soldiers,  who  had  caused  the  devastation  of  the  vil- 


lage.  The  doors  and  rafters  of  the  houses  were 

On  leaving  Sharifabad,  we  took  a  guide,  who  was 
ignorant  of  the  road»  and  after  traversing  a  snowy 
path  for  six  miles,  we  were  brought  back  to  the 
very  spot  where  we  had  been  the  night  preceding. 
The  poor  creature  was  unmercifully  whipped  by 
Sergeant  Ditchfield,  who  made  him  go  to  a  village 
called  Gumbazdaraz,  whence  we  took  a  man  to 
Dilbaran.  The  people  of  these  villages  were  in 
good  circumstances,  but  dirty.  They  received  us 
very  respectfully ;  and  presented  us  with  fine  cheese, 
bread,  meat,  and  beautiful  qalians. 

We  arrived  in  Kafar  Qilah  near  sunset ;  the  snow 
was  up  to  the  stirrups  of  our  saddles  on  the  road. 
The  loaded  ponies  tumbled  down,  and  being  buried 
in  the  snow,  were  taken  out  with  difficulty. 

Dec.  7. — We  travelled  from  Kafar  Qilah  on  a 
good  road,  and  passed  near  a  caravansarae,  named 
Kami,  which  was  handsomely  built.  We  joined  the 
artillery  on  a  small  hill,  covered  with  snow.  The 
guns  were  drawn  by  ten  horses,  but  their  drivers 
were  unskilful.  The  guns  were  sent  from  Mashad, 
to  join  the  army  of  Abbas  Mirza,  at  Turbat,  from 
whence  he  intended  to  march  against  Herat.  We 
came  upon  an  extensive  plain,  and  saw  numerous 
villages  buried  in  snow.  « 

On  our  arrival  at  Fakhrabad,  thirty-two  miles 
distant,  we  found  the  place  almost  filled  with  sol- 
diers.    The  village  has  two  walls,  between  which 


lies  a  large  space,  overlooked  by  small  houses  of  two 
stories  high ;  at  the  back  of  the  houses  is  a  deep 
ditch,  which  was  full  of  snow.  The  other  wall, 
which  stands  inside  of  the  outer  one,  has  the  shape  of 
a  small  fort,  outside  of  which  the  inhabitants  reside. 
Thej  sat  on  the  walls,  and  told  the  soldiers,  they 
would  open  the  gate  on  condition  of  their  swearing 
not  to  touch  their  property  and  fiamilies.  This 
being  agreed  to,  the  gate  was  opened,  when  the 
lying  Persians  fell  upon  the  houses  like  a  swarm  of 
locusts,  and  got  possession  of  provisions  by  force. 
The  village  contained  grass  for  10,000  horses,  and 
barley  for  5,000.  There  were  no  goats  or  sheep, 
but  a  considerable  number  of  cows. 

Dec.  8. — We  journeyed  from  Fakhrabad  a  little 
while  over  snowy  plains,  and  then  began  to  ascend 
the  hills,  the  tops  of  which  were  white.  Among 
these  hills  is  situated  a  small  caravansarae,  near  a 
mined  village,  where  we  were  happy  to  receive  let- 
ters from  Dr.  Macneill.  On  our  descent  from  the 
mountains,  we  came  into  plains  almost  covered  with 
mud  forts.  The  number  of  the  villages  increased 
so  much,  that  we  had  some  difficulty  in  finding  the 
straight  road  to  Turbat.  We  came  to  a  village, 
where  we  saw  many  men  standing  inside  the  walls, 
but  there  was  no  entrance.  The  sergeant  called 
with  a  loud  voice,  "  0  !  kat-khuda  [head  man  of  the 
village],  send  a  man  to  shew  us  the  road.''  No 
answer  was  made  to  his  request,  and  the  sergeant 
got  in  a  rage,  and  told  his  servant  to  go  within  the 

200  FROM   BOKHARA   TO    MA8HAD. 

walls,  and  catoh  one  of  them  by  force.  The  servant 
got  into  one  of  the  houses  by  a  very  dangerous  road» 
and  laying  hold  of  one  man,  brought  him  to  his 
master.  The  poor  creature  had  no  shoes  on  his 
feet,  and  was  very  much  distressed  at  walking  on 
the  snow.  A  little  while  after,  he  begged  of  the 
sergeant  to  release  him ;  but  it  availed  him  nothing. 
Upon  arriving  near  a  kahrez,  the  man  ran  a  little 
distance,  and  immediately  penetrated  into  one  of 
the  kahrezs,  and  hid  himself,  so  that  we  could  not 
find  him. 

Before  evening,  we  arrived  at  Turbat,  thirty-two 
miles  distant,  and  were  conducted  to  Dr.  Macneill's 
house,  where  I  vms  most  hospitably  treated  by  that 
gentleman.  The  walls  of  Turbat  are  of  ordinary  size, 
but  the  defences  of  the  gates  are  very  weak.  From 
the  gate  to  our  lodging  we  passed  through  a  broad 
straight  bazar,  vnth  ruined  shops  on  each  side.  The 
mud  in  the  bazar  reached  to  the  knees  of  our  horses. 

Dec.  9.  Turbat. — Provisions  and  wood  for  fuel 
were  never  obtained  here  by  money,  but  by  force. 
At  night  I  had  a  long  conversation  with  Dr.  Mac* 
neill,  in  the  presence  of  Mirza  Baba,  a  Persian  doctor^ 
of  good  disposition,  who  had  been  educated  in  London. 
Dr.  Macneill,  after  putting  various  questions  to  me 
regarding  the  countries  where  I  had  been,  inquired 
whether  I  liked  travelling,  or  preferred  Stopping  in 
my  native  place.  I  replied,  *•  People  who  have  slept 
on  the  bare  and  pebbly  ground,  in  a  journey,  dislike 
the  soft  beds  of  their  home ;  those  who  have  tasted 


dry  bread  in  travelling,  hate  the  milk  pudding  of  the 
country.  The  human  breast,  which  is  touched  by 
sensibility,  ardently  embraces  the  good  company 
of  travellers,  and  shuns  domestic  society/'  These 
answers  were  pleasing  to  him. 

The  future  journey,  which  I  wish  to  take  with  all 
my  heart,  lies  through  Kashmir,  from  whence  I  will 
bend  my  course  towards  Tibat,  Ladak,  Kashghar, 
Badakhshan,  and  from  thence  to  Khiva.  From 
Khiva  I  desire  to  shape  my  route  to  Astrakan  or 
Hazdar  Khan,  and  to  visit  Tartaiy  or  Khutan,  which 
is  occupied  by  wandering  tribes,  or  Qazaks.  They 
are  under  the  yoke  of  the  Khiva  government,  though 
sometimes  independent.  Dr.  Macneill  said  to  me, 
"  When  you  reach  Badakhshan,  you  must  use  your 
utmost  endeavours  to  obtain  access  to  the  presence  of 
the  ruler,  who  thinks  himself  the  descendant  of  the 
great  Alexander.  Beg  him  to  let  you  have  a  sight  of 
the  book  he  has,  and  copy  a  few  words  out  of  it.'*  The 
letters  of  the  book  (Dr.  Macneill  imagines)  are  of 
ancient  Greek,  and  contain  something  about  the 
dynasty  already  mentioned,  which  our  Government 
is  very  anxious  to  find  out. 

Dec.  10. — Previous  to  Abbas  Mirza's  entry  into 
Turbat,  Mohammed  Khan  Qari,  the  independent 
chief  of  that  place,  stored  the  fort  of  Sangan,  in 
which  his  wealth  was  deposited,  with  provisions. 
Upon  his  submitting  to  the  Persian  government,  he 
was  taken  into  the  favour  of  the  prince.     When 


Abbas  Mirza  wished  to  gain  possession  of  Sangan^ 
Mohammed  Khan  refused,  and  was  therefore  placed 
in  confinement :  in  the  meantime  he  found  means 
to  continue  a  correspondence  with  Prince  Kamran,  of 
Herat,  instigating  him  to  fight  against  his  Royal 
Highness  Abbas  Mirza.  Mohammed  Khan,  however, 
was  treated  with  great  consideration.  The  prince 
remitted  to  all  the  subdued  villagers  their  rents  for 
two  years. 

Dec.  11  to  16. — His  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza 
formed  his  army  into  two  divisions.  The  first,  headed 
by  Captain  Shoe,  was  ordered  to  march  towards  Ta- 
brez,  and  the  second  to  be  always  with  his  royal 

Turbdt  means  *  grave.'  It  is  said  that  Hazrat 
Ali  once  resided  in  Turbat,  and  that  he  has  left  a 
mark  of  his  holy  feet  upon  a  stone,  which  is  adored 
by  his  followers.  It  is  alleged  also,  that  the  corpse 
of  an  Uzbeg,  named  Haidar,  reposes  here,  from 
whence  the  place  takes  its  name  of  *'  Turbat  Hai- 

Mohammed  Khan  Qari,  the  independent  chief  of 
Turbat,  invaded  Mashad  and  Herat.  He  was  a  man 
of  a  cruel  disposition,  and  a  slave-dealer.  He  was  a 
friend  of  the  Turkmans,  and  a  foe  of  his  own  people, 
whom  he  sold  to  the  former  for  horses  or  money.  He 
was  now,  however,  reduced  to  the  utmost  distress; 
he  was  sent  to  Mashad  as  a  prisoner. 

Abbas  Mirza  desired  us  to  declare  to  Shah  Kam- 


ran,  of  Herat,  what  were  his  designs  respecting  his 
territories,  which  we  agreed  to  do,  at  the  request  of 
Dr.  Macneill,  who  gave  me  instructions  in  English 
and  Persian,  as  Mr.  Gerard  could  not  speak  Persian. 

Rasul  Taimuri,  a  good-looking  man,  was  the 
head  of  the  slaye-dealers  at  Mohammed  Khan's 
court ;  he  was  also  guilty  of  acts  of  infanticide. 
Abbas  Mirza  asked  him  how  many  slaves  he  had 
sold  in  his  life  ?  "  Fifty  or  sixty  thousand,"  replied 
he;  upon  which  his  royal  highness  was  so  en- 
raged, that  he  gave  orders  for  putting  him  to  death, 
and  he  was  beheaded  in  the  bazar,  where  his  corpse 
lay  under  mud  and  snow  for  four  or  five  days. 

Mirza  Abdul  Qasim,  the  Qaim  Moqam,  as  he  is 
called,  the  prime  minister  of  his  Royal  Highness 
Abbas  Mirza,  came  to  our  residence,  and  had  a 
long  conversation  with  us.  He  is  a  man  with 
small  dim  eyes,  and  is  accustomed  to  shake  his  head, 
which  makes  the  people  believe  that  he  is  always 
in  deep  thought  and  meditation.  He  has  great 
influence  at  Abbas  Mirza's  court,  and  at  the  same 
time  is  believed  to  be  a  magician.  He  does 
what  he  likes,  and  it  is  impossible  to  succeed  in 
any  business  without  giving  him  some  present. 
He  sleeps  all  day,  and  sits  up  all  night ;  a  more 
cunning  and  avaricious  man  never  existed  in 

The  success  of  Dr.  MacneilFs  negotiation  in- 
duced his  royal  highness  to  abandon  his  design 
of  proceeding  against  Herat,  and  he  set  out  for 


Tabrez  vid  Yazd,  the  ruler  of  which  place, 
Abdul  Raza  Khan,  came  out  and  acknowledged 
obedience  to  Abbas  Mirza,  who  appointed  his 
nephew,  Saif  Malik  Mirza,  governor  of  Yazd.  His 
royal  highness  then  hurried  down  to  Kirman, 
which  was  ruled  by  Hasan  Ali  Mirza,  who  resided 
at  Mashad  a  few  years  ago.  He  wished  to  wage 
war  with  Abbas  Mirza,  who  frustrated  his  design 
by  sending  friendly  words,  through  his  cunning 
minister,  the  Qaim  Moqam.  Hasan  Ali  Mirza, 
having  trusted  to  the  faith  of  Abbas  Mirza,  came 
two  days'  journey,  received  him  respectfully,  and 
conducted  him  to  Kirman  with  great  honour.  In 
a  few  days.  Abbas  Mirza  (or  the  unfaithful  prince, 
as  he  is  called  by  the  conquered  people)  seized 
Hasan  Ali  Mirza,  and  sent  him  to  Tehran,  where 
he  is  now  kept  as  a  prisoner.  Kirman  is  now 
recovered  by  Farman  Farma,  the  governor  of  Shi- 
raz,  the  brother  of  Hasan  Ali  Mirza,  who  drove  out 
the  ruler  appointed  by  Abbas  Mirza,  with  insult. 

His  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza  marched  to 
Sultan  Maidan,  a  strong  place  in  the  possession  of 
Raza  Quli  Khan  Kurd.  On  this  spot  a  severe  battle 
took  place,  in  which  one  of  the  European  sergeants 
was  shot  by  the  Kurds.  After  a  long  siege  it  was 
taken,  and  reduced  to  ashes.  Abbas  Mirza  then 
took  Amirabad,  a  very  strong  fort  of  the  Kurd  chief, 
and  marched  to  Qochan,  the  residence  of  the  above 
khan.  After  a  long  siege,  he  took  the  place,  which 
was  never  taken  by  his  predecessors.     Sarakhs  and 


Turbat  were  subdued  very  easily,  and  their  rulers 
were  imprisoned. 

The  large  villages  belonging  to  Turbat  are,  first, 
Kidkun;  second,  Nasar;  third,  Sangan;  fourth, 
Jugazara;  fifth,  Khaf;  sixth,  Rishkhar;  seventh, 
Agha  Husain ;  eighth  Mardiabad ;  ninth,  Jangal ; 
tenth,  Mahalat ;  eleventh,  Azgard ;  twelfth,  Baizak  ; 
thirteenth,  Faizabad ;  fourteenth,  Mindi. 

8tage$from  Tehran  to  Tahrez, 



1st.      Salaiiiiania 



2iid.     SanKarabad 



3rd.     Kishlah 



This  was  bailt  by  Mirza  Shafi,  the  late  minister 

of  the  present  king,  bnt  is  now  gone  to 


4th.      Qazdin 



This  is  a  reiy  large  town,  niled  by  Ali  Naqi 

Mina,  one  of  the  sons  of  the  king. 



6th.     Abhar,  full  of  gardens,  watered  by  the 

river  named  Abharehah 



7th.     Snltania,  which  has  a  beantifol  building 

constructed  by  Fatah  Ali   Shah,  who 

passes  the  summer  in  that  place 



8th.     Yunjan,  a  small  town  ruled  by  Fatah 

UllahMirza  ..          



9th.     Armaghan,  not  frequented  in  summer  by 

the  upper  road . . 



lOth.  Agkan 



nth.  Sarcham             



12th.  Miana,  a  large  stream  flows  by  this  place 



13th.  Turkmanchah 








..       7 


..      5 



14th.  Tikmadash 

15th.  Saidabad 

leth.  Tabrez 

This  citj  was  taken  by  the  Russians,  and  re- 
stored afterwards  for  a  sum  of  money.  Tiflis, 
which  was  hbtelj  mled  by  the  Persians,  is 
now  under  the  Russian  yoke. 

Sta^ei  from  Tehran  to  Isfahan. 

1st      Karana 5  20 

2nd.  Hauz  Sultan ;  it  was  built  by  an  old  king. 
There  are  no  wells  here ;  the  cisterns 
are  filled  with  water  in  winter,  which 
senres  the  people  in  summer  . .      6  24 

3rd.     Pul  Dallak  :  this  bridge,  with  a  caravan- 

same,  was  built  by  a  barber  . .  . .      6  24 

4th.  Quum,  a  town  famous  for  haying  a  holy 
tomb,  in  which  the  body  of  the  sister 
of  Imam  Raza  reposes 

5th.     Sorabat 

6th.     Najsrabad 

7th.     Kashan,  a  town  fiamous  for  silk 

8th.     Kohrod  

9th.     So  

10th.  MorchaKhan   .. 

llth.  Isfahan 

Road  from  Mathad  to  Tehran. 
1st      Sharifabad. 
2nd.     Qadam  Gah,  famous  for  the  mark  of  Imam  Rasa's  feet 

on  the  face  of  a  stone.     A  fine  building  is  erected 

on  the  yery  spot,  inducing  trayellers  to  praise  the 

founder.  Abbas  Shah. 
3rd.     Nishapur,  a  yery  pleasant  town  in  Khorasan,  encircled 

by  the  snowy  hiUs. 

.      3 


.      7 


.      5 


.      3 




.      7 


.     7 





4th.  Hnsainabad. 

5th.  Zafrani,  has  a  large  and  ruined  caraTansarae. 

6th.  Sabzavar. 

7th.  Mipan. 

8th.  Maziman. 

9th.  Abbasabad. 

10th.  Majamai. 

11th.  Shahiod. 

12th.  DehahMnllah. 

Idth.  Damghan,  an  ancient  rained  place. 

14th.  Daulatabad. 

15th.  Ahyan. 

16ih.  Sininan. 

17ih.  Lasgind. 

ISth.  Aradan. 

19th.  Alyanpaif. 

20th.  Kabud  Gumbaz. 

2l8t  Tehran. 

Dec.  17,  18.  Turbat— His  Royal  Highness 
Abbas  Mirza  set  out  for  the  holy  city  of  Mashad, 
and  we  leamt  with  grief  that  Captain  Shoe  was 
taken  ill  on  his  road  to  the  camp.  Dr.  Macneill 
went  and  brought  him  to  Turbat,  where  Dr.  Gerard 
bled  him  and  gave  him  medicine,  on  which  he 

Dec.  19  to  21. — It  rained,  and  the  streets  were 
so  dirty,  that  the  mud  reached  the  bellies  of  the 
animals,  and  under  the  mud  were  very  deep  holes, 
into  which  sometimes  men  and  horses  tumbled. 
There  are  not  so  many  inhabitants  in  Turbat  as 
Mr.  Fraser  states,  in  his  History  of  Persia.    He  says 


there  are  40,000 ;  but  they  do  not  amount  to  more 
than  5,000, 

Mohammed  Khan,  the  ruler  of  the  place,  had  an 
extraordinary  trait  of  character.  If  any  person, 
either  plaintiff  or  defendant,  wished  to  gain  a  judg- 
ment in  his  favour,  he  was  obliged,  first,  to  speak 
against  his  own  interest;  and  Mohammed  Khan, 
according  to  his  usual  habit,  decided  the  case  con- 
trary to  the  petition,  which  he  thought  a  hardship 
upon  the  applicant ;  whereas,  in  reality,  it  was  the 
very  object  he  desired. 

Dec.  22. — We  left  Turbat  on  our  route  to  Herat, 
accompanied  by  an  escort  of  the  prince.  We 
crossed  many  brooks,  the  country  being  covered 
with  snow.  We  stopped  at  Sangan,  twenty  miles, 
which  is  a  strong  fort  under  the  Qari  government. 
There  were  three  walls,  one  within  the  other ;  the 
ditch  was  very  deep,  though  narrow ;  but  the  prince 
had  left  this  place  without  a  garrison.  The  inhabit- 
ants of  Sangan  are  2,000 ;  it  produces  15,000  khar- 
wars  of  com.  Jafrabad  is  a  very  beautiful  village,  near 
Sangan,  in  the  possession  of  Mohammed  Khan's  mo- 
ther, who  is  called  Navab.  She  has  built  a  fine  bath, 
which  is  extolled  by  every  person  of  the  country. 

Dee.  23. — A  journey  of  twelve  miles  brought  us 
to  Rashkhar,  founded  by  Amin  Khan  Beg,  the 
uncle  of  Mohammed  Khan,  the  elder  brother  of 
Ahmad  Khan,  who  was  lately  the  ruler  of  the  place. 
Here  are  1,500  souls,  many  of  whom  have  just  been 


freed  from  slavery,  since  the  Turkmans  of  Sarakhs 
have  been  reduced  to  bondage  by  his  Royal  High- 
ness Abbas  Mirza.  The  villagers  were  young  when 
they  were  taken  as  slaves,  and,  consequently,  could 
hardly  recognize  their  parents. 

The  Turkmans  who  came  to  attack  this  part  of 
the  country  made  an  alliance  with  the  people  of 
Nasrabad,  who  supplied  their  horses  with  grass  and 
barley.  Rashkhar  is  the  capital  of  six  forts,  towards 
the  north:  at  the  base  of  Darrez  are  situated  the 
villages  called  Fatahabad,  Barakoh,  South  Haid- 
rabad,  Shamshabad,  Apsabad,  West  Mehdiabad, 
famous  for  fine  rice,  and  East  Jalalabad,  celebrated 
for  raisins.  The  revenue  raised  from  Rashkhar  is 
600  kharvars  of  wheat. 

Dec.  24. — We  came  to  Nasrabad,  a  distance  of 
twenty-three  miles  from  our  last  ground,  in  a  north- 
east direction.  We  cast  our  eyes  upon  the  high 
snowy  mountain  called  Garma,  which  has  been 
honoured  by  foreign  people  on  account  of  Hazrat 
All's  miracle.  It  is  said,  that  one  day,  as  he  was 
passing  this  hill,  he  dismounted  from  his  horse,  and 
buried  his  spear  in  the  base  of  the  hill,  where  is  a 
fountain  of  hot  water  near  another  small  one,  which 
springs  from  the  foot-mark  of  Hazrat  Ali. 

Fear  of  the  Alamans  had  lately  caused  pilgrims 
not  to  visit  that  holy  place ;  but  at  this  time  the 
road  is  very  safe. 

In  view  from  the  road,  under  the  above  hill,  stands 
a  village  called  Sadatabad,  the  inhabitants  of  which 



were  all  recently  made  slaves  by  the  Alamans.  Our 
road  to  the  village  of  Mehdiabad,  the  limit  of 
Turbat  Haidari,  was  muddy  and  wearisome.  We 
entered  now  into  the  Khaf  country,  which  is  ruled 
by  NasruUah  Khan  Taimuri,  the  son  of  the  late 
Qalich  Khan.  This  town,  previous  to  Abbas  Mirza's 
coming  into  Khorasan,  was  a  particular  resort  of 
Turkmans,  who  attacked  this  country,  and  were  fed 
by  the  ruler.  The  fort  was  erected  by  Mohammed, 
the  cook  of  Qalich  Khan,  and  is  the  capital  of  thir- 
teen villages.  Towards  the  eaist  are  Saidi  and 
Salami,  Murghab,  Ham  Salman;  to  the  west  is 
Padak;  on  the  south  are  Faizabad,  Abbasabad, 
Farahabad;  and  on  the  north,  Segavan,  Sharuk, 
Mazran,  Khairabad.  These  places  produce  2,000 
kharvars  of  com  annually. 

Dec.  25. — We  reached  Khaf,  or  Rui,  twenty-eight 
miles,  which  is  the  residence  of  the  Taimuri  chiefs* 
The  country  is  very  luxuriant ;  beautiful  gardens, 
bordered  by  najo,  or  fir-trees,  form  a  romantic 
scenery.  The  windmills  were  new  to  me,  but  their 
clumsy  and  rude  machinery,  as  I  was  told  by 
Mr.  Gerard,  is  not  to  be  compared  with  that  of 
European  mills. 

Dec.  26. — We  renewed  our  course  in  the  mom-> 
ing,  and  commenced  ascending  the  Bakhars  hills, 
situated  on  the  left  of  the  road,  and  afterwards 
descended  to  the  valley.  When  we  got  out  of 
them,  we  crossed  two  or  three  frozen  canals,  and 
reached  a  ruined  caravansarae,  which  was  lately  the 


shelter  of  the  Turkmans.  The  left  part  of  the  place 
is  overlooked  by  a  lofty,  magnificent,  and  old  me- 
nar,  which  is  called  the  dahan,  or  mouth  of  Karat. 
The  door  of  the  ruined  sarae  is  decorated  with  a 
marble  slate,  covered  with  inscriptions  in  the  Arabio 
character.  The  sun  set  as  we  were  yet  travelling 
over  the  snow.  From  a  distance  we  saw  some- 
thing blackish  and  steep,  to  which  we  advanced, 
step  by  step.  It  was  a  village  named  Fareznah. 
The  gates  were  locked,  and  the  natives  ascended  the 
walls,  and  said  they  would  not  allow  us  to  enter,  as 
they  suspected  us  to  be  Alamans.  We  were  quite 
cold  and  fatigued  ;  I  instantly  climbed  the  wall,  and 
entering  the  village,  opened  the  gate.  Our  Persian 
companion  whipped  the  villagers  as  much  as  he 
could  ;  their  shrieks  were,  «  Ya  Allah  / "  *  O  God  ! ' 
Dec.  27. — We  journeyed  from  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning  till  seven  o'clock  at  night,  through  an 
extensive  and  tedious  plain,  where  we  did  not  meet 
a  single  man.  Before  we  entered  the  mouth  of  the 
Ghuryan  valley,  we  passed  by  a  frozen  well  and 
ruined  caravansarae,  of  which  no  trace  remains  but 
a  few  stones.  On  our  descent  into  the  Ghuryan 
plain,  we  were  surprised  by  the  night,  which  was 
dark,  and  caused  us  to  lose  the  road.  We  crossed 
many  frozen  and  icy  brooks  and  fields,  in  which  our 
horses  waded  to  the  belly.  After  great  diflSculty, 
we  reached  Ghuryan,  fifty-six  miles,  and  stopped  at 
the  house  of  Mullah  Qasim,  the  head  man,  or  kat- 
khuda,  of  Eunjan,  one  of  the  streets  of  Ghuryan. 



Our  baggage  and  servants  were  behind,  and  we 
passed  the  night  near  a  beautiful  fire,  making  the 
bare  ground  our  bed. 

Dec.  28. — We  continued  our  stay  in  Ghuryan, 
where  we  saw  many  ruined  buildings  scattered  over 
the  face  of  the  country.  The  cultivation  was  among 
ditches  and  ruined  places.  The  Vazir  of  Herat  has 
built  a  very  strong  fort,  surrounded  by  two  deep 
ditches  and  high  walls.  There  are  four  streets  in 
Ghuryan ;  Kunjan,  Qaisu,  Taghdan,  and  Sarasiya. 

Dec.  29. — We  proceeded  to  Prushing  Zindjan,  a 
village,  twelve  miles,  on  the  bank  of  the  Herat 
river.  The  road  was  barren.  The  head  men  of 
the  village  welcomed  us  very  respectfully.  There 
was  a  marriage  in  the  family  of  an  Afghan ; 
men  and  women  were  on  horseback,  and  others 
who  attended  the  nuptials  on  foot  were  laughing 
and  making  a  noise ;  the  like  of  which  I  never  saw 
in  an  Indian  wedding. 

Dec.  30, — Having  crossed  the  river  of  Herat, 
near  Shikeban,  we  arrived  after  evening  in  Herat, 
where  we  were  welcomed  by  the  Vazir's  £Eunily, 
who  entertained  us  with  a  delicious  dinner  in  a 
very  clean  house.  Din  Mohammed  Khan  Sardar 
was  our  host,  and  he  appointed  a  cook  with  six 
other  men  to  serve  us, 

Dec.  31.  Herat. — In  the  morning,  Sardar  Din 
Mohammed  Khan,  accompanied  by  other  chiefe, 
came  to  see  us,  and  treated  us  with  the  utmost 
cordiality.     They  all  breakfasted  with  us,  and  said 


they  were  as  happy  to  see  us  as  they  had  been  upon 
the  Tisit  of  his  late  majesty  Taimur  Shah. 

Jan  1  to  10,  1833. — It  rained  and  snowed ;  the 
Sardar  sent  for  singers  into  our  room,  and  kept 
us  amused  for  five  hours. 

We  were  summoned  by  the  king  inside  of  the 
arg,  where  we  paid  him  a  visit,  in  a  very  narrow 
and  dirty  room,  where  he  was  sitting  on  a  rotten 
carpet.  He  had  a  large  quantity  of  wood,  with  an 
iron  plate  full  of  fire,  before  him.  He  was  drunk 
or  stupified  with  opium  and  bhang.  Three 
miserable  candles  were  burning  on  each  side.  He 
was  in  such  a  senseless  condition,  that  I  could 
hardly  imderstand  his  half-broken  and  lazy  con- 
versation, the  substance  of  which  was,  that  we 
were  welcome  to  his  country,  and  that  he  was 
much  pleased  to  see  us. 

Sardar  Din  Mohammed  Khan  asked  us  to  ac- 
company him  on  a  hunting  excursion,  but  we  civilly 
declined,  excusing  ourselves  on  account  of  the 
quantity  of  snow  that  had  fallen;  but  in  truth 
Mr.  Gerard  had  something  to  write.  In  the  even- 
ing, Sardar  Din  Mohammed  Khan  sent  for  me, 
and  talked  with  me  very  kindly.  He  told  me  to 
examine  a  youth,  twenty  years  of  age,  who  had 
represented  himself  as  an  English  scholar.  The 
youth,  whose  name  was  Sarkhush,  was  found  to  be  a 
liar  and  deceiver,  from  the  very  first  question  put 
to  him.  He  possessed  a  Amd  of  Persian  know- 
ledge, and  was  the  author  of  some  poetry.     He  has 


several  very  singular  habits ;  for  instance,  whenever 
he  talks,  he  puts  his  little  finger  sometimes  on  his 
lips,  and  sometimes  on  his  chin.  When  he  speaks, 
he  raises  and  again  lowers  the  eyelids  of  his  beau- 
tiful dark  eyes ;  after  that,  he  closes  them  sud- 
denly. He  asked  me  to  take  him  to  India,  and 
recommend  him  to  some  gentleman  for  a  good 
situation.  I  answered  him,  "If  you  are  a  good 
Persian  writer,  you  will  get  a  good  situation ;  other- 
vfise,  all  these  your  effeminate  actions,  instead  of 
gaining  the  favour  of  gentlemen,  will  cause  them 
to  dislike  you." 

At  noon,  the  king  sent  his  master  of  ceremonies 
to  us,  with  an  escort,  to  shew  us  Musallah,  a  very 
ancient  place.  It  rained,  and  the  haze  prevented 
our  seeing  the  edifice.  We  returned  through  the 
road  of  Khayaban,  where  I  visited  some  high  firs, 
planted  in  a  straight  line,  making  an  avenue  of 
nearly  a  mile.  This  avenue  is  purposely  made  for 

Jaaa.  11  to  21. — The  sun  shone,  and  the  melt- 
ing of  the  snow  made  the  streets  and  houses  very 

In  the  cold  morning,  when  the  thermometer  was 
ft  degrees,  the  king  sent  for  us  into  a  private  room, 
and  ordered  that  no  other  person  should  enter, 
except  the  Attar  Bashi,  his  favourite  secretary, 
who  attended  to  the  qalian  all  the  time,  and  also 
was  his  counsellor.  The  king  told  Mr.  Grerard  to 
sit  next  to  him,  on  bis  right  hand,  by  the  fire,  and 


me  to  sit  before  him.  He  spoke  upon  various 
subjects,  and  always  appeared  very  anxious  to 
be  friendly  with  the  British  Government.  The 
purport  of  his  discourse  was  this ;  that  he  would 
be  much  pleased  to  be  a  firiend  to  Englishmen,  and 
even  to  acknowledge  obedience  to  them,  rather 
than  to  the  Persians,  who  are  friends  of  the 

I  climbed  the  roof  of  the  magnificent  building 
in  Mahmud  Shah's  garden.  The  scenery  was  beau- 
tiftil,  and  the  country  seemed  to  rival  Kashmir, 
which  is  styled  in  Persia  a  second  paradise.  Mr. 
Grerard  was  taken  ill,  and  the  king's  chiefs  all  came 
to  inquire  after  his  health. 

Jan.  22  to  31. — I  set  out  through  the  gate  of 
Qutab  Chaq,  and  bent  my  course  towards  the  right. 
Having  passed  under  an  arch  made  of  bricks,  I 
came  to  a  village  called  Baitulaman,  which  led  me 
through  a  gay  and  rosy  meadow,  the  property  of 
Prince  Malik  Qasim,  the  soti  of  Haji  Firoz.  I  en- 
tered the  gate,  and  was  quite  delighted  with  the 
garden.  There  were  four  cisterns  finely  decorated, 
and  trees  of  all  sorts  of  delicious  fruits.  The  length 
of  the  garden,  which  I  measured,  teas  450  paces, 
and  its  breadth  160. 

The  rain  has  greatly  injured  the  buildings  in 
Herat,  and  the  people  say  that  so  much  water  had 
not  fisdlen  for  the  last  hundred  years. 

Feb.  1  to  3. — ^I  had  the  honour  to  pay  a  visit  to 
the  king,  who  graciously  allowed  me  to  see  him  in 

216  FROM    BOKHARA   TO   MASH  AD. 

the  bath,  which  was  omamented  with  fine  marble. 
He  asked  me  how  Mr.  Gerard  was ;  I  civilly  replied 
that  he  was  better.  He  sat  on  red  velvet,  and  told 
me  to  sit  also.  There  was  a  bottle  of  rose-water 
put  before  him.  He  said,  "  If  Mr.  Gerard  or  the 
Hakim  Sahib  sends  you  to  Mashad,  you  will  gratify 
and  please  me  by  speaking  to  his  Royal  Highness 
Abbas  Mirza  in  praise  of  the  strength  of  Herat.** 
I  answered,  ^^  My  object  in  going  to  Mashad  is  to 
get  money  and  medicine  for  Mr.  Gerard,  and  to 
deliver  to  Abbas  Mirza  the  Shah's  answer  to  the 
proposal  of  Dr.  Macneill."  He  said,  he  hoped  I 
should  speak  with  the  prince  upon  such  topics  as 
might  break  his  resolution  of  coming  to  Herat : 
and  as  I  belonged  to  the  English  Government, 
with  which  he  anxiously  desired  to  be  friendly,  and 
even  to  give  up  to  them  his  country,  rather  than 
to  Abbas  Mirza,  he  hoped  that  I  would  not  say  any 
thing  against  his  country  to  Prince  Abbas  Mirza- 
"I  am  his  Majesty's  faithful  well-wisher,  and 
heartily  wish  to  speak  in  his  favour,  as  much  as  I 
can,"  was  my  answer.  He  half  smiled,  and  swore 
by  the  abode  of  his  Other's  soul  in  paradise,  and 
upon  the  Koran,  that  he  was  a  friend  to  the  British 
Government,  in  favour  of  which,  he  said,  if  it  would 
send  me  with  an  order  to  him,  he  would  heartily 
abdicate  his  throne,  and  deliver  his  country  into  my 
hands.  He  gave  me  a  shawl  from  his  head,  along 
with  a  bag  of  money,  for  the  expenses  of  my  jour- 
ney to  Mashad.     In  the  afternoon  he  sent  me  two 


horses  by  his  secretary,  which,  with  his  other  pre- 
sents, I  accepted,  by  Mr.  Gerard's  advice. 

Fd).  4. — I  bent  my  course  towards  Mashad,  hav- 
ing received  answers  from  Shah  Kamran,  and  direc* 
tions  from  Mr.  Grerard  to  borrow  some  money,  and 
bring  medicines  for  him.  Our  bags  of  cash  were 
getting  very  light.  I  was  the  bearer  of  numerous 
Persian  and  English  letters  for  noblemen  at  Mashad. 

On  our  right  hand  was  the  hill  called  Mullah 
Khojah,  from  a  person  so  named,  whose  body  rests 
on  the  top,  and  is  worshipped  by  his  followers.  The 
other  side  of  the  hill  extends  over  a  vast  plain,  named 
Sanjan,  covered  with  wood  and  water ;  it  meets  the 
hills  called  Band  Ardava,  near  which  is  the  exten-* 
sive  country  of  Badghis,  unrivalled  for  the  fertility 
of  its  soil.  I  followed  the  lower  road,  which  obliged 
me  to  cross  a  deep  and  very  rapid  stream  called 
Karbar.  Before  sunset  I  got  into  a  small  village 
named  Kushk,  twelve  miles,  or  three  fiEursakhs,  from 
Herat.  There  were  twenty  ruined  houses,  only 
three  of  which  were  inhabited  by  four  poor  and 
miserable  families.  The  farmers  were  busy  in  sowing 
wheat  and  barley. 

The  annual  productions  of  Kushk  are  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  kharvars  of  wheat ;  of  barley,  fifty ; 
of  cotton,  eight ;  of  melons,  nine  kharvars.  In  the 
vicinity  of  the  village  is  a  very  large  pond,  which  was 
full  of  water-fowl.  Opposite  to  the  entrance  there 
are  ruins  of  a  handsome  building. 

Feb.  5. — A  march  of  thirty-two  miles  brought  us 


to  Ghmyan,  where  I  was  hospitably  entertained* 
The  Sardar  shewed  by  his  conduct  that  he  secretly 
suspected  I  might  tell  Abbas  Mirza  something 
against  Herat,  but  offered  to  give  me  a  very  strong 
guard  as  far  as  Mashad. 

I  travelled  for  eight  miles  on  a  very  dirty  road, 
which  is  commanded  on  the  right  hand  by  Shahar 
and  Ikhails,  and  on  the  left  by  Pozah  Kafkar  Khan. 
We  crossed  numerous  brooks ;  one  of  them,  called 
Mimiyak,  is  bridged,  and  has  beautiful  stones  glitter- 
ing like  crystal  in  the  water. 

We  forded  the  river  of  Herat,  near  Shahdah,  a 
small  village  near  Zindjan.  It  reached  the  bellies  of 
our  horses. 

Feb.  6, 7. — I  continued  inGhuryan,  in  consequence 
of  the  Sardar's  saying  that  he  had  got  orders  from  the 
Shah  not  to  let  me  go  to  Mashad.  I  said,  ^^  I  am 
not  an  agent  either  of  Abbas  Mirza  or  the  Shah ; 
my  travelling  at  present  is  caused  by  our  having  no 
money,  which  I  wish  to  bring  from  Mashad,  and 
also  to  forward  the  despatches  from  Mr.  Gerard  to 
Dr.  Macneill,  respecting  his  proposals  to  the  Shah 
from  the  Persian  government.  If  the  Shah  has 
written  to  you  to  prevent  me  from  going,  why  did 
he  give  me  himself  leave  at  Herat,  with  favour 
and  presents  ?  I  will  not  believe  you,  till  I  myself 
get  orders  from  the  king  to  return  back  to  Herat.*' 
On  this  I  wrote  to  the  Shah,  saying  that  if  he 
had  changed  his  mind,  I  hoped  he  would  kindly 
inform  me,  that  I  might  immediately  return  back  to 


Herat.  Tte  letter  was  despatched  at  night  by  my 

Fd>.  8,  9. — I  passed  very  melancholy  days  in 
Ghuryan,  thinking  upon  yarious  subjects:  some* 
times  about  the  solitude  of  Mr.  Gerard,  and  some^ 
times  concerning  my  dangerous  situation. 

Feb.  10, 11.  Ghuryan.  —  The  Shah  sent  orders 
to  the  Sardar  to  send  me  safely  to  Mashad  as 
soon  as  he  received  the  raqam  (or  order).  On  this 
the  Sardar  was  much  ashamed :  he  m^de  many 
apologies,  and  asked  my  pardon  for  his  treatment  of 
me.  The  Sardar  is  an  ambitious,  talkative  creature, 
and  fond  of  wine,  which  has  given  him  a  bad  name 
through  the  country.  The  name  of  the  Sardar  is 
Sher  Mohammed  Khan ;  he  is  hakim  or  governor  of 
Ghuryan,  which  he  has  peopled  by  using  great  exer- 
tions to  colonize  it  with  foreigners.  He  has  four 
cannon,  one  of  which  is  very  large. 

Two  days  before  my  arrival,  four  grooms,  having 
mounted  valuable  horses,  set  off,  and  ran  away  to 
Mashad,  hoping  for  better  fortune  than  they  had  in 
Ghuryan.  The  Sardar,  being  informed  of  this  mis- 
fortune, immediately  ordered  their  &milies  to  be 
sold  in  the  Hazara  country.  The  poor  creatures, 
sufferers  for  their  sons'  faults,  were  lamenting  with 
loud  cries,  imploring  the  mercy  of  the  Musalmans. 
It(dd  the  Sardar  that  the  punishment  exceeded  the 
erime ;  on  which  he  calmly  told  me,  that  he  knew 
it  very  well ;  but  that  the  frequent  occurrence  of 
sadi  events,  and  the  confusion  in  Khorasan,  obliged 


him  often  to  act  so,  and  if  he  was  unjust,  ^'  Vattah*" 
(or  *  by  God '),  he  should  be  himself  sold  some  day. 

Feb.  12. — ^I  gladly  took  leave  of  Ghuryan  at 
sunrise,  accompanied  by  the  Sardar's  men.  I  passed 
on  the  road  by  the  villages  of  Istaram  and  Gaza, 
which  are  one  farsakh,  or  four  miles,  from  Ghur- 
yan or  Shaharband.  In  my  front  were  the  snowy 
mountains  of  Qaitul,  which  rise  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Herat  river.  I  crossed  two  small  streams, 
which  join  the  above  river  and  fall  into  the  Oxus; 
my  road  was  through  an  extensive  plain,  covered 
with  reeds  and  high  grass.  The  horses  of  different 
places  are  brought  to  this  field  to  feed,  and  it  is  said 
that  the  grass  is  never  consumed.  It  is  called  the 
Chaman  of  Shahalah. 

On  my  crossing  the  river  on  a  ruined  bridge,  I 
came  to  a  rabat,  or  destroyed  sarae,  occupied  by 
some  soldiers.  The  bridge  is  called  the  Tirpul. 
Tirat,  a  Hindu,  in  the  time  of  Shah  Abbas,  filled 
these  countries  with  saraes.  Abbas  heard  of  his 
benevolent  acts,  and  urged  him  to  receive  the 
money  which  he  had  expended  in  building  the 
bridge.  The  Hindu  refused,  and  said,  "  My  money 
is  the  produce  of  labour,  and  yours  of  tyranny." 
Abbas  Shah  was  enraged,  upon  which  the  Hindu 
replied,  that  he  would  submit  to  the  command  of 
the  king,  but  begged,  first,  to  visit  the  bridge  in 
company  with  his  Majesty.  His  request  was  com- 
plied with.  The  Hindu  and  Shah  Abbas  came  to 
the  bridge,  and  stopped  for  a  long  time.    The  former 


told  the  Shah  that  he  was  not  a  dealer  in  those 
things  which  would  give  eternal  happiness  in  the  time 
to  come,  and  then  threw  himself  into  the  river.  This 
Hindu  constructed  a  rabat  near  the  bridge,  which 
makes  travellers,  even  Mohammedans,  bless  his  soul. 
It  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river. 

I  reached  Kosan  about  sunset,  a  distance  of 
twenty  miles  from  the  last  ground.  It  is  a  veiy 
large  and  ancient  village,  but  a  great  part  of  it  is 
uninhabited.  It  was  three  times  destroyed  by  the 
Turkmans  or  Alamans  of  Sarakhs,  but  a  year  ago  it 
was  repeopled  by  Vazir  Yar  Mohammed  Khan. 

Shah  Ghasi  Isa  Khan,  who  is  appointed  by  the 
vazir  commander  of  the  fort,  came  to  me  in  the 
morning,  and  spoke  in  a  civil  manner.  He  is  an 
ugly,  fat,  dark,  and  dirty  Afghan.  His  son,  a  hand- 
some man,  said  that  his  father  and  he  would  be 
much  obliged  to  me,  if  I  (as  a  native  of  Kashmir, 
and  also  in  the  service  of  the  Farangi)  would  cast  a 
magic  spell  upon  Abbas  Mirza,  to  induce  him  to 
release  their  vazir  immediately.  I  told  him  that  I 
was  not  a  magician,  upon  which  his  foolish  father 
said  to  me,  "  Hold  your  tongue,  for  God's  sake ;" 
because  he  knew  well  that  the  Englishmen  had  got 
riches  and  possessions  by  magic,  and  not  by  power. 
I  could  not  help  laughing.  He  said,  my  laughing 
convinced  him  that  I  thought  him  a  fool.  I  replied, 
"No  doubt  of  it."  He  repeated  his  application. 
^  Laugh,  laugh  as  much  as  you  can,"  said  he,  "  but 
do  something  to  release  the  vazir,"  for  which  he 


offered  to  present  me  with  a  horse.  "  Keep  your 
horse  for  yourself,"  I  replied,  "  and  excuse  me  from 
such  a  foolish  business." 

Feb.  13. — I  started  at  sunrise.  The  river  was 
not  fordable,  and  I  came  back  to  the  bridge,  whence 
I  followed  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  I  met  several 
men  and  women,  who  were  starving,  and  going  to 
another  country.  They  were  inhabitants  of  Jam, 
Mahmudabad,  and  Bakhars.  For  two  years  their 
native  places  had  been  visited  by  dearth,  which  com- 
pelled them  to  leave  their  homes.  I  gave  many 
people  bread,  who  were  unable  to  walk,  and  were 
lying  down  senseless  on  the  road. 

I  left  the  straight  road  of  Kafar  Qilah,  where,  I 
was  told,  runs  a  deep  river.  The  man  who  gave 
me  intelligence  of  the  route  said,  at  the  same  time, 
that  he  had  seen  three  women  dead  near  that  water, 
through  hunger. 

I  halted  near  Darband,  which  is  called  Band 
Karat,  and  lies  eight  miles  west  of  Kafar  Qilah. 
The  Turkmans  of  Sarakhs  and  other  parts  go  this 
route  to  attack  Qayan  and  Khaf. 

FS.  14. — I  marched  about  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  and  leaving  Kafar  Qilah  on  my  right  hand, 
I  reached  Qilah  Hindu,  where  my  servants  made  a 
fire,  at  which  I  warmed  my  frozen  feet  and  body. 
A  Hindu  merchant  had  built  this  fort,  upon  the 
door  of  which  he  wrote  the  following : — 

"  Oh,  travellers,  I  conjure  you,  by  Almighty  God, 
and  by  the  souls  of  your  parents,  whenever  you  pass 


by  this  place,  come  and  eat  of  my  bread,  and  give  my 
barley  to  your  horses;  as  God  has  given  me  riches 
only  to  feed  travellers,  and  not  to  bury  them  in  the 

This  Hindu,  who  was  very  liberal,  was  killed  by  the 
Turkmans,  who  thought  that  they  would  thereby 
become  masters  of  his  property,  which  they,  how- 
ever, could  not  find.  I  passed  many  villages  on 
the  road,  namely,  Kahrez,  Abbasabad,  and  other 
places,  in  which  was  not  a  single  inhabitant ;  they 
had  almost  all  been  destroyed.  I  arrived  in  Turbat 
Shaikh  Jam,  forty-six  miles  distant,  after  sunset. 
The  northern  hills  of  Jam,  which  jut  into  the  river 
of  Herat,  contain  a  gold-mine,  which  I  heard  was 
worked  in  Nadir  Shah's  time.  The  country  of  Jam 
is  exceedingly  fertile,  and  has  many  fine  green 
plains.  Nadir  Shah  wrote  a  few  couplets  in  praise 
of  his  dominions  to  the  Sultan  of  Constantinople; 
one  of  them  is  the  following : 

"  Three  countries  of  mine  are  equal  to  your  whole 
territories,  namely,  Tehran,  Nishapur,  and  Jam." 

Jam  is  the  name  of  t  holy  man,  to  whom  a  tomb 
ivas  erected  by  his  votaries. 

Feb.  15. — We  shaped  our  course  towards  Mah- 
mudabad,  a  very  strong  fort.  The  road  was  covered 
^th  snow.  The  rain,  accompanied  with  a  sharp 
wind,  did  not  let  us  see  any  thing  of  the  country. 
Above  the  foggy  horizon,  I  saw  only  a  few  fine 
forts,  the  people  of  which  were  all  taken  by  the 
Alamans  of  Hazara,  who  are  worse  than  the  Turk- 


mans.  The  ruler  of  Mahmudabad  is  a  good-natured 
man ;  he  came  out  of  the  fort  to  receive  me,  and 
entertained  me  very  hospitably. 

Feb.16. — Having  left  Mahmudabad  at  three  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  we  reached  Sangbast,  fifty-«ix  miles 
distant,  at  seven  at  night.  We  met  on  the  road  many 
ruined  villages,  and  reached  Hadira,  a  walled  place, 
where  some  shepherds  lived,  and  so  many  camels  had 
died  from  the  cold,  that  I  mistook  their  bones  for 
fiiel ;  they  were  frozen  hard.  It  was  a  cold  night, 
and  I  ordered  my  servant  to  buy  a  rupee's  worth 
of  this  ftie],  and  make  a  fire  to  warm  me  ! 

Feb.  17. — At  noon  I  arrived  in  Mashad,  twenty- 
four  miles  distant,  where  the  Russian  guards  stopped 
our  baggage,  but  released  it  when  they  heard  that  I 
was  in  the  service  of  the  English  government.  The 
people  who  had  known  me  before  were  delighted  to 
see  me  again,  and  I  put  up  in  my  old  place,  the 
master  of  which,  Rajab  Ali,  had  gone  to  Herat  for 
me.  At  night  I  received  a  note  from  Mirza  Baba,* 
by  which  I  learnt  he  desired  to  see  me. 

Feb.  18.  Mashad. — Mr.  Borowski,  hearing  of  my 
arrival,  sent  for  me  by  a  note,  and  took  all  the  letters 
which  I  had  in  my  hand.  That  of  Mr.  Gerard  to 
Prince  Abbas  Mirza  he  took  immediately,  saying  to 
me,  "  Come  along,  I  vrill  take  you  to  the  prince." 
We  reached  the  palace,  where  Mr.  Borowski  went 

*  He  knew  English,  having  studied  medicine  in  England :  he 
was  in  favour  of  the  Persian  government,  and  a  friend  of  our 


first,  and  delivered  the  letter  himself.  The  prince 
was  busj)  and  could  not  see  me  that  day. 

FA.  19.— The  Vazir  Yar  Mohammed  Khan  of 
Herat  sent  me  a  message,  requesting  that  I  would 
oblige  him  by  paying  him  a  visit,  for  which  he  was 
very  anxious.  I  went  to  him,  and  delivered  him  the 
letter  of  the  Shah,  his  master,  with  many  others.  He 
talked  a  long  time,  and  left  me  very  civilly.  I  had 
also  the  pleasure  of  seeing  Mirza  Baba,  who  treated 
me  in  a  most  friendly  manner. 

Feb.  20  to  27.— The  Id,  which  is  the  last  day  of 
the  fiist-month,  happened  to  be  a  very  cold  day.  His 
Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza  sent  for  me  by  Mr. 
Borowski,  to  visit  his  court,  where  men  of  all  ranks 
stood  respectfully  to  congratulate  him  on  the  day. 
When  I  entered  the  door,  which  was  forty  paces 
from  his  seat,  and  bowed  to  his  royal  highness,  he 
called  me,  saying,  *'Come,  Indian  Mirza,  a  little 
nearer.''  I  stopped  in  three  places,  and  made  him 
bows,  till  I  reached  the  rails,  where  he  sat  in  a 
princely  dress.  He  said,  "  O  Mirza,  Khush  Amdi^ 
or,  ^You  are  welcome,'  and  asked  me  whether  I 
was  a  Sunni  or  Shia,  and  what  was  my  name.  **  I 
am  the  friend  of  Panjtan,  or  five  persons,"  was  my 
reply.  Abbas  Mirza  was  highly  glad  to  hear  this. 
He  was  pleased  very  much  with  my  conversation, 
Tvhen  I  explained  to  him  the  sketch  of  the  battle  of 
Waterloo,  which  he  put  before  me,  and  inquired  the 
name  of  every  thing,  by  putting  his  finger  on  the 
places.   Trenches  like  this,  he  said,  his  officers  made 



in  the  battle  of  Qochan,  and  he  blew  up  the  place 
immediately.  His  vazirs,  with  other  persons  of  dig- 
nity, stood  outside  on  his  right  hand,  making  a  line 
of  thirty  paces.  Opposite  to  them  was  the  musical 
band,  half  of  them  Russians,  who  were  all  under  the 
age  of  sixteen.  One  of  them  was  playing  on  the 
flute,  and  gaining  the  admiration  of  his  royal  high- 
ness,  who  said  to  me,  "  0  Mirza,  do  you  see  what 
penetrating  eyes  (or  Shukh  Chashm)  these  half-Rus- 
sians have  ?"  It  was  a  very  grand  court  indeed,  where 
people  of  every  rank  stood  respectfully ;  they  were 
astonished  to  see  the  prince  speaking  with  me  so 
kindly.  He  asked  me  many  questions  about  Turki- 
stan,  and  said,  *'  See  what  a  great  business  I  have 
done."  He  had  quelled,  he  said,  the  disturbances  in 
Khorasan,  and  released  the  slaves,  for  which  he 
hoped  the  English  government  would  praise  him 
much.  "  0  Mirza,  you  see,'*  he  said  to  me,  "  the 
road,  where  4,000  armed  men  dared  not  march,  has 
been  now  made  so  safe,  that  a  woman  may  travel  by 
herself  without  any  danger  whatever."  He  added, 
that  he  was  the  only  person  who  had  conquered  the 
Turkmans  of  Sarakhs  since  Nadir  Shah's  time.  I  said, 
'^  You  have  done  a  great  deal,  indeed,  for  the  present, 
but  on  your  return  to  Persia,  the  Turkmans  will  in- 
vade Khorasan,  which,  I  think,  will  never  be  quiet 
until  the  Europeans  are  masters  of  it."  His  royal 
highness,  with  elevated  brows,  gazed  at  me,  and  said, 
"  0  Mirza,  I  do  not  understand  why  the  European 
rule  is  better  than  mine."     I  replied,  "  Because  you 


have  given  ap  all  your  power  into  one  man's  hand, 
who  does  what  he  likes."  The  prince  smiled,  turned 
to  his  vazir,  who  stood  aside,  and  said  to  him,  ''  Do 
you  hear  how  agreeable  the  conversation  of  the  Kash- 
merians  is,  especially  those  who  are  educated  in  the 
English  language  ?  "  Omitting  further  observations, 
he  said  he  wished  to  hear  from  me  what  answers 
Prince  Kamran,  of  Herat,  gave  to  his  questions, 
which  he  told  Dr.Macneill  to  write  in  English,  and  to 
send  to  Herat  by  us.  Notwithstanding  I  explained 
the  written  paper  myself  to  Kamran,  and  had  heard 
his  answers,  yet  I  thought  it  expedient  and  proper 
merely  to  state  to  his  royal  highness,  that  a  despatch 
upon  the  subject  had  been  forwarded  by  me  to 
Major  Campbell,  the  English  envoy  at  Tehran,  who, 
I  hoped,  would  inform  him  very  soon  respecting  the 

After  asking  about  Ranjit  Singh's  politics  and 
power  (the  description  of  which  will  be  found  in 
my  Memoir,  written  by  Mr.  C.  E.  Trevelyan,  deputy 
secretary  to  Government),  he  honoured  me  with  the 
order  of  the  Lion  and  Sun,  which  Dr.  Macneill  had 
advised  him  to  give  me,  on  my  return  with  the 
answer  of  Shah  Kamran ;  it  was  sent  to  me  through 
Mirza  Baba,  who  treated  me  in  a  friendly  man- 
ner while  I  was  in  Mashad.  His  royal  highness 
wished  me  to  take  money,  for  the  expenses  of 
Mr.  Gerard,  from  his  treasury,  which  I  declined. 
He  gave  me  an  escort  and  passport  on  the  road, 
and  recommended  me   to  go   through  the   Khaf 


228         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

country,  where,  he  said,  there  was  not  the  least 

He  is  a  good-looking  prince.  His  face,  which  is 
not  very  fair,  shews  that  he  is  a  very  mild-hearted 
man.  He  praises  much  his  own  merits,  which 
becomes  not  the  descendant  of  a  royal  family.  He 
likes  foreigners,  but  prefers  Russian  officers  to  the 
English.  He  is  very  avaricious,  and  daily  expects 
to  succeed  his  father,  and  to  be  the  possessor  of  his 

Feb.  28. — I  left  Mashad  in  the  morning,  and 
travelled  over  a  snowy  road.  Our  horses  were 
often  startled  by  the  dead  camels  which  lay  in 
heaps  on  the  path.  I  reached  Shari&bad,  having 
travelled  twenty-four  miles,  and  met  Dr.  MacneilFs 
chapar,  by  whom  I  informed  that  gentleman  of  my 
return  from  Mashad,  and  the  favour  of  the  prince. 

March  1. — I  quitted  Shari&bad  in  the  morning, 
journeying  through  the  snow,  stirrup  deep.  Having 
passed  by  Kafar  Qilah  and  Rabat  Kami,  I  reached 
Fakhrabad,  a  distance  of  forty  miles.  It  was  dark, 
and  we  had  great  difficulty  to  find  the  village,  which 
I  reached  after  a  long  search.  The  gate  was  locked 
inside,  and  the  villagers  did  not  attend  to  us.  My 
servant  climbed  the  wall,  broke  the  lock,  and 
opened  the  door.  The  head-man  came,  and  gave 
me  a  dirty  house  to  lodge  in  for  the  night.  On  this 
my  servant  got  angry,  and  whipped  some  person  in 
the  village,  which  excited  men,  women,  and  child- 
ren to  come  out  of  their  houses.     They  made   a 

FROM  MA8HAD  TO  HBBAT.        229 

horrible  noise,  and  took  revenge  on  the  serrant  by 
sticks,  stones,  and  kicks.  They  were  not  afraid  of 
me,  because  they  supposed  me  to  belong  to  the 
Herat  Government.  I  went  to  bed  hungry,  and 
my  horses  were  without  com. 

March  2. — I  reached  Turbat  in  the  evening, 
twenty-four  miles  distant,  having  travelled  over  a 
deep  bed  of  snow.  When  I  came  to  an  uninha- 
bited caravansarae,  two  farsangs  on  this  side  of  Tur- 
bat, I  found  a  high  pass,  covered  with  an  immense 
quantity  of  snow,  which  prevented  my  crossing. 
The  chief  of  Turbat,  having  heard  of  my  arrival, 
sent  a  camel,  loaded  with  namads,  or  carpets, 
which  were  spread  over  the  snowy  path.  We  jour- 
neyed over  the  namads  very  slowly  with  our  horses ; 
however,  one  of  them  sunk  in  the  snow,  and  suffered 
a  great  deal  from  cold. 

March  3  to  5.  Turbat. — I  was  very  civilly  re- 
ceived by  Sardar  Sohrab  Khan,  a  very  good  man. 
He  is  mild  and  open-hearted ;  he  behaved  to  me 
not  like  a  stranger,  but  like  a  friend.  He  did  not 
allow  me  to  live  in  a  separate  room,  but  in  his  own, 
where  he  spread  a  velvet  bed  for  me.  His  son  was 
married  to  the  daughter  of  his  Royal  Highness  Abbas 
Mirza ;  and  he  is  the  commander  of  the  chief  army, 
and  has  gained  honour  in  every  field.  He  is  accus- 
tomed to  drink  every  day  two  glasses  of  spirits, 
mixed  with  sugar,  tea,  and  the  juice  of  a  large 

March  6. — I  left  Turbat,  and  came  to  Sangan,  a 

230         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

distance  of  twenty-four  miles,  where  I  was  treated 
with  cordiality.  The  passport  of  the  prince  was  my 
provider  in  every  place.  There  was  not  much  cold, 
the  climate  being  already  much  milder.  I  crossed 
a  very  deep  and  rapid  stream,  which  runs  towards 
the  west,  and  makes  the  country  fertile. 

March  7. — It  was  raining,  accompanied  vrith  a 
little  snow,  when  I  shaped  my  route  to  Rash  Khar, 
twelve  miles  distant.  The  houses  in  the  village 
had  suflTered  a  great  deal  from  the  rain,  and  the 
inhabitants  provided  a  lodging  with  difficulty  for  me. 
The  katkhuda  entertained  me  with  delicious  diy 
fruits,  and  said,  he  should  be  very  happy  if  I  would 
stop  with  him  another  day,  but  I  refused. 

March  8. — We  came  to  Nasrabad,  twelve  miles 
distant,  and  were  welcomed  by  Mohsin  Khan,  the 
best  person  of  the  Taimuri  tribe.  When  the  Afghans 
of  Herat  were  masters  of  Khaf,  they  often  wished 
to  take  this  fort,  which  is  not  very  strong ;  but  the 
bravery  of  Mohsin  Khan  obliged  them  to  return 
disappointed.  He  entertained  me  very  respectfully, 
and  asked  pardon  for  any  unintentional  neglect. 
He  is  a  frugal,  popular,  and  pious  individual ;  and 
has  never  been  under  the  yoke  either  of  Afghans  or 
Qari,  who  are  his  most  powerAil  neighbours. 

March  9. — I  arrived  in  Rui,  having  travelled 
twenty-eight  miles,  and  met  with  great  respect  and 
favour.  NasruUah  Khan  sent  his  man  to  tell  me» 
that  he  was  very  sorry  not  to  be  able  to  fiimish  me 
with  horsemen,  as  they  were  then  absent,  but  that 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         231 

he  would  be  quite  happy  to  give  me  as  many  foot- 
men as  I  might  wish.  He  fed  my  servants  and 
horses  hospitably. 

March  10. — I  continued  in  Rui,  waiting  the 
arrival  of  my  servants,  who  had  stayed  behind  in 
Turbat,  with  Sohrab  Khan,  to  punish  the  people  of 
Fakhrabad,  on  account  of  their  ill-behaviour  towards 
us.  At  noon,  NasruUah  Khan  sent  his  brother 
to  me,  with  a  request  for  permission  to  come  and 
see  me,  or  to  fiivour  him  with  a  visit.  In  short,  I 
went  to  his  house,  which  had  been  a  very  fine  build- 
ing in  former  days.  The  doors  had  been  broken 
open  by  Afghans,  and  he  shewed  me  all  that  he  had 
suffered  by  those  intruders.  He  is  ugly,  and  his 
conversation  was  wandering  and  flighty.  He  gave 
a  chugha  to  my  servant,  and  I  sent  him  two  Eng- 
lish knives  in  return,  for  which  he  gave  me  many 
thanks,  thinking  them  very  curious. 

March  11. — I  bent  my  route  to  Farezna,  twenty- 
four  miles  distant,  in  charge  of  a  few  hungry  old 
men  of  NasruUah  Khan.  I  was  ahead,  and  met  a 
iamily  coming  from  Ghuryan  to  Khaf.  They  thought 
I  was  a  robber :  some  of  them  concealed  themselves 
in  a  cave,  and  others  levelled  their  guns  at  me. 
I  left  the  straight  road,  and  reached  the  gunners  by 
a  secret  way.  When  they  saw  me,  they  were 
surprised  to  find  that  I  was  not  an  Alaman.  They 
cautioned  me  to  take  care  in  this  march,  which  they 
daid  was  full  of  Hazara  families,  who  rob  travellers. 

I  dined  in  a  ruined  sarae  near  Karat,  and  set  out 

232         FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

about  ten  o'clock  at  nigbt.  We  lost  the  straight 
Yoad  in  the  dark,  and  fell  among  unknown  villagea. 
We  were  obliged  to  sleep  on  the  road,  waiting  the 
dawn  of  day. 

March  12. — I  arrived  at  Ghuryan,  having  trayelled 
fifty-aix  miles  after  sunset.  I  had  great  difficulty  in 
finding  the  village,  where  I  intended  to  stop.  My 
^^K^^  B^^  servants  were  behind,  and  I  offered 
a  rupee  to  a  huntsman  to  shew  me  the  house  of 
Mallah  Qasim  Katkhuda,  which  I  reached  after  a 
great  search,  and  passed  the  night  in  a  sound 

March  18. — I  continued  in  Ghuryan,  as  my  horses 
were  tired,  and  sent  a  letter  to  Mr.  Gerard  in  Herat, 
telling  him  of  my  coming. 

Fatah  Khan,  a  youth  of  twenty,  and  of  a  beauti- 
ful shape,  sent  his  man  to  me  with  a  message,  that 
he  would  be  happy  to  see  me^  and  talk  with  me,  if 
I  stopped  with  him  a  day.  He  had  been  lately 
appointed  the  commander  of  the  fort.  He  was  a 
great  friend  to  me  all  the  time  I  was  with  him. 

March  14. — I  came  to  Zind  Jan,  twelve  miles, 
through  a  very  sharp  rain.  Rasul  Khan,  who  was 
my  host,  dried  my  clothes,  and  provided  me  with 
all  I  wanted.  He  was  very  attentive,  and  strove 
cordially  to  serve  me. 

March  15.  —  We  moved  in  the  morning,  but 
could  not  cross  the  river  near  Shi  Keban.  The 
bridge,  called  Pul  Malan,  had  been  swept  away  by 
the  current  of  the  river,  and  we  were  obliged  to 

FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         233 

return  to  Tirpul,  near  Kosan ;  but  fortunately  for 
U8,  a  shepherd,  whom  I  offered  a  rupee,  became 
our  guide  through  the  river,  and  we  forded  the 
stream  safelj.  We  halted  in  Rabat  Kishmi,  having 
travelled  thirteen  miles,  and  passed  the  night  in  a 
very  muddy  place.  The  villagers,  who  believed 
that  I  was  a  Persian,  anxiously  asked  me  when 
Agha  or  Naib  Saltanat  would  come  to  take  Herat, 
and  release  them  from  the  oppressive  yoke  of  the 

March  16. — I  re-entered  into  the  city  of  Herat, 
where  every  one,  and  even  the  king,  was  anxiously 
expecting  me,  to  learn  the  news  of  Mashad.  I  had 
travelled  through  a  very  fertile  country  indeed, 
which  on  the  north  was  surrounded  by  the  stream  of 
Karbar,  and  on  the  south  by  the  river  of  Herat. 
My  eyes,  after  dwelling  so  long  on  the  barren  and 
snowy  tracts  of  Khorasan,  were  refreshed  by  the 
sight  of  such  a  green  country. 

March  17.  Herat. —Sher  Mohammed  Khan, 
minister,  sent  us  a  note,  saying  that  he  would  be 
happy  to  see  us  in  his  house  or  ours.  We  went, 
and  saw  him  sitting  alone  in  a  tent,  when  I  told 
him  that  there  were  great  preparations  making  in 
Mashad  to  come  to  Herat.  He  fell  first  into  deep 
thought:  he  was  sure,  he  said,  that  the  English 
Government  would  prevent  the  Persians  from  in- 
vading Herat;  but  it  was  a  great  shame  for  the 
Afghans  to  apply  to  them  on  such  a  business. 

Match  18. — ^At  night  we  were  sent  for  by  the 

234         FROM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT. 

king  into  a  small  room  adjoining  a  tent.  He  told 
us  to  sit,  and  under  the  influence  and  advice  of 
his  minister,  spoke  a  great  deal  of  his  own  foolish 
designs  of  fighting  with  Abbas  Mirza.  He  was 
stupified  with  opium  and  bhang,  and  could  hardly 
dpeak.  All  his  conversation  this  night  was  full  of 
war,  and  his  dispute  with  the  Persians.  He  said 
that  he  was  very  sick,  and  vomited  often  in  the 
course  of  an  hour.  He  asked  his  favourite  secre- 
tary. Attar  Bashi,  to  bring  something  for  him  to 
eat,  as  he  felt  very  hungry. 

March  19. — The  rain  levelled  many  buildings 
to  the  ground,  and  fever  destroyed  many  people. 
The  master  of  the  ceremonies  presented  us  with  a 
fine  dinner,  and  sat  and  spoke  a  long  time  with  us. 
He  is  in  possession  of  some  little  money,  which  has 
excited  a  jealousy  among  his  people.  He  became 
a  great  friend  of  mine,  and  often  sent  for  me  to 
accompany  him  in  his  hours  of  pleasure. 

March  20  to  22. — We  saw  Sardar  Din  Moham- 
med sitting  in  a  tent,  where  we  felt  great  warmth. 
He  asked  Mr.  Grerard  to  vmte  to  his  Royal  Highness 
Abbas  Mirza,  and  settle  the  afl^r  of  Herat,  for 
which  he  would  be  bound  to  the  British  service, 
and  never  forget  our  obligation.  Mr.  Gerard,  on 
account  of  Dr.  Macneill's  vmting,  agreed  to  vmte  to 
Mashad  about  the  business  another  time. 

March  23  to  31. — We  had  a  visit  from  a  cele- 
brated man  named  Sher  Mohammed  Khan  Beglar 
Begi,  the  head-man  of  the  Hazara  tribe.     He  was 

FBOM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT.         235 

bunting  in  the  hills  with  a  hawk  in  his  hand. 
When  he  saw  us  going  towards  his  tent,  he  de- 
scended, and  came  a  little  distance  to  receiye  ns. 
His  speech  with  us  was  full  of  consideration  and 
respect,  but  his  appearance  erinced  cunning.  He 
told  me  that  he  was  afraid  of  mj  Persian  cap, 
which  put  him  in  mind  of  his  enemy  Abbas  Mirza. 
I  replied,  "  0  Sir,  if  you  fear  the  cap,  I  am  grieved 
to  think  how  much  the  master  of  the  cap  may 
frighten  you ; "  meaning  the  Persians.  He  laughed, 
and  remarked  to  his  companion,  a  respectable 
Hazara,  what  a  fine  answer  mine  was.  His  daily 
expenses  are  not  paid  in  money,  but  by  the  sale 
of  slaves.  He  praised  the  British  Government  a 
long  time,  for  their  sagacity  and  care,  and  for  their 
good  behaviour  to  foreigners,  such  as  Shah  Shuja. 

On  our  return  we  passed  through  the  Bagh-i- 
Shah,  where  we  saw  a  great  number  of  women 
with  white  veils,  which  had  a  very  fine  appearance 
among  the  green  fields.  The  men  galloped  their 
horses,  and  made  a  great  noise,  which  alarmed  the 
women  terribly. 

April  1  to  17. — Shahzadah  Kohandil,  the  son  of 
Taimur  Shah,  expired  of  plague,  but  some  say  he 
was  starved  by  poverty.  His  funeral  was  very  poor 
and  humble.  The  prince  Kamran,  I  was  told, 
gave  nothing  for  his  coffin. 

We  went  to  see  Mir  Saddiq  Khan,  a  popular 
chief  in  Herat.  He  behaved  very  civilly  to  us, 
and  presented  us  with  some  very  fine  large  loaves  of 

236         FBOM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT. 

Russian  sugar.  His  conversation  was  eloquent  and 
agreeable.  On  our  return,  we  visited  Sher  Mo- 
hammed Khan,  who  lay  sick  on  his  bed.  His  com- 
plaint was  rheumatism;  he  was  very  civil  to  us. 
Said  Mohammed  Khan,  the  son  of  the  vazir,  urged 
me  to  take  him  to  an  Indian  darvesh,  who  had 
lately  arrived  in  Herat.  He  asked  him  when  his 
father,  the  vazir,  would  come  to  Mashad,  and  many 
other  questions ;  the  answers,  which  were  foolish, 
seemed  satisfactory  to  my  companion.  He  is  a  boy 
sixteen  years  of  age,  and  is  accustomed  to  compare 
his  dress  and  shape  with  those  of  others.  He  is 
the  most  selfish  and  vain  individual  that  I  ever  met 
in  high  fsimilies. 

April  18  to  80. — These  were  very  cold  days; 
the  thermometer  in  the  morning  stood  43  degrees, 
and  at  eve,  55  degrees.  We  were  distressed  for 
want  of  money.  I  happened  in  the  evening  to  pass 
through  the  garden  of  Mukhtar,  and  met  a  crowd  of 
women,  old  and  young.  As  I  was  in  a  Persian 
dress,  they  surrounded  me,  and  began  to  laugh ; 
some  said,  what  an  unmerciful  boy  I  was,  and 
others  what  fine  locks  I  had.  One  of  them  was 
a  forward  person,  of  middle  age,  who  called  me 
a  faithless  fop,  and  pointed  her  hand  at  me  in  a 
rude  manner,  to  which  I  was  unaccustomed. 

Fir  Mohammed  Khan,  a  man  of  information,  but 
double-faced,  and  without  veracity,  told  me  that 
whenever  the  king  of  Herat  wants  to  extort  money 
from  the  people,  he  tortures  them,  in  the  following 

FROM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT.         237 

manner,  and  that  he  had  himself  once  experienced 
the  penalty. 

1st.  Fanah. — A  piece  of  wood,  a  yard  long,  is 
buried  half  under  the  ground,  and  the  other  half  is 
split  into  two  pieces.  The  feet  of  the  man,  tied  with 
rope,  are  put  between  them,  and  oyer  them  a  small 
piece  of  wood  is  laid.  It  is  struck  with  another 
piece  of  heayy  wood,  which,  by  pressing  down,  causes 
intense  pain. 

2nd.  Dam, — A  skin,  or  a  pair  of  smith's  bellows, 
is  introduced  into  the  man,  and  blown  by  another 
person.  The  wind  collects  in  the  belly  of  the  poor 
man,  which  swells  gradually,  and  he  feels  himself  in 
danger  of  suffocation. 

3rd.  Shikanjah. — A  thin  rope  is  bound  round  the 
thighs  of  the  man,  each  end  being  fastened  to  the 
middle  of  a  long  stick,  which  is  held  by  two  men  at 
each  point,  and  turned  round  and  round.  The  twist- 
ing of  it  is  very  painful. 

4th.  Char  Mekh. — The  two  hands  of  the  man  are 
festened  with  a  rope  to  a  stick  at  a  distance  from 
each  other,  and  his  feet  in  a  similar  manner.  After 
this,  a  nose-bag  of  a  horse,  filled  with  sulphur  and 
tobacco,  is  held  to  his  mouth,  and  lighted.  The 
smoke  is  most  tormenting. 

May  1. — It  was  a  clear  and  pleasant  morning  of 
the  Id  Zurban,  a  grand  day  among  Mohammedans. 
It  happens  once  a  year,  two  months  after  Ramzan, 
during  which  they  fast.  We  rode  out  of  the  gate  of 
Malik,  and  saw  the  walls,  roofs,  and  streets  covered 

238         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

with  men  and  women.  The  kmg,  accompanied  by 
his  sons  and  chiefs,  rode  on  a  beautiful  horse ;  but 
when  compared  with  the  Delhi  princes,  he  looked 
very  poor. 

The  petitions  of  the  poor  and  hungry  gained  no- 
thing from  the  king,  but  kicks  and  blows  from  his 
servants.  One  of  them  was  an  old  woman,  who 
fancied  herself  lucky  in  receiving  one  rupee  from 
the  king :  but  the  money  turned  out  to  be  a  copper 
coin.  The  king  saw  us  from  a  distance,  and  returned 
our  salams.  He  came  back  from  the  Idgah  to 
his  poor  palace,  which  bore  but  a  caricature  semblance 
of  the  ancient  royal  court.  He  sat  on  a  wooden 
throng  covered  with  brocade,  having  four  velvet 
pillows  on  each  side.  He  was  not  very  magnificently 
dressed,  and,  feeling  his  poverty,  cast  his  eyes  down. 
By  the  throne  was  a  common  floor,  on  which  were  a 
few  plates  of  sweetmeats,  surrounded  by  the  Mullahs, 
and  behind  the  Mullahs  were  the  men  of  rank  and  dis- 
tinction. When  they  came  to  congratulate  the  king, 
they  ran,  accompanied  by  the  I'shak  Qasi,  towards 
him,  while  the  mace-bearers  called  with  aloud  voice, 
"  Durrani  They  stood  there  until  the  above  officers 
said  to  them,  with  a  trembling  voice,  "  Gtiehan  ;" 
"  Dmran^^  meaning,  in  Turkish,  *  stand  still,'  and 
"  Gachmy^  *  go  away.'  The  master  of  the  ceremo- 
nies is  called  I'shak  Qasi;  the  former  word  means 
*  door,'  and  the  latter  *  owner,'  (*  the  owner  of  the 

It  was  not  a  pompous  court,  like  that  of  the  Delhi 

FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         239 

king,  but  strange  to  mj  eyes*  The  Mullahs  began  to 
dispute  with  each  other,  and  dismissed  the  court  in 
a  curious  manner.  They  fell  upon  the  sweetmeats, 
and  carried  them  off  like  the  hungry  Persian  soldiers 
in  Sarakhs.  Their  pockets  were  filled  with  them, 
and  their  turbans  fell  off  in  the  quarrel,  which  was 
purposely  done  to  please  and  amuse  the  king. 

May  2  to  20. — I  went  to  visit  Sardar  Sher  Mo- 
hammed Khan,  who  presented  me  with  sweetmeats, 
and  said  he  was  as  angry  with  us  as  we  were  with 
him;  that  we  were  not  so  friendly  to  him  as  to 
others,  for  which  he  was  extremely  sorry.  I  told 
him,  that  those  who  spoke  well  to  us  we  went  to, 
and  liked  them  better  than  those  who  presented  us 
with  money,  &c.  He  answered,  very  modestly,  that 
he  was  a  secret  friend  of  Englishmen,  and  that  others 
openly  talked  in  their  &vour  without  effecting  any 

The  king  ordered  the  bellies  of  nine  men  to  be 
torn  open,  on  account  of  their  selling  people :  one 
of  them  had  sold  his  daughter  to  a  Hazara,  as  he 
had  no  money  to  feed  himself,  and  was  starving  with 
hunger.  They  were  tied  to  camels,  while  their 
heads  were  hanging  down,  and  dragged  through  the 
bazar,  which  was  coloured  with  their  blood. 

We  learned  with  grief  and  lamentation,  from  Sher 
Mohammed  Khan,  that  our  servant. Mohammed  had 
been  taken  by  the  Alamans.  We  had  sent  him  to 
Mashad  with  a  large  packet  of  letters  for  the  envoy 
at  Tehran,  and  to  the  Government  of  India,  which 


Mr.  Gerard  took  a  great  deal  of  pains  to  write  daring 
two  months.  At  the  same  time,  we  were  informed 
of  his  safe  arrival  at  Mashad,  and  it  was  likely 
that  Sher  Mohammed  Khan  first  spread  this  report, 
and  perhaps  he  himself  sold  or  killed  Mohammed, 
either  on  his  going  or  coming  back  to  Herat.* 

We  went  to  see  Sardar  Din  Mohammed  Khan, 
who  treated  us  civilly,  and  passed  the  time  we  sat 
with  him  in  cutting  sticks  with  an  English  knife. 

May  21. — The  person  whom  we  sent  with  letters 
to  Mashad,  on  the  16th  of  the  current  month,  and 
expected  to  reach  there  to-day,  was  seized  by  the 
people  of  Sher  Mohammed  Khan,  and  the  letters 
were  sent  back  to  him  in  Herat.  He  opened  the 
letters,  and  proposed  to  several  Indians  to  read 
them,  who  asserted  their  ignorance  of  the  English 
language.  At  last  he  sent  them  to  us  by  his  man, 
and  made  plenty  of  excuses.  He  said  that  the 
letters  were  opened  by  his  foolish  servants,  and  he 
was  very  sorry  that  our  man  had  been  stopped.  He 
added,  that  whenever  we  vnshed  to  send  the  man  to 
Mashad,  he  would  be  glad  to  give  him  leave,  and  a 
passport  for  the  road.  We  were  very  sorry  indeed 
at  this  event.  Want  of  necessaries  pressed  hard 
upon  us*  We  tore  up  the  English  letters,  and  I 
wrote  Persian  ones  instead,  which  might  extinguish 
his  foolish  ideas.  I  went  with  the  letter,  and  found 
him  asleep  in  a  garden.     I  was  very  civilly  received 

*  He  was  sold  as  a  slave  in  Khiva. 

FROM  MASHAO  TO  HERAT.         241 

by  the  whole  of  the  chiefB»  who  pass  their  time  in 
idleness.  Among  them,  Sardar  Din  Mohammed 
Khan,  one  of  the  most  powerful  chiefs  of  the 
Alakozai  family,  was  standing  with  a  few  attendants 
on  the  bank  of  a  pool,  and  threw  the  people  into  it 
with  all  their  clothes.  They  came  out  with  wet 
apparel,  and  were  rubbed  with  earth  by  the  Sardar's 
brother  and  men.  He  placed  his  hand  on  mine, 
and  was  laughing  very  heartily.  When  several  of 
the  persons  had  been  dipped  in  the  tank,  the  Sardar 
ceajsed  this  frolic,  and  told  me  that  it  was  all  done 
to  make  me  happy. 

A  little  while  after,  I  saw  Sher  Mohammed  Khan 
Bitting  nnder  the  trees,  with  his  gaudy  attire,  on  the 
dirty  ground.  I  made  him  a  Salam  Alaikum^  and 
he  returned  it  to  me  with  a  proud  voice.  He  had  a 
tea-cup  in  his  hand,  which  he  delivered  to  me  in 
token  of  respect.  I  shewed  him  the  Persian  letter 
which  explained  our  distressing  situation  in  his 
country :  he  sweated  with  shame. 

I  returned  to  my  quarters  quite  annoyed  and 
angry.  As  distress  is  often  succeeded  by  happiness — 
which  last  in  reality  brings  forth  the  former,  not  to 
injure  our  spirits,  but  to  shew  us  its  value — in  the  very 
moment  of  sadness,  we  were  delighted  to  receive  a 
very  civil  letter  from  the  chief  of  Candahar,  a 
tmnslated  copy  of  which  I  here  subjoin. 

"After  wishing  you  all  joy  and  prosperity,  I  have  the  pleasure 
to  state,  that  your  most  delightful  and  ohliging  letter  has  been 
most  cheerfully  and  duly  received,  with  one  from  my  most  brave 


242         FROM  HASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

brother,  Snltan  Mohammed  Khan,  and  the  contents  of  it  folly 
tuderstood.  Considering  the  degree  of  friendship  which  exists 
between  me  and  my  brother,  the  said  Sardar,  I  assure  yon  that 
my  honse  will  always  be  open  for  your  reception,  and  that  yon 
may  consider  it  as  your  own  house,  and  come  whenerer  you  like, 
without  hesitation.  As  far  as  lies  in  my  power,  nothing  will  be 
wanting  on  my  part  to  please  you  during  your  sojourn  here. 

^^  You  mentioned  about  an  escort  of  horse  to  be  sent  to  Khash* 
rod.  The  honourable  Suhbat  Khan  Chapar  is  our  agent  at 
Herat,  and  as  he  marches  with  such  celerity,  I  think  he  will  escort 
you.  I  hare  sent  the  necessary  instructions  to  him,  and  it  re- 
mains only  that  you  should  come  in  his  company.  He  will  be  in 
attendance  on  you  until  yon  arriye  at  Ahmdeshahi,  and  in  case 
of  his  setting  out  before  the  arrival  of  my  letter,  or  delaying  in 
Herat,  and  your  starting  in  the  mean  time^  I  hope  you  will  let 
me  know  exactly  what  time  you  leave  Herat,  and  when  you 
will  reach  Khashrod.  This  information  must  be  forwarded  to  me 
five  days  previously,  that  I  may  be  able  to  send  you  an  escort 
of  horse ;  and,  until  I  have  the  gratification  of  seeing  you,  pray 
write  to  me  as  frequently  as  you  can." 

Seal  of  the  Chief, 


May  22. — When  the  report  of  the  Candahar  letter, 
along  with  our  distresses,  spread  through  the  party 
of  the  chiefs,  and  penetrated  even  to  the  ears  of  the 
king,  he  sent  in  the  morning  his  private  minister. 
Attar  Bashi,  who  had  a  short  but  very  pleasant  con- 
versation with  us.  He  said  that  the  king  was  very 
much  pleased  with  us,  and  was  a  great  friend  of  our 
Government.  He  offered  us  400  ducats,  which  we 
refused  to  take  to  the  last ;  and  said,  that  the  king 
was  very  sorry  for  the  distress  we  suffered  in  his 
country.     He  asked  us  to  take  his  letters  for  the 

FROM  MA8RAD  TO  HEUAT.         243 

OoTernor-Geneml,  and  at  the  same  time,  a  petition 
to  the  king  of  Great  Britain,  wliich,  he  said,  his 
lordship  would  kindly  transmit  to  England. 

In  the  evening  I  went  to  the  Candahar  gate,  where 
I  witnessed  a  novel  s<*ene :  numerous  women,  with 
white  dresses  and  veils,  were  spread  over  all  the 
plain;  they  were  sitting  each  at  the  head  of  agraye, 
crying  and  lamenting  for  their  dead  ancestors.  Some 
of  them  I  saw  had  the  coquetry  to  cover  their  faces 
at  one  time,  and  at  another  to  unveil,  not  from  sim- 
plicity, but  to  attract  the  notice  of  the  people,  who 
anxiously  surround  them  as  bees  do  honey,  and  de- 
light in  following  their  steps. 

May  23. — In  the  morning  Attar  Bashi,  the  private 
secretary  to  the  king,  paid  us  a  visit,  and  said  he  was 
sent  by  his  majesty  to  inquire  after  our  situation, 
and  to  offer  us  money  for  our  expenses,  which  we 
civilly  refused. 

He  repeatedly  resumed  the  same  subject,  though 
we  mildly  begged  of  him  to  talk  upon  other  things. 
He  added,  that  the  king  was  an  intimate  friend  of 
our  Government,  and  he  was  very  anxiom  to  explain 
his  designs  and  opinions  to  us,  but  th&  fear  of  hit 
nobles  had  caused  him  not  to  reveal  them  yet. 

May  24  to  26. — Mirza  Abdul,  the  son  of  Haji 
Aghai  Khan,  Vazir  of  the  late  Haji  Firoz,  sent  for  me 
to  Mt  fruit  with  him  in  his  garden,  which  I  saw  had 
suffered  from  neglect.  He  was  a  man  of  no  great 
fortune,  and  whatever  he  had  he  spent  with  fruga- 
lity.    He  is  aged  and  lowHspirited,  but  has  a  civil 


244         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

and  obliging  deportment.  His  father,  as  benevolent, 
polite,  and  generous  an  individual  as  ever  existed  in 
Herat,  left  a  good  name  to  his  posterity.  He  was  in 
great  favour  with  Shahzadah  Firoz,  who  went  with 
him  on  a  pilgrimage,  and  they  were  ever  after  called 
Hajis,  or  pilgrims.  When  Haji  Firoz  was  deposed, 
the  eyes  of  his  minister  were  put  out  by  Prince 
Kamran,  who  often  extorted  money  from  him  and 
his  son.   Haji  Aghai  Khan  died  in  M ashad  in  1818. 

May  27  to  31. — I  went  to  see  the  place  called 
Takiah,  in  which  the  Shias  assemble  in  the  month 
of  Moharram,  to  mourn  for  the  sufferers  at  Karbala, 
where  the  descendants  of  Ali,  Husain  and  Hasan, 
were  killed,  along  with  their  family  and  the  little 
infants.  The  sad  history  of  the  martyrs  of  Karbala, 
in  verse,  was  recited  by  the  Mullahs.  Men  and 
women  were  weeping,  shrieking,  and  beating  their 
breasts,  with  all  the  marks  of  grief.  I  could  not 
help  shedding  tears  when  I  learnt  the  hardships 
endured  by  Ali's  fieimily.  It  is  not  necessary  to  give 
a  full  description  of  the  sufferings  which  they  en- 
dured ;  however,  I  cannot  omit  recording  a  very 
brief  history  of  the  martyrs. 

Hazrat  Ali  was  married  to  the  holy  Fatimah, 
the  daughter  of  Mohammed.  She  had  two  sons, 
namely,  Husain  and  Hasan,  who  were  tenderly 
loved  by  their  grandfather,  the  Apostle  of  God. 
He  one  day  told  Hazrat  Mavia,  that  his  son  would 
come  into  the  world  to  shed  the  blood  of  his  fiimilj 
and  relations.     If  such  be  the  case,  I  will  never 

FROM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT.         245 

marry,  replied  the  Mavia;  and  he  contmued  uu-* 
married  for  eighty  years.  Being  stung  by  a  scorpion^ 
he  was  told  there  was  no  remedy  to  be  found  for  the 
pain  but  to  marry.  He  accordingly  married  a  lady 
of  ninety  years  of  age,  who  brought  forth  a  son, 
named  Yazid.  Mavia  was  very  sorry  at  this  event. 
When  the  boy  grew  up,  his  father  advised  him  to 
respect  and  obey  the  family  of  Mohammed,  and  his 
grandsons,  Husain  and  Hasan.  When  Yazid  be* 
came  a  man,  he  fell  in  love  with  Shahr  Bano,  to 
whom  he  sent  Imam  Husain  (as  he  is  termed)  with 
a  proposal  of  marriage,  which  she  refused,  and 
captivating  the  affections  of  the  Imam,  she  married 
him  immediately.  This  circumstance  exasperated 
Yazid,  who  resolved  to  massacre  the  Imam  Husain 
and  his  relations.  A  battle  ensued  between  the 
prophet's  descendants  and  Yazid,  who  gained  a 
decisive  victory,  and  even  destroyed  them,  with 
their  little  children,  by  starvation.  He  treated  their 
household  with  cruelty  and  indignity,  placing  the 
ladies  of  the  deceased  Husain  and  Hasan  on  the 
bare  backs  of  camels,  and  conducting  them  unveiled 
from  one  bazar  to  another. 

June  1  to  9. — We  had  the  pleasure  to  meet  with 
Khwajah  Khanji,  and  his  companion  Ismael  Shah,  of 
Kabul.  The  former  is  a  man  of  middle  size,  fifty 
years  of  age.  He  is  a  Sunni  (believer  of  Moham- 
med and  his  four  friends),  and  a  follower  of  Shah 
Asbqan  Ari-fan,  a  most  respectable  and  godly 
individual,  who  lived  in  the  time  of  Usman,  the  suc^ 

246        FEOM  MASHAD  TO  HBKAT. 

cesBor  of  Mohammed,  i^cl  whose  sepulchre  stands 
in  the  garden  of  Kabul  The  abore  men  were 
acquainted  with  English  liberality,  morality,  and 
politeness,  and  their  good  treatment  of  foreign 
people,  and  they  revealed  tp  the  ohieis,  and  even  to 
the  king  of  Herat,  all  these  qualities,  speaking  of 
them  with  praise  and  respeet.  Though  the  king 
was  Yery  much  pleased,  and  ciyil  to  us  before,  still 
the  aho¥e->mentioned  travellers,  wbq  were  respected 
by  him,  recommended  us  to  his  Mfgesty,  and  gave  a 
good  name  to  the  British  Goveminent. 

These  persona  informed  iqe  thiit»  in  the  month  of 
October,  1833,  they  left  Feshawer,  and,  having 
crossed  the  rivers  named  Shah  Alam,  Naguman,  and 
Daudzai,  put  up  in  Shab  Qadar,  a  village  twelve 
miles  from  the  city.  Next  day  they  fiprded  thQ 
river  Ha3ht  Nagar,  and  came  to  the  fort  of  Abaaai^ 
four  utiles  distant.  From  thence  they  journeyed  all 
night  towards  the  eapt  into  a  depert,  which  was 
occupied  in  aonje  places  by  shepherdgi.  Their 
ground  was  in  Sakpakqt,  tUirty-twq  miles  distant, 
one  of  the  villages  of  Usafisai.  The  fourth  march 
brought  them  to  Alah  Daud,  where  they  were 
civilly  treated  by  luayatullah  Khan,  the  rqler  of 
the  place.  After  five  halts,  they  bent  their  course  in 
a  northern  direction,  towards  the  l4aran  hills,  where 
they  re-crossed  the  river»  and  passed  the  night  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  villages.  When  they 
ascended  the  hill,  they  found  it  entirely  <x>vered 
with  numerous  flower-trees,  which  they  saw  were 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HSRAT.        247 

dipped  in  rose-water.  They  reached  Panjkora, 
twenty-four  miles,  after  struggling  over  a  rugged 
and  hilly  road,  which  was  hidden  under  cypress* 

After  this  they  came  to  Atrak,  forty  miles  dis* 
taat,  ruled  by  Ghazan  Khan,  the  master  of  Dir. 
The  inhabitants  of  Atrak  were  handsomely  dressed 
with  barak,  woven,  produced  firom  the  hair  of  the 
goefmd,  or  sheep.  Their  dialect  was  neither  Turki, 
Afghani,  nor  Persian ;  but  being  in  the  vicinity  of 
a  Mohammedan  country,  they  represented  them- 
selves to  be  of  the  same  religion,  and  repeated  the 
KahnOj  or  words  Lailah  iUallah.  A  great  number  of 
them  were  subject  to  goitre.  The  hills  which 
surrounded  them  abounded  with  grapes,  peaches, 
&o.  The  travellers  got  up  to  Tal,  a  distance  of 
twenty-four  miles,  where  they  were  astonished  to 
see  wooden  houses  of  ten  or  twenty  stories  high, 
laid  against  the  hills,  and  each  of  them  inhabited 
by  different  families,  who  were  called  the  neigh- 
bours of  each  other.  The  travellers  began  now  to 
bend  their  course  towards  the  Nand,  and  came  to 
Banda,  where  cattle  are  sent  to  feed.  The  country 
of  the  Siah  Posh  (black-dressed  infidels)  lies  towards 
the  west  of  this.  After  three  marches  they  reached 
Laspur,  one  of  the  villages  of  Chatrar.  On  their 
route  they  saw  three  fountains,  which  they  said 
were  like  lakes  filled  with  crystal-water,  of  which 
two  pools  flow  towards  the  south,  forming  one 
laige  stream,  called  the  Daryaehasht  Nagar,  and  the 


water  of  the  third,  the  travellers  said,  goes  to  the 
north,  and  is  called  the  river  of  Koran,  and  joins 
Shah  Alam,  near  Peshawer :  snow  was  here  in  great 
quantity,  and  never  melted  through  the  whole  year. 
The  poor  travellers  suffered  much  for  three  days  on 
this  pass,  from  not  finding  a  piece  of  wood  to  warm 
themselves  and  to  make  their  tea.  After  ten  days' 
march,  they  reached  Zaibak,  which  is  situated  under 
the  Kotal  of  Nuqsan,  the  barrier  of  Badakhshan. 
On  their  route  they  passed  near  Mastuch,  the  resi- 
dence of  Sulaiman  Shah,  who  is  the  king  of  Bala 
Chatrar.  The  road  from  Mastuch  towards  the 
north  leads  to  Zaibak,  and  is  thirteen  days'  journey. 
But  there  are  no  villages  to  the  end  of  three 
marches.  This  is  Rah-i-Bala,  or  the  upper  road.  The 
travellers  journeyed  through  the  Pain  Rah,  or  lower 
road,  where  they  met  villages  at  every  stage. 
Ghazab  Shah,  the  son  of  Shah  Kator,  king  of  Pain 
Chatrar,  has  lately  taken  possession  of  Mastuch. 
When  Sulaiman  Shah  lost  his  capital,  he  applied  to 
Ghazan  Khan  Afghan,  the  ruler  of  Dir,  for  assist- 
ance to  recover  the  place,  and  sent  him  a  qalian  of 
pure  gold,  as  a  present,  with  about  1,600  men,  to 
aid  Sulaiman.  Shah  Kator  and  Shah  Ghazab  had 
recourse  to  Kokan  Beg  and  Mohammed  Ali  Beg, 
the  rulers  of  Faizabad  and  Zarb,  in  the  province  of 
Badakhshan.  The  rivals  of  Sulaiman  promised  to 
give  them  300  slaves,  as  a  reward  for  their  service, 
in  case  they  should  subdue  their  enemy.  They 
came,  at  the  head  of  2,000  horsemen,  to  assist  Shah 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         249 

Kator,  and  defeated  Sulaiman  Shah.  Shah  6ha- 
zab,  and  his  &ther,  Shah  Eator,  to  fulfil  their 
promise^  seized  some  people  of  their  own  country, 
and  delivered  them  to  their  allies.  Ghazab  Shah 
accompanied  them  as  far  as  the  Kotal  of  Nuqsan, 
which  was  buried  under  masses  of  snow.  On 
this  pass  Kokan  Beg  and  Mohammed  Ali  Beg 
were  obliged  to  ask  of  Ghazab  Shah  the  fayour  of 
shewing  them  how  to  cross  that  snowy  mountain 
with  their  army.  Ghazab  Shah  told  them  and  their 
army  to  dismount  from  their  horses,  and  go  on  foot. 
His  advice  was  complied  with,  and  as  soon  as  they 
ascended  a  great  height,  they  were  all  put  to  the 
sword  by  Ghazab  Shah,  who  brought  back  the 
slaves,  with  plenty  of  booty.  This  happened  in 
November,  1882.  In  the  mean  time,  Mir  Murad 
Beg,  the  despotic  ruler  of  Qunduz,  sent  6,000 
horsemen  into  Badakhshan,  and  took  possession  of 
Kokan  Beg's  and  Mohammed  Ali  Beg's  country. 
When  the  travellers  left  Mastuch,  they  were  aston- 
ished to  hear  the  noise  of  the  river,  which  reaches 
Kanur;  it  is  very  deep,  and  always  nnfordable. 
The  travellers  crossed  the  river  in  a  very  curious 
and  dangerous  way.  Two  rafters  were  put  on  the 
verge  of  the  valley,  which  was  very  narrow  and 
high.  When  they  stepped  on  the  bridge,  it  shook 
in  so  frightftd  a  manner,  that  they  lost  all  hopes  of 
passing  it  in  safety.  If  any  caravan  comes  here, 
they  cross  in  the  same  way  with  their  goods,  and 
loosen  their  ponies  to  swim  over.     They  travelled 

250         FROM  MA8HAD  TO  HEBAT. 

into  the  dominions  of  Badakhshan,  and  halted  at 
night  in  Tir  Graran.  Darvaz,  a  town  north  of  Jarm, 
is  the  residence  of  a  prinoe,  who  thinks  himself  the 
descendant  of  Alexander  the  Great,  and  has  a  book 
which  nobody  can  read.  I  was.  informed  of  this 
matter  also  bj  Dr.  Macneill,  the  assistant  resident  in 
Persia*  After  seven  marches  they  arrived  in  Tala* 
qan,  which  is  the  residence  of  Khwajah  Hasan  Jan, 
the  pir  or  priest  of  Murad  Beg»  who  does  nothing 
without  his  advice.  The  people  of  Badakhshan  are 
not  so  handsome  as  the  men  of  Chatrar;  their 
language  is  Persian,  and  their  dress  is  like  that  of  the 
Uzbegs.  Zaibak  is  surrounded  by  very  high  hills^ 
and  has  four  gates ;  one  leads  towards  Badakhshan^ 
the  other  to  Yarkhand,  and  the  two  others  were  for 
both  Chatrars.  To  the  west  of  Zaibak,  eighty  miles 
distant,  is  situated  the  range  of  the  celebrated  hills 
in  the  country  of  Shughnar,  which  contain  mines  of 
lal,  or  ruby,  &c.  Their  march  from  Talaqan  was  to 
Khairabad,  where  Murad  Beg  passes  his  days  in  hot 
weather.  In  Qunduz  they  saw  a  large  cannon, 
mounted  on  wheels,  which  they  said  was  fifteen 
spans  in  length,  and  six  in  breadth.  The  straight 
road  from  Qunduz  to  Khulum  was  dangerous.  The 
travellers  bent  their  route  towards  Haibak  by 
Baglan,  and  reached  Khulum  after  six  marchra. 
They  came  to  Balk,  and  after  six  inarches  they 
reached  Maimana.  They  passed  on  their  way 
through  Shibarghan  and  Aqchah,  where  Mr.  Moor* 
croft,  I  heard,  went  to  buy  a  good  breed  of  horses. 

FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         251 

They  marched  from  Maimana.  to  Qilahnau,  the 
capital  of  the  Hazara  chief,  112  miles  distant* 
From  Qilahnau  they  proceeded  to  Herat,  which 
they  reached  m  eeven  days,  a  distance  of  sixty-nine 

June  10  to  14.— The  news  arrived  that  our  ser- 
vaiit,  Mohammed,  who  started  on  the  Ist  of  April 
to  Mashad,  bearing  a  large  packet  of  letters  for 
Tehran  and  Ii^dia,  was  murdered  on  his  return,  by 
order  of  Sh^r  Mohammed  Khan.  We  were  grieved 
at  this  iutelligenqe,  and  we  wrote  to  the  private 
secretary  of  the  king  concerning  this  incident,  which 
grieved  him  also.  When  this  report  was  spread 
l^mong  the  people,  Sher  Mohammed  Khan  Vazir 
sent  149  a  very  humble  letter,  with  a  great  many 
holy  oi^ths  imd  apologies,  saying  that  he  was  quite 
ignorant  of  this  event  He  was  ashamed  and  sorry, 
he  said,  that  in  his  country  we  met  vdth  such  mis* 
fortunes.  In  the  evenii^  he  came  to  our  house, 
with  fk  few  men  of  rank,  and  sat  about  three  hours. 
He  was  much  ashamed,  made  numberless  excuses, 
and  asked  our  pardon  for  this  unintentional  occur- 
rence. He  dined  with  us,  and  said,  he  was  sorry 
and  ashamed  that  he  had  not  come  to  pay  us  a  visit, 
like  others,  but  that  he  hop^d  to  do  so  on  a  future 

June  15  to  30.— -At  noon  we  were  summoned  by 
the  king,  after  a  lapse  of  two  months,  and  had  a 
irery  fiivourable  conversation  with  him.  He  was  ix\ 
a  small  glass  room,  and   dressed   cleanly.     There 

252         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

were  fine,  soft  pillows  under  his  arms,  and  a  small 
fountain  before  him,  which  contained  six  small 
fishes.  He  told  us  to  sit  next  to  himself  in 
the  room,  but  I  stood  respectfully  above  the 
line  of  his  vazirs  and  chiefs.  The  king  said,  that 
he  would  be  happy  to  receive  a  mission  from  the 
English  Government,  and  repeatedly  told  Mr. 
Gerard,  that  he  hoped  to  see  him  here  as  an  ambas- 
sador in  a  few  months ;  and  desired  him  to  take  his 
letter  for  the  Governor-General,  whose  name  I  told 
him,  on  his  asking,  was  Lord  William  Bentinck. 
He  said  that  Abbas  Mirza  was  a  friend  to  the  Rus- 
sians, who  were  spread  over  all  Persia.  It  was  sur-* 
prising,  indeed,  he  observed,  that  Englishmen,  who 
are  possessed  of  wisdom  and  political  ^knowledge, 
should  consider  Persia  an  ally,  and  squander  consi- 
derable money  in  useless  expenses,  on  account  of 
the  embassy  at  Tehran,  whereas  any  boy  of  four 
years  of  age  in  this  country  knew  well  that  the 
Persians  were  the  intimate  friends,  and  even  the 
slaves,  of  Russia. 

The  king  requested  us  to  see  him  once  again 
before  we  left  this  place,  as  he  wanted  to  say  some-^ 
thing  more  to  us.  When  we  came  out,  Sher 
Mohammed  Khan  Yazir  told  us,  that  he  would  be 
much  obliged  to  us  if  we  stopped  one  month  longer, 
to  make  peace  between  Abbas  Mirza  and  them» 
which  he  unfortunately  did  not  agree  to  at  firsts 
though  we  advised  him.  Mr.  Gerard  answered,  that 
we  had  stayed  in  Herat  for  six  months,  not  in 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         253 

accordance  with  ouf  own  wishes,  but  for  the  sake  of 
the  chiefs,  who  had  desired  us  to  become  the  medium 
of  their  negotiations. 

July  1  to  4. — Before  the  sun  rose,  we  set  out  to 
the  east  of  the  city,  to  examine  the  place  called 
Gazur  Gah,  where  the  body  of  Abu  Ismail,  or  Khwa- 
jah  Abdul  Ansar,  the  son  of  Abu  Mansur,  the  son  of 
Abu  Ayub,  the  son  of  Mat  Ansar,  or  the  bearer  of 
Mohammed's  Koran,  reposes.  Abu  Ansar  was  struck 
with  stones  by  boys  when  he  was  doing  penance,  of 
which  he  expired  on  the  27th  March,  1088,  A.D.,  or 
in  481,  Hijri.  He  had  learned  about  1,200,000 
poems  by  heart,  and  was  the  author  of  100,000 

When  we  reached  the  pleasant  Gazur  Gah,  we  en- 
tered the  Charsu,  or  square  of  Hasan  Khan  Shamla, 
who  has  also  built  a  few  shops,  and  a  fine  cistern,  on 
account  of  the  periodical  fair  in  spring.  Having 
passed  through  the  Sahan,  we  came  to  the  door, 
which  led  us  to  the  grave  of  Abu  Ansar.  The  door 
is  made  of  copper,  and  on  each  side  are  fine,  clean 
mosques,  where  we  saw  a  few  Korans  lying  on  the 
shelves,  or  rahals.  The  Masnavif  or  book  of  Mau- 
lana-e-Rum,  is  recited  every  morning,  and  the  people 
faint  during  the  invocation.  On  our  right  hand  were 
the  tombs  of  Mansur  Sultan,  the  father  of  Shahrukh 
Mirza,  and  the  descendants  of  Amir  Taimur.  On 
our  left  were  buried  the  successors  of  Changez  Khan. 
The  body  of  Mansur  was  lodged  on  a  large  platform, 
bordered  with  marble,  and  towards  the  head  of  the 

254        FHOH  MA8HAD  tO  HERAT. 

tomb  we  toW  an  inscription,  the  substance  of  which 
may  be  thni^  rendered  :--— 

^^  This  excellent  construction  and  meritorious  work,  which  re- 
sembles paradise,  resplendent  with  the  lights  of  divine  favour  and 
the  bleasings  of  the  merciful  God,  has  been  built  with  great  art 
and  beautj,  as  the  monument  of  the  famous  Bultan  Ghayasuddin 
Mansur,  and  his  pious  descendants,  in  the  year  of  H.  772.  Writ- 
ten bj  Sultan  Mashadi." 

Among  the  graves  of  Changez  Khan's  &mily  Was 
a  body  covered  with  black  marble,  on  which  we  be- 
held the  surprising  sculptures  of  an  ancient  unknown 
hewer.  No  works  of  the  present  day  are  comparable 
to  them.  The  stone  was  carved  in  seven  figures, 
called  Haft  Qalam,  or  ^  seven  pens.'  I  copied  the 
following  inscription  from  the  above  tomb  :-^ 

^^  On  the  day  of  the  great  king's  death,  the  Lord  sent  him  re- 
pose, and  the  pen  of  tsktb  inscribed  his  simple  epitaph,  ^  Rest  in 
peace/    (A.  H.  718.)" 

The  tomb  of  Abu  Ansar  is  very  large,  bordered 
with  marble,  and  covered  with  stones ;  at  the  head 
of  the  grave  stands  a  marble  Lattk^  which  resem- 
bles a  menar.  It  is  beautiftilly  made  of  two  pieces ; 
one  piece  is  five  feet  high,  and  the  other  ten  feet.  It 
is  covered  with  Arabic  letters,  and  has  only  one 
inscription  in  Persian,  of  which  the  following  is  a 
translation : — 

"  The  Khwajah,  in  look  and  verity  a  king,  was  equally  rersed 
in  the  affairs  of  both  the  worlds :  would  jou  know  the  date  of 
his  death,  read  it  in  the  words  Khwajah  Abdullah^  i.  e.,  A.  H. 


The  tomb  is  snnnoanted  by  a  magnificent  arch, 
70  feet  high,  erected  by  Shahrukh  Mirza,  480  years 
a^o.  Taimur  Shah  resolved  to  gild  the  arch,  but 
was  diverted  by  some  accident.  On  the  right  hand 
of  the  tomb  are  many  inscribed  poems,  written  by  the 
celebrated  author  Jami;  but  the  following  verse, 
composed  by  Hasan  Khan  Shamla,  informs  ns  of  the 
day  of  Abdul  Ansar's  death. 

*^If  jon  are  desirous  that  the  cup-bearer  of  wisdom  should 
giye  jon  a  cup  full  of  understanding,  come  into  the  banqueting^ 
house  of  Khwajah  Abdullah  Ansari.  His  monument  is  like  the 
graceful  cypress,  which  invites  the  angels  to  hover  over  it,  cr]ring 
and  lamenting  like  doves." 

When  we  came  out  of  the  door,  we  went  to  the 
cistern,  which  contains  very  delicious,  sweet-flavoured 
water,  called  ab-i-zam-zam,  which  is  said  to  be  cold 
in  summer  and  hot  in  winter.  There  were  many 
Terses  vnittan  in  the  arch.  The  purport  of  one 
inscription,  which  is  very  long,  is,  that  Adil  Shah 
Rukh  erected  a  well  and  terraces,  &c.  for  the  use  of 
pilgrims  to  the  tomb  of  Khwajah  Ansar,  which, 
having  fallen  into  decay,  were  reconstructed  at  the 
expense  of  a  female  descendant  of  Qar,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Changez  Khan,  in  the  year  {Hauz  Zamzam 
Sakabil)  1090. 

The  original  name  of  Gazur  Gah  is  Karzar  6ah. 
Karzar  means,  in  Persian,  ^battle,'  and  gah, 
'  place '  (the  place  of  battle ) ;  in  short,  it  is  the 
seat  of  pleasure,  and  people  pass  their  time  there  in 

256         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

drinking  and  singing,  which  seems  very  inconsistent 
with  the  solemnity  which  belongs  to  a  place  of  the 
dead.  The  water  of  the  neighbouring  covered  foun- 
tain runs  through  the  canal,  which  ornaments  Gazur 
Gah,  and  makes  it  one  of  the  liveliest  spots  ia 

Towards  the  north  of  the  city,  at  the  base  of 
the  hills,  is  a  pleasant  edifice,  called  Takht-i-Safar, 
constructed  by  Sultan  Husain  Mirza,  the  fourth 
descendant  of  Amir  Taimur.  In  spring,  the  neigh- 
bouring fields  and  mountains  are  covered  with  a 
bed  of  yellow  and  red  flowers,  called  Ar  Ghavan. 
The  place  is  now  going  to  decay,  but  seems  to  have 
been  once  a  paradise.  A  magnificent  fountain,  in 
a  tank  of  water,  casts  its  watery  arrows  against  the 
top  of  the  building.  The  height  of  the  edifice  is 
a  hundred  feet. 

In  the  reign  of  Sultan  Husain  Mirza,  persons 
who  misconducted  themselves  were  compelled  to 
assist  the  masons  in  building  the  Takht-i-Sa&r. 
The  sultan,  moreover,  inscribed  the  following 
verses  on  every  gate,  that  passengers  might  read 
them : — 

^'All  who  have  been  indulging  sinfully  in  the  pleasures  of 
wine  and  beauty,  by  Mirza's  command,  must  add  a  stone  to  the 
Takht  Safer." 

To  the  north-east  of  the  city  stand  two  very  im- 
posing ruins,  separated  by  the  stream  Anjer.  Sultan 
Husain  Mirza  gave  celebrity  to  his  name  by  build* 
ing  a  stately  college,  which  is  now  levelled  with 

PAOM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT.         257 

the  ground.  Two  arches  and  four  menars  have 
still  a  grand  appearance,  and  are  separated  into  two 
equal  parts  by  the  above-named  stream.  One  arch 
and  two  menars,  which  are  situated  on  the  right 
bank,  are  in  the  vicinity  of  the  grave  of  Sultan 
Hasain,  who  is  remembered  with  great  respect  and 
honour.  He  reigned  in  A.D.  1500.  The  head 
master  of  the  college  was  the  famous  poet  named 
Jami.  On  the  left  bank  of  the  stream  rests  the 
body  of  Gauhar  Shad,  the  daughter  of  Amir 
Taimur,  the  sister  of  Shah  Rukh.  The  grave  is 
shaded  by  a  very  high  gilt  dome.  There  were 
formerly  nine  tombs,  all  of  black  marble,  omar 
mented  with  inscriptions  in  the  Arabic  character. 
The  letters  are  now  rubbed  out  and  not  legible. 
She  built  a  fine  edifice,  called  Musallah,  and  is  said 
to  have  been  an  incomparable  lady.  She  never 
married,  but  devoted  herself  to  the  perusal  of  the 
Koran,  and  was  anxious  to  encourage  the  people 
to  learn.  The  place  is  decorated  with  four  high 
menars  and  two  lofty  arches,  which  make  a  beau- 
tiful square  of  seventy-five  paces.  On  the  top  of 
the  arch  were  a  few  defaced  Arabic  inscriptions, 
which  I  could  not  read.  The  menars  seemed  only 
half-finished,  and  they  were  made  to  incline  towards 
Mashad,  to  salute  Imam  Raza.  I  ascended  a  menar 
of  two  stories  high,  by  difiicult  steps,  and  had  a 
very  striking  view  of  the  city.  Every  story  con- 
tains twenty  st^.  Having  passed  the  square,  we 
entered  a  lofty  dome,  which  encouraged  us  to  climb 


258         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

five  stairs,  and  to  come  into  a  gilt  and  painted 
room,  where  Gauhar  Shad  prayed.  All  these  rains 
are  of  azure  and  gold  colour ;  the  blue  is  made  of 
lapis  lazuli,  which  is  found  in  considerable  quantities 
in  the  mines  of  Badakhshan. 

It  is  related  that,  one  day,  Gauhar  Shad,  accom- 
panied by  200  beautiful  ladies,  came  into  the  col- 
lege, and  ordered  all  the  students  to  go  out.  She 
passed  the  whole  day  in  the  place,  and  had  the  plea- 
sure of  seeing  every  room.  One  of  the  students, 
being  sleepy,  was  not  aware  of  her  coming,  and 
remained  in  the  college.  He  awoke,  and  peeping 
fearfully  through  the  window,  he  beheld  a  ruby- 
lipped  lady,  one  of  the  companions  of  Gauhar  Shad. 
She  observed  the  scholar,  and  fell  in  love  with  him, 
and  leaving  her  associates,  entered  the  room  of  the 
student.  Gauhar  Shad,  on  being  informed  of  this, 
was  much  vexed,  and  to  get  rid  of  the  reproach,  she 
married  all  her  associates  to  the  students  of  the 
college,  prescribing  this  rule,  in  order  not  to  inter- 
rupt their  studies,  that  they  should  meet  their  wives 
only  once  in  seven  days. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  city  are  the  remains  of  a 
very  grand  building,  called  Masjid  Jamah,  or  the 
Great  Mosque,  erected  by  Sultan  Ghayasuddin,  the 
old  king  of  Ghor,  700  years  ago*  He  was  the  son 
of  Mohammed  Sam,  and  the  sixth  descendant  of 
Abu  Bakr,  one  of  the  friends  of  Mohammed*  The 
mosque  haa  four  doors,  and  many  arched  domes. 
We  made  our  entrance   through  the  door  called 

FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         259 

Darwazah-YaJdL  Having  traversed  seventy  paces, 
under  a  roof  supported  by  massive  pillars,  we  opened 
into  the  great  square  of  the  mosque.  On  our  left 
hmnd  were  two  pieces  of  marble,  bearing  Persian 
inficriptions,  which  contained  an  order  to  the  custom* 
house  officers  to  provide  the  mullahs  with  a  liveli* 
hood.  The  length  of  the  square  is  111  paces,  and 
the  breadth,  88.  There  are  four  lofty  and  magnifi*- 
cently-painted  arches,  facing  each  other.  The  arch 
which  stands  to  the  west  led  us  into  the  praying* 
place,  which  is  covered  with  heaps  of  mud,  that  had 
lately  fallen,  through  the  severity  of  the  winter. 
We  saw  a  marble  tombstone  lying  on  the  ground, 
which  had  Arabic  characters.  It  was  engraved  by 
Farrukh  Shah  Shervani,  to  cover  the  grave  of  Sul« 
tan  Abu  Sayad  Korgani.  The  eastern  arch  exhibits 
a  great  deal  of  Mohammedan  neglect.  It  is  almost 
hidden  under  considerable  masses  of  earth.  The 
aroh,  which  is  situated  towards  the  south,  bears 
numerous  Arabic  inscriptions.  They  are  all  de&ced 
or  injured.  The  northern  arch  is  the  place  for 
students;  it  conducted  us  into  a  domed  structure, 
where  we  were  astonished  to  see  a  marble  slab,  in 
the  shape  of  a  door,  of  a  single  piece,  and  so  beauti- 
fully clear,  that  our  faces  were  reflected  in  it.  The 
length  of  the  stone  was  ten  spans,  and  the  breadth,; 
eigl^t  Having  passed  through  a  very  trmall  door, 
we,  came  into  a  square,  of  twenty  paces,  where,  the 
body  of  Sultan  Ghayasuddin  reposes;  The;  place  is 
very  filthy^  and  the  tomb  reduced  to.  pieces.     Tiiere 


260         FBOM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT. 

is  no  inscription.  The  roof  has  fallen  into  decay; 
and  its  rains  cover  the  tomb.  There  are  many 
graves  also,  and  the  bones  of  the  dead  seemed  to  be 
petrified.  Our  sight  got  dim  by  visiting  the  sepul- 
chres. There  was  no  difference  between  the  tomb 
of  the  great  sultan  and  that  of  the  poor  man.  In 
the  square  of  the  mosque  is  a  small  cistern  of  water, 
for  ablution,  and  a  large  heavj  vessel  of  tin,  made 
by  Sultan  Ghayasuddin,  the  circumference  of  which 
is  twenty  spans,  and  the  thickness  of  the  edge 
one  span.  There  were  inscriptions  written  on  the 
borders  of  the  vessel,  dated  700  years  ago.  It  was 
repaired  by  Malik  Ghayasuddin  Curd,  470  years 
ago,  and  again  by  Mir  Ali  Sher,  the  minister  of 
Sultan  Husain,  350  years  ago.  The  verse  informs 
us  of  the  day  of  repair. 

^'This  place,  winch,  was  before  vile  aa  a  lotien  bone,  haa  acquired 
enduring  fame,  like  the  Kabah.  I  inquired  the  date  of  the  build- 
ing, and  m  J  mind  answered :  ^  it  is  a  second  altar  of  Abraham.'  *' 
(A.  H.  950.) 

The  ruined  buildings  of  Herat  surpass  my  powers 
of  description,  and  I  am  sorry  that  I  am  too  little 
conversant  with  the  English  language  to  do  justice 
to  them. 

One  farsang  further  from  the  city  towards  the 
south,  is  a  famous  bridge,  called  Pul  Malan*  In 
former  days  there  were  thirty-three  arches,  but  now 
only  twentynseven  remain.  No  history  gives  us  any 
information  about  the  foundation  of  the  bridge ;  but 
the  people  say  that  it  was  built  by  a  lady  named  Nur 

FBOM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         261 

Bibi,  who  lived  more  than  one  thousand  years  ago. 
The  books  of  Herat  give  no  account  of  the  bridge, 
\¥hich  is  called  by  the  natives  ^^  the  matchless."  The 
inundation  of  the  river  was  so  rapid,  during  our 
residence  at  Herat,  that  three  arches  were  swept 
away  from  one  end,  and  nearly  for  two  months  all 
intercou]^  between  Herat  and  other  places  ceased. 

Benenus  of  Herat. 


1.  Monej  collected  from  Tahvilat . .  1,150 

2.  Weavers  annuallj  paid  1,500 

3.  The  soap  manu&ctnre  is  monopolized  for  . .        700 

4.  The  monopoly  of  the  Bokhara  caravan  passing 

through  Kurakh  . .  600 

5.  The  head  of  the  grape-sellers  pajs  annuallj      . .  250 

6.  Monej  collected  by  stamping  skins  and  caps    . .  600 

7.  Money  collected  bj  the  aboye  means  on  new 

cloth 800 

8.  Monej  collected  bj  stamping  woollen  articles  . .        100 

9.  Mir  Shabi,  or  money  collected  from  the  inhabi- 

tants for  the  purpose  of  watching  at  night 
against  thieyes  200 

10.  The  chief  seller  of  the  heels  of  shoes  pays         . .        1 60 

11.  Monopolizer  of  water  and  wind-mills  pays        . .        600 

12.  Money  collected  from  the  people  for  catching 

thieyes,  Duzd  ba^ri              . .          . .          .  •  200 

13.  Cash  collected  from  the  districts  of  Belukats    . .  2,000 

14.  Custom-house  officer  of  Sabzwar  pajs              . .  300 

15.  Cnstom-house  officer  of  Ghuryan  pays             . .  1,500 

16.  Money  collected  from  the  black  tents  of  thelmaq, 

or  Ilat,  annually        2,000 

17.  Monopolizer  of  wood  for  burning  and  all  other 

uses  pays  . .  300 

18.  The  head  of  horse-sellers  pays  180 



19.  Money  realized   on  Zeh  tabi,  or  skin    lopee^ 

exported  to  India 

20.  The  inhabitants  of  caravansaraes  pay 

21.  Money  collected  from  the  Candahar  gate 

22.  Money  collected  from  ihe  KhtiBhk  gate 

23.  Duty  taken  upon  charcoal 

24.  Money  obtained  from  the  ahopi 

25.  Duty  taken  upon  tobacco 

26.  Dabbagh,  or  the  head  of  skin-deanery  pays     . . 
27r  ^oney  collected  from  stamping  the  Kalsh,  a 

.    kind  of  shoe     .. 
'28.  Monopolizec  of  asafbtida  pajrs 
.28.  Money  collected  from  each  toman's  king,  called 
the  Toman  Shahi         

30.  Monopolizer  of  rice  and  Shall  pays  annually     . . 

31.  Monopolizer  of  ihe  mint  (in  Haji  Feroz's  reign 

fifty  tomans  erery  day)  now  pays  yearly 

32.  Reyenne  of  Ghuryan 

33.  Beyenue  of  Obeh . 

34.  Reyenue  of  Kurakh 

35.  Beyenue  of  Sabzwar 

Cam  produced  in  the  country. 

Com  produced  in  the  suburbs  of  Herat 
Ktto,  in  Obeh 
Ditto,  in  Kurakh 
Ditto,  in  Ghuryan 
Ditto,  in  Sabzwar 













.  27,000 

.     2,000 




Twenty  rapees  make  a  toman  in  Herat,  which  is 
equal  to  six  rupees  and  twelve  annas  of  India  (or 
about  13s.  6d.).  The  kharrar  is  a  measure  of  100 
maunds  of  Tabrez,  which  is  equal  to  six  maunds  and 
ten  sers  of  India  (or  about  500  lbs.  avoirdupois). 

FBOH  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         263 

Jvly  6  io  13. — Tradition  and  the  following  Per* 
sian  verses  allege,  that  the  foundation  of  the  city  of 
Herat,  or  Hari,  was  laid  by  an  ancient  king  called 
Lohrasp,  who  was  succeeded  by  Gushtasp.  Alex- 
ander,  the  successor  of  Behman,  built  and  furnished 
Herat  very  beautifully,  and  after  him  it  was  neyer 

**  Lohrasp  laid  the  foundations  of  Herat ;  Gush- 
tasp erected  many  buildings  thereon;  Behman, 
after  him,  added  greatly  to  the  town,  and  Alex- 
ander put  the  finishing  stroke  to  it/' 

The  city  is  surrounded  by  a  very  strong  mud 
wall,  and  also  by  a  small  dry  ditch.  There  are  five 
large  frequented  gates  in  the  town ;  the  two  which 
open  towards  the  north  are  called  Darvazah  Qutab 
Chaq,  and  Darvazah  Malik ;  and  the  third,  to  the 
south,  is  named  Darvazah  Candahar.  In  the  east  is 
Darvazah  Khushk,  and  towards  the  west,  Darvazah 
Iraq.  The  body  of  the  city  is  divided  into  four 
equal  parts,  by  streets  intersecting  each  other  in 
the  centre,  which  is  covered  by  a  very  high  roof  of 
mortar,  and  is  known  by  the  name  of  Charsu,  in 
consequence  of  its  being  approached  from  four 
points.  The  correct  name  is  Charsuq,  which,  in 
Arabic,  imports  four  sides  or  bazars.  Two  of  them 
bear  the  name  of  Mohallah  Qutab  Chaq ;  the  third, 
Mohallah  Ehowajah  Abdul  Misar ;  and  the  fourth 
is  named  Mohallah  Khakbarsar. 

There  are  seven  caravansaraes  at  Herat :  the 
first,  built    by  Mustaufi,   is  inhabited    by  Hindu 

264         FEOM  MASHAD  TO  HBRAT. 

merchants  of  Shikarpur;  another  caravansarae^  is 
occupied  by  Bokhara  and  Candahar  traders ;  a  third,^^ 
the  caravansarae  of  Haji  Rasul,  contains  the  dealers 
of  Herat  and  Persia  or  Iraq,  and  the  remainder  are 
peopled  by  other  wealthy  traders.  There  is  not  a 
richer  merchant  in  Herat  than  Haji  Ali  Askar 
Candhari,  who  is  called  Malik  Ultigjar,  or  the  king 
of  merchants. 

.  The  roofs  of  the  Charsu  bazars,  which  form 
straight  lines  opposite  to  each  other,  are  almost 
brought  to  the  ground.  The  shops,  which  are  open 
and  large^  present  a  very  dark  appearance.  No 
repairs  are  performed  in  Herat  till  the  last  ex- 
tremity. The  houses  are  generally  two  stories  high^ 
and  have  very  small  entrances ;  but  when  you  step 
in  you  have  a  large  and  clear  idew.  The  lanes  are 
dirty  and  narrow,  and  abound  in  holes.  The  build- 
ings are  of  mud,  without  a  single  rafter,  with  many 
small  windows,  which,  instead  of  glass,  have  white 
paper  of  Russia,  through  which  they  get  light  when 
it  is  snowing,  and  all  the  doors  are. shut  up  on 
account  of  the  cold. 

The  Arg,  or  the  residence  of  the  king,  is  one  of 
the  most  solid  and  ancient  buildings  in  Herat.  It 
is  fortified,  and  surrounded  by  a  deep  ditch.  It  is 
situate  within  the  walls  of  the  city,  on  steep  ground, 
and  is  constructed  of  burnt  bricks,  stones,  and 
mortar.  The  bastions  have  no  guns,  but  the  trea^ 
sure  of  the  Shah  is  deposited  there.  The  ditch  is 
crossed  by  a  wooden  bridge,  which,  after  sunset,  is 

FROM  llASHAD  TO   HERAT.  265 

dragged  up  by  the  doorkeepers  inside  of  the  Arg 
wall.  The  palace  has  so  little  of  the  character  of  a 
regal  residence,  that  the  gaols  in  British  India  are 
much  superior  to  the  palace  of  Kamran,  not  only  in 
architectural  beauty,  but  even  in  cleanliness. 

The  most  beautiful  and  beneficial  edifice  in  Herat 
is  the  covered  pond  erected  by  Hasan  Khan  Shamlu. 
It  is  nearly  sixty  feet  square,  and  has  a  few  arches 
inside,  where  the  people  put  lamps  for  show.  The 
water  is  thirty  feet  deep,  and  looks  very  clear 
and  shining.  It  is  situate  in  one  of  the  bazars  of 
Charsu,  and  is  always  surrounded  by  water-bearers. 
The  following  Persian  verse  shews  the  date  of  its 

*^The  most  beautiful  place  of  the  buildings  in 
Herat  is  the  cistern.''     (925  Hijri.) 

Opposite  to  the  above  pond,  or  the  Hauz  Charsu, 
stands  a  miserable,  dark,  and  damp  place,  which  is 
called  Bandikhaniah,  or  the  prison.  It  has  a  very 
small  door,  and  no  windows  to  admit  air.  In  the 
centre  of  the  room  is  excavated  a  hole,  in  which  the 
prisoners  are  confined  at  night.  No  air  is  felt  there, 
and  the  heat,  in  conjunction  with  the  damp  and  the 
insects,  torments  the  poor  prisoners  terribly,  and 
generally  causes  their  death.  Neither  law  nor  time 
can  release  the  criminals,  but  only  the  pleasure  of 
the  king,  or  the  chiefs  who  have  influence  at  the 

July  14^  to  20. — The  houses  in  Herat  are  num- 
bered  at  4,000,    and   they  contain  about  60,000 

266         FBOM  MA8HAD  TO  HERAT. 

people.  The  mi^or  part  are  Bardurrani,  one  of  the 
Sunni  sects.  Those  of  Shamlu,  Aishar,  Beshyand, 
Jami,  Isla^  Yallo,  and  Taknlbe,  who  follow  the 
principles  of  Ali,  are  small  in  number,  and  undei|[o 
many  hardships  from  misgovemment.  The  Shiaa 
took  the  name  of  Qizal  Bash  on  being  liberated 
from  the  condition  of  bondage.  They  were  for* 
merly  residents  in  Constantinople,  and  when  it  was 
invaded  by  Taimurlang,  many  of  them  were  brought 
away  as  slaves ;  that  prince,  having  experienced  the 
miracle  of  Shaik  Safir  Darvesh,  told  him  to  demand 
a  favour.  The  shaik  solicited  from  him  the  libera* 
tion  of  all  the  slaves,  which  request  was  complied 
with.  On  this,  he  ordered  them  to  put  a  piece  of 
red  cloth  either  inside  or  above  their  caps,  which 
might  distinguish  them  in  the  world  by  the  name 
of  Qizal  Bash.  Qizal  means  in  Turki,  'red,'  and 
Bashj  *  head.'  In  the  reign  of  Shah  Ismail,  the 
Qizal  Bashis  divided  themselves  into  the  seven  dif- 
ferent sects  which  I  have  mentioned  above. 


0/ths  Khorgan  Dymuty. 

1.  TaimnrlaDg. 

2.  Shah  Rukh  Mirza. 
8.  Mirza  Olnq  Beg. 
4.  Mirza  Abdul  Latif. 

5.  Abdullah  Mirza. 

6.  Jallauddanlah. 

7.  Mirza  Ibrahim. 

8.  Mirza  Sultan  Mohammed. 

9.  Yadgar  Mirza. 

10.  Mirza  Acnr. 

11.  Mirza  Mohammed  Shah, 

12.  Sultau  Husain  Mirza. 

13.  Mirza  Badi  Uzzaman. 

14.  Mirza  Khalil. 

15.  Mirza  Abu  Bakar. 



16.  MinaUnutf. 

Of  th$  Afghan  Dynoity. 

17.  Mirza  Sultan  Abu  Said. 

29.  Akhyar  Khan. 

18.  Mirza  Sultan  Ahmad. 

30.  AsaduUah  Khan. 

19.  Mirza  Babar. 

31.  Zaman  Khan. 

Of  the  Safvi  Dynasty. 

32.  Zulf  Yar  Khan. 

20.  Mirza  Humaunsbah. 

33.  Nadir  Shah  (who  ruled  in 

21.  Shah  looudl. 

Herat  for  twelve  yean). 

23.  Shah  Tahmaflp. 

34.  Ahmad  Shah. 

28.  Shah  lanudl  Sani. 

35.  Taimnr  Shah. 

24.  Shah  Khuda  Bandah. 

36.  Mahmud  Shah. 

25.  Shah  Abbajs. 

37.  Shah  Zaman. 

26.  Shah  Sufi. 

38.  Haji  Firoz. 

27.  Shah  Abbaa  Sani. 

39.  Shahzadah  Kamran. 

26.  Shah  Sulaiman. 

The  present  king  is  about  fifty-eight  years  of  age, 
and  suffers  much  from  debility.  His  complexion  is 
dark,  and  shews  none  of  the  signs  of  royalty.  He 
is  fond  of  drinking  spirits,  as  well  as  bhang  and 
opium.  In  lieu  of  distributing  justice,  he  spends 
the  whole  of  his  life  in  ornamenting  himself  with 
handsome  robes,  and  his  abominable  conduct,  here 
and  when  he  was  at  Candahar,  has  rendered  him 
most  obnoxious  throughout  the  whole  of  Afghan- 
istan. He  has  four  wives,  ten  sons,  and  six  daugh- 
ters, from  twenty  to  twenty-six  years  of  age.  He 
cannot  marry  them  to  any  other  family  than  that 
of  Saduzai,  or  the  royal  household,  which  is  at 
liodiana  with  Shah  Shuja.  He  often  rebelled 
against  his  father  Mahmud  Shah,  and  has  been 
always  routed  by  the  Barakzais.  He  possesses  a 
great  deal  of  treasure  and  numberless  jewels,  which 
he  has  deposited  in  a  large  iron  box,  under-ground. 


He  has  given  orders  to  the  Kotwal  of  the  city  to 
get  a  hundred  mpees  every  day  from  the  people, 
by  the  use  of  his  authority,  and  put  it  in  the  trea- 
sury, which  he  never  touches.  Whenever  it  is 
necessary  to  defray  any  expenses  of  war,  he  extorts 
the  money  from  the  citizens.  Being  afraid  of  the 
Persian  Government,  he  is  very  anxious  to  make  an 
alliance  with  the  English  power,  and  is  extremely 
afraid  of  his  ministers,  or  the  Alaikozi  family,  and 
never  dares  to  feed  his  horse  without  their  sanction. 
He  is  hard-hearted,  and  the  most  unmerciful  man 
in  Afghanistan.  He  has  ripped  up  the  bellies  of 
many  people  upon  trifling  pretences. 

Jahangir,  a  prince  of  thirty-two  years  of  age,  fol- 
lows the  abominable  courses  of  his  father*  One  of 
his  tyrannical  acts  was  described  to  me  by  his 
writer,  but  it  cannot  be  related  in  decent  terms. 
His  eyes  are  always  inflamed  by  the  use  of  bhang, 
&c.  He  has  divorced  his  wife,  and  has  married  an 
ugly,  low,  and  bad  woman,  whose  dancing  wrought 
upon  the  heart  of  the  prince.  He  has  few  children, 
who  complain  of  his  want  of  affection  to  them. 
He  is  the  ruler  of  Farah,  one  of  the  Herat  dis- 

The  other  sons  are, — 2.  Saif  Ul  Maluk,  a  prince 
of  twenty-eight  years  of  age,  who  is  zealous  in  dis- 
tributing justice  among  his  subjects  in  Ghor,  where 
he  rules  impartially.  The  country  forming  his  chief- 
tainship is  hilly,  the  fort  where  he  resides  is  situated 
on  a  steep  rock,  which  cannot  be  attacked  by  an 

PROM  HASHAD  TO  HSRAT.         269 

anny.  3.  Sadat  Maluk  has  some  of  the  Tile  habits 
of  his  father,  and  is  always  in  debt ;  he  is  twenty- 
six  years  old.  4.  Alamgir,  twenty-four  years  of 
age.  5.  Ahmad  AU,  twenty-three  years  old. 
6.  Jalal  Uddin  roles  Sabzwar  yery  justly;  he  is 
twenty-two  years  of  age.  7.  Sikandar,  aged  twenty. 
8.  Shahab,  eighteen.  9.  Zaman,  seyenteen.  10.  Na- 
dir, sixteen.  Every  one  of  them  is  entitled  to  the 
name  of  Shahzadah.  Yar  Mohammed  Khan,  a  man 
of  resolute  character,  and  about  fifty  years  of  age, 
haa  been  lately  made  the  Vazir,  or  prime  minister,  to 
the  king;  he  is  cruel  to  the  people  of  the  country, 
and  liberal  to  his  friends.  He  has  reduced  num-^ 
berless  individuals  to  a  state  of  bondage,  and  has 
deprived  many  merchants  of  their  estates.  He 
went  to  Abbas  Mirza  at  Mashad,  with  the  view  of 
deposing  Kamran  from  the  throne  of  Herat ;  but 
unfortunately  he  was  not  considered  deserving  of 
confidence,  and  was  put  into  confinement  by  the 
Persian  prince.  He  has  only  one  son,  and  one 
wife,  who  is  in  possession  of  wealth. 

Sher  Mohammed  Khan,  his  younger  brother,  is 
the  good-looking,  loquacious,  and  boasting  ruler  of 
Ghuryan,  a  very  strong  fort,  at  the  end  of  the  Herat 
boundary,  towards  Persia.  He  is  a  slave-dealer,  is 
fond  of  drinking,  and  has  plundered  numerous 
caravans.  He  is  in  possession  of  great  riches,  has 
often  rebelled  against  the  king,  and  defended  him- 
self in  his  fort,  the  height  of  which  he  compares 
with  that  of  the  sky. 

270         FBOH  HA8HAD  TO  HERAT. 

Din  Mohammed  Khan  Sardar,  the  son  of  Ata 
Mohammed  Khan,  a  good-natured  man  in  his  old 
days,  rales  the  country  of  Kurakh ;  but  is  al^i^ys  in 
want  of  money.  He  has  two  brothers,  called  Gholam 
Khan  and  Sultan  Mohammed  Khan,  who  are  always 
intoxicated,  and  immersed  in  all  sorts  of  pleasures. 
The  Sardar,  in  his  early  age,  was  himself  a  &mous 
lecher,  and  a  slave-dealer ;  but  since  one  of  his  eyes 
has  become  blind,  he  allows  a  little  mercy  to  re* 
main  in  his  heart.  He  is  more  popular  than  Yar 
Mohammed  Khan  and  Sher  Mohammed  Khan. 

Abdul  Rahim  Khan,  distinguished  by  the  name 
of  Shah  Ghasi,  is  one  of  the  small  chie& ;  but  he 
possesses  an  elevated  mind  and  fair  manners.  He  is 
supposed  to  be  the  most  luxurious  man  in  the  whole 
&mily  of  Alakozai.  He  has  four  wives,  two  daugh-- 
ters,  and  one  son,  of  good  complexion. 

Haji  Mirza  Khan,  a  fat  man,  Bahi  Khan,  Vali 
Mohammed  Khan,  Enayat  UUah  Khan,  and  Mirza 
Aghai,  are  petty  chiefs  at  Herat:  every  one  has 
plenty  of  titles,  and  they  call  themselves  Khavanins. 
Akhund  Mullah  Mohammed  Attar  Bashi  is  a  good- 
natured  man ;  his  stature  is  short,  and  his  eyes  are 
smalL  The  king  trusts  him  with  every  secret,  and 
places  great  confidence  in  him.  No  business  is 
managed  with  the  king,  but  through  him.  He  is 
extremely  popular,  and  consequently  the  whole  of 
the  Alakozai  family  are  jealous  of  him. 

Mir  Saddiq  Khan  Bar  Durrani,  an  old  inhabitant 
of  Herat,  is  the  most  respectable  man  in  the  court 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         271 

of  Shah  Kamran.  He  is  the  master  of  considerable 
wealth ;  all  the  citizens  like  him»  and  a  great  deal  of 
the  power  of  the  state  depends  upon  his  adminis* 

Shamshuddin  Khan,  a  Sardar,  of  Mr  aspect  and 
beneyolent  carriage,  is  the  greatest  fiivourite  of  the 
king,  who  has  married  his  sister.  He  rules  the 
country  of  Anardarah,  a  rich  vallej  near  Qilah  Kah, 
towards  the  south-east  of  Herat.  He  likes  the 
English  customs  of  cleanliness,  and  puts  various 
things  into  bottles  on  shelves,  after  the  European 

Jidy  21  to  25. — The  people  of  Herat,  though 
reduced  to  poverty  by  oppressive  government,  are 
fond  of  pleasure.  They  go  daily  to  meadows,  and  pass 
their  time  in  firing  from  horseback,  racing,  singing, 
joking,  dancing,  drinking,  and  sleeping.  They  are 
fisiirer  than  the  inhabitants  of  Mashad.  Their  gar- 
mefnt  is  a  red  shirt  and  an  open  red  trowser  below  a 
cloak,  or  chugha,  and  on  the  head  a  turban  of  Pe- 
shawar lungL  They  tie  a  very  thin  cloth  round  their 
waist,  and  keep  a  knife  in  their  girdle,  for  show,  and 
also  for  aggression.  They  pretend  to  be  very  reli- 
gions men ;  but  very  few  of  them  discharge  even  the 
daily  prayers  which  all  Musalmans  are  bound  to 
make.  The  females  have  delicate  featured.  They 
are  not  so  virtuous  as  those  of  Mashad,  and  like 
rather  to  wander  in  the  fields  than  to  stay  at  home. 
When  they  are  within  the  walls  of  the  city,  they  are 
very  carefol  to  cover  their  faces,  feet,  and  hands ;  as 

272         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

soon  as  they  step  out  of  the  gate,  they  lift  up  the 
veils,  put  them  over  their  heads,  and  begin  to  laugh 
at  and  ridicule  the  passengers.  Some  of  them  sing 
ballads,  and  others,  abusing  slightly  the  passers-by^ 
burst  into  a  laugh,  which  makes  them  move  on, 
hanging  down  their  heads  with  shame.  All  the  sex 
at  Herat  know  how  to  sing  and  dance ;  but  shew 
these  arts  neither  to  their  husbands,  nor  to  their 
relations,  but  secretly  to  their  friends. 

Herat  is  famous  for  its  silk  manufactures,  as 
Qanawaz  and  Taimur  Shahi  boots,  and  whips  for 
horses,  made  after  the  English  fashion,  which  are 
matchless  for  their  durability  and  neatness.  They 
are  exported  through  the  whole  of  Afghanistan,  and 
even  considered  a  most  valuable  present  to  friends 
at  distant  places.  Wool  is  abundantly  produced  in 
the  Hazara  country,  near  Herat.  If  it  could  be 
exported  to  Bombay,  and  from  thence  to  England, 
like  the  cotton  of  India,  the  manufacturers  of 
that  country  would  make  shawls  of  the  pashm, 
which  would  be  more  beautiful  than  those  of 

Herat  is  the  most  fertile  country  in  the  whole  of 
Khorasan.  The  suburbs  are  covered  with  rich  and 
green  orchards,  producing  considerable  quantities  of 
fruits.  They  are  known  by  the  names  of  nine 
buluks,  and  each  of  them  is  watered  by  a  separate 
stream,  called  Angir,  &c.  &c.  It  is  divided  into 
four  districts,  namely,  Obeh,  Ghuryan,  Kurakh,  and 
Sabzwar.      The  first  place  abounds  with  mines  of 

FROM   MASH  AD   TO    HERAT.  273 

different  metals.  It  is  famous  for  a  hot  fountain, 
in  which  sick  people  bathe  themselves,  and  im- 
mediately recover.  The  summer  is  very  pleasant 
there,  as  well  as  in  Kurakh.  This  place  is  almost 
occupied  by  the  Imaq,  a  wandering  nation,  and 
rather  desirous  of  robbery  than  of  living  honestly. 

Ghuryan,  situated  in  a  level  plain,  is  hidden 
under  numberless  trees  of  asafcetida,  which  is  col- 
lected in  great  quantities.  The  mode  of  procuring 
this  substance  is  very  singular.  The  Kakris,  one 
of  the  Afghan  tribes,  come  up  in  swarms,  with 
their  &milies,  and  disperse  themselves  over  the 
&ce  of  the  plain ;  they  protect  the  asafoetida  plants 
with  small  pieces  of  clay  or  bricks,  to  keep  off  the 
rays  of  the  sun.  Before  they  do  so,  they  rip  up 
the  stalk  of  the  plant  in  numerous  straight  lines, 
and  when  the  dew  falls  at  night,  matter,  like  muddy 
water,  pours  down  from  the  plant,  and  congeals  over 
the  stones  or  fences.  The  breeze  blows,  and  the 
people,  with  small  bags  of  skin  hanging  to  their 
necks,  go  to  their  own  trees  and  gather  up  the 
asafoetida.  The  asafoetida  plant  is  nearly  a  yard 
and  a  half  long,  and  has  a  very  few  small  branches, 
and  large  leaves. 

The  length  of  the  whole  country  of  Herat,  from 
Obeh,  in  the  east,  to  Ghuryan,  in  the  west,  is 
stated  to  be  nearly  120  miles,  and  the  breadth, 
from  Kurakh,  in  the  north,  to  Sabzawar  or  Isfazar, 
in  the  south,  is  estimated  at  90  miles.  Farah,  a 
very  rich  district,  is  also  in  the  possession  of  Shah 


274         FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

Kamran,  but  not  included  in  the  country  of  Herat 
It  belongs  to  Afghanistan,  and  not  to  Khorasan. 

Beyond  the  northern  hills,  sixty  miles  distant^ 
is  a  very  fruitiul  country,  called  Badghis,  which 
was  peopled  250  years  ago :  since  that  period,  in 
consequence  of  revolutions,  it  has  been  entirely 
destroyed,  and  no  one  now  lives  there.  It  is  stated 
by  old  men,  that  the  revenue  collected  from 
Badghis,  in  former  days,  exceeded  that  of  the 
whole  country  of  Herat. 

Silk  is  a  native  production  of  Herat.  It  is  pro- 
duced in  great  quantities,  and  is  exported  to  many 
countries.  The  wheat  is  of  many  kinds ;  as,  1st, 
shah  niwazi,  or  daima,  which  is  watered  by  the 
rains;  2nd,  zaf  rani;  3rd,  barai  sufidd;  4th,  ba- 
nd surkhak;  5th,  calak;  6th,  nesh  shutar;  7th, 
biranjak;  and  8th,  rezah  dandanah.  Najo  jau; 
mash  jau ;  jau  tursh,  or  sour,  are  the  different 
kinds  of  barley  reaped  at  Herat.  Arzan,  bagli, 
zaad,  tugi,  or  surkh  tugi,  are  also  cultivated  at 
Herat,  and  are  generally  used  by  the  poor  classes 
of  the  people,  who  cannot  afford  to  live  upon 

Out  of  mandau  and  bedanjir,  which  are  se^i  in 
every  field,  is  extracted  a  fine  oil  for  burning.  The 
rice  is  not  very  good,  like  that  of  Peshawer,  but  is 
of  the  several  kinds  that  follow ; — 1st,  niIo£Br  ; 
2nd,  rasmi;  3rd,  rashk;  4th,  maraqa;  5th,  fir- 
daus  khani,  seyah  asban.  Cotton  is  abundantly 
cultivated  in  Herat,  and  sometimes  is  sent  to  Ma- 

FBOH  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         275 

shad.  Mash,  ada8»  nakhad,  lemgash  or  muth» 
shamled  or  halbah,  javari  and  lobia,  are  also  pro- 
ductions of  Herat.  Sebist  and  shaftal  grow  exu- 
berantly, and  are  given  to  horses.  Opium  is  much 
grown  here,  and  is  transported  to  Bokhara  and 
other  places. 

Su&id  Koh  and  Badghis  are  adorned  with  the 
natural  plants  of.  shir  khist,  a  very  sweet  and  use- 
ful shrub.  Buz  jang,  zalir,  and  rodang,  are  djes 
cultiyated  in  Herat.  Kandal,  and  birzar,  an  article 
useful  for  boats,  are  exported  to  Sindh  and  Persia. 
Zirah,  badkhish,  and  honey  are  also  products  of 
Herat.  The  melons  are  very  sweet,  and  have  four 
names,  according  to  their  different  tastes;  as 
sardah,  garmah,  tirmi,  bunde.  Simarugh,  kama, 
apples,  figs,  pomegranates,  pears,  peaches,  cher- 
ries, pista  nuts,  almonds,  zardalu,  shalil,  alu  balu, 
alucha,  alusiah,  kadu,  amrud,  nakchini,  mulber- 
ries, annab,  aluabdin,  findaq,  senjid,  hulu,  jows, 
khinjiq,  kasan,  rivash,  and  grapes,  are  likewise 
produced  there.  This  last  fruit  is  very  abundant 
in  Herat,  and  is  sweeter  than  that  of  Mashad.  Its 
skin  is  soft,  and  it  has  plenty  of  names,  agreeing 
neith  the  different  shapes,  taste,  and  kinds ;  as  fol- 
lows :  1st,  rauchah ;  2nd,  khalili ;  3rd,  lal ;  4th, 
kishmisi;  5th,  askari;  6th,  takhri;  7th,  husaini; 
8th,  sahbi,  9th,  agha  ali;  10th,  khayeh  kabak; 
11th,  zair  jaur;  12th,  amiri;  13th,  munaqai; 
14th,  hoita;  15th,  cata;  16th,  ab  din;  17th, 
khala  chari;    18th,  sengak;   19th,  sirkagi;  20th, 



maska;  21st5  khanah  bamardaz;  22nd,  shast 
ariir  or  kalik;  23»  rodih  kash;  24tby  fakhri 
kalninuk.  Those  which  go  to  India  in  baskets  and 
cotton,  are  very  common  in  this  country ;  no  man 
eats  them  here,  and  they  are  given  to  quadrupeds. 

A  range  of  the  steep  mountains  which  stretch 
between  Jam  and  Khaf  contains  a  rich  mine  of 
salt.  It  is  not  monopolized,  but  is  not  regularly 
worked.  The  people,  who  are  generally  poor,  dig 
and  load  it  on  asses,  &c.,  as  much  as  they  please. 
It  is  red,  with  white  veins,  shining  like  crystal. 
The  value  of  the  salt  is  six  maunds  of  India  for 
one  Russian  ducat,  or  five  rupees. 

Obeh,one  of  the  rich  districts  in  Herat,  is  celebrated 
for  numerous  mines  of  different  metals;  namely, 
sulphur,  iron,  copper,  lead.  It  also  yields  marble, 
mortar,  gilbarrah,  gilsarshu,  and  chodan.  All  these 
mines  are  slowly  worked,  and  monopolized  for  small 
sums.  The  iron  is  much  used  in  Herat  for  making 
boiling-pots,  &c.  It  is  not  pure  iron.  In  the  reign  of 
Shahzadah  Haji  Firoz,  when  Herat  was  in  a  more 
prosperous  and  flourishing  state  than  at  present,  all 
the  above-mentioned  mines  were  actively  worked, 
and  their  products  were  transported  to  different  parts 
of  the  globe.  Silver,  tin,  buh,  zamikh,  and  ruby 
or  yaqut,  are  also  found  in  the  Herat  hills;  but 
the  rudeness  of  the  people,  and  the  oppression 
and  indifference  of  the  Government,  have  caused 
them  to  be  neglected.  Nobody  notices  whether 
they  exist  in  the  country  or  not.     A  specimen  of 

FROM  MASHAD  TO  HERAT.         277 

the  ruby  was  sent  to  us  by  tbe  king  to  examine. 
The  stone  was  of  a  dark  red  colour,  and  looked  as 
if  it  had  been  burnt  in  the  fire.  The  price  of  one, 
of  the  size  of  a  grain  of  rice,  was  two  annas  ;  but  if 
the  mine  were  worked  regularly,  and  excavated  about 
twenty  or  thirty  yards  deep,  undoubtedly  it  would 
produce  some  of  greater  value. 

When  Shahzadah  Firozuddin  reigned  at  Herat,  a 
prosperous  commerce  was  carried  on  throughout  the 
whole  country  of  Khorasan.  The  caravan  of  Bok- 
hara, which  came  thrice  a  year,  loaded  with  gold- 
sand  (or  regtilai)  and  silver,  greatly  enriched  this 
place,  and  the  caravan  of  Persia  annually  supplied  it 
with  the  shawls  of  Kirman,  and  also  with  European 
fabrics.  Candahar  furnished  it  with  a  considerable 
number  of  Kashmir  shawls,  part  of  which  were  ex- 
ported to  Persia  with  great  advantage :  but  now,  in 
consequence  of  anarchy,  the  shawls  go  to  Persia 
through  Bombay,  and  not  by  the  route  of  Afghan- 
istan. The  silk,  which  is  worked  in  great  quantity 
in  this  country,  is  exported  to  Shikarpur,  through 
Candahar,  and  sometimes  leaving  it  on  the  left  hand. 
The  whole  of  Afghanistan  was  plentifully  supplied 
with  gold  mohurs  coined  in  Herat,  and  also  with 
many  kinds  of  silk  cloth,  as  qanavaz  and  taimur 
shahi.  The  carpets  made  of  wool  at  Herat  are 
extremely  handsome ;  they  are  covered  with  open 
artificial  flowers,  in  different  colours.  They  are  sent 
to  Turkistan,  and  even  to  Afghanistan,  with  a  great 
profit.     Herat  was  furnished  with  tea,  not  only  from 

278         FBOM  HASHAD  TO  HERAT. 

Bokhara,  but  from  Persia  and  Bombay,  through  Can- 
dahar.  Sugar,  besides  what  comes  from  Candahar 
in  pieces,  is  brought  here  from  Yazd  in  Persia,  made 
into  loaves ;  six  seers  are  sold  for  five  rupees. 

Herat  is  styled  by  the  natives  the  key  of  the 
commerce  between  Turkistan,  Afghanistan,  Persia, 
and  India.  Merchants  of  all  countries  used  formerly 
to  reside  at  Herat,  and  carried  on  their  traffic  very 
successfully ;  but  since  Kamran's  government,  the 
trade  has  been  greatly  reduced;  notwithstanding 
which  he  exercises  the  same  hard  system  which 
before  obliged  the  merchants  to  quit  the  city. 




July  25. — We  were  quite  happy  to  leave  Herat, 
in  which  we  unwillingly  remained  for  seven  months. 
From  the  gate  of  the  city  to  the  bank  of  the  river, 
our  route  took  us  through  villages  almost  encircled 
by  gardens  and  canals.  Having  forded  the  current, 
we  arrived  at  Rauzah  Bagh,  a  fertile  hamlet,  eight 
miles  distant.  We  encamped  in  the  meadow 
planted  by  Ahmad  Shah  Durrani,  which  had  lately 
gone  to  ruin.  We  went  to  see  the  Pul-i-Malan, 
which  seemed  to  be  a  very  solid  old  structure.  A 
few  of  the  arches,  which  I  described  before,  are 
destroyed,  and  the  others  will  soon  be  levelled  to 
the  ground,  as  the  river  sometimes  flows  over 
them ;  one  lac  of  our  Indian  rupees  could  repair 
the  bridge,  and  make  it  much  stronger  than  before. 

July  26  io  28. — We  continued  in  Rauza  Bagh, 
waiting  for  an  escort  from  the  Sardar,  and  had  the 
pleasure  of  visiting  the  burial-place  of  Mahmud 
Shah,  the  father  of  Prince  Kamran.  The  inner  part 
under  the  cupola  was  covered  with  numerous  tombs 
of  the  royal  &mily,  but  they  all  have  a  common  and 
poor  appearance.  Zaman  Khan,  the  father  of 
Ahmad  Shah,  and  his  uncle,  AssaduUah  Khan,  are 
buried  in  the  same  place.     There  was  no  distinction 

280        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

between  the  tombs  of  the  rich  and  poor :  that  of 
Mahmud  Shah  himself  was  a  very  paltry  one.  From 
hence  we  had  a  fine  view  of  Gkzur  Gah,  and  of 
the  high  hills  called  Koh  Davandar  and  Su&id  Koh, 
capped  with  very  little  snow. 

Jvly  29.  —  Before  evening  we  took  leave  of 
Ranzah  Bagh,  and  joined  on  the  road  the  horsemen 
of  the  Sardar.  Having  travelled  over  plains,  we 
entered  on  a  rugged  and  pebbly  valley,  which 
brought  us,  after  daylight,  to  a  place  called  Band 
Shah  Bed,  a  distance  of  twenty-four  miles.  On 
the  road  we  passed  a  dry  cistern,  and  a  fine  rabat, 
named  Mir  Dans.  We  were  informed  that,  in  the 
vicinity  of  this  place,  there  were  mines  of  copper 
and  lead,  but  none  remembered  when  they  were 
worked.  There  was  a  canal  of  crystal  water  running 
at  this  spot.  The  original  name  of  the  ground  was 
Shah  Bed  (Shah  means  ^great;'  Bed  is  'a  tree'), 
but  on  the  left  bank  of  the  brook  stands  a  ruined 
rabat  made  by  Shaikh  Ismail  Khan  Mustaufi,  in 
Taimur*s  reign.  There  were  a  few  old  defaced 
inscriptions,  which  I  could  not  copy,  except  the 
following : 

*^The  sarae  has  been  erected  by  one  of  his  well-wishers, 
whose  name  is  Shaikh  Ismail  Khan,  which  is  famous  and 

When  Prince  Kamran  came  to  fight  with  Haji 
Feroz,  he  went  with  his  gun  on  the  top  of  the  hills, 
and  said,  ^^  If  the  ball  will  destroy  the  arch  of  the 
door  of  this  rabat,  undoubtedly  I  shall  place  on  my 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        281 

head  the  crown  of  victory."  It  did  so :  and  great 
part  of  this  caravansarae  is  spoiled  by  the  trial  of 
this  foolish  omen  of  Kamran,  in  whose  reign  build- 
ings are  not  constructed,  but  ruined. 

July  30. — Having  travelled  over  a  hilly  road  into 
a  quiet  valley,  we  ascended  a  very  high  pass,  where 
we  felt  the  cold  very  keenly.  Before  sunrise,  we 
forded  a  small  stream  called  Rodgaz,  and  met  the 
caravan  of  Candabar  with  loads  of  wheat.  We 
passed  on  our  route  a  ruined  caravansarae,  made  by 
Shah  Abbas,  overlooking  the  pebbly  bed  of  the 
Adraskan  river,  which  flows  rapidly  about  one  mile 
towards  the  west,  and  joins  the  former  stream.  The 
water  is  clear  and  wholesome,  and  it  was  daily  car- 
ried to  Herat  for  Taimur  Shah  to  drink,  a  distance 
of  forty-eight  miles,  or  fourteen  iarsakhs.  These  two 
rivers  run  down  from  the  hills  of  Ghor,  fall  into  the 
Candahar  stream  called  Hilmand,  and  flow  through 
Sistan.  The  mountains  near  them  resemble  those 
of  Find  Dadan  Khan,  celebrated  for  their  salt- 
mines, in  the  Panjab.  We  saw  neither  village  nor 
cultivation  on  the  road,  except  at  a  place  named  Mir 
Allah,  and  we  encamped  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Adraskan,  twenty-four  miles  distant.  In  spring  this 
river  is  very  dangerous  to  ford,  and  travellers  often 
lose  their  lives.  The  bridge  has  gone  to  decay 
through  age,  but  seemed  to  have  been  once  very 

July  31. — A  march  of  twenty-four  miles  brought 
us  to  the  suburbs  of  Sabzawar,  and  the  village  called 


Kufihkak,  near  Jambaran,  which  is  situated  on  the 
road  of  the  carayan  to  Candahar.  When  we  left 
the  Adraskan,  we  ascended  a  pass,  which  brought 
in  sight  a  finely  walled  fort^  called  E^handchi,  built 
by  Sarvar,  and  inhabited  by  Nurzais.  Its  direction 
was  north-east,  on  our  left  hand,  near  the  bank  of 
the  river.  From  the  pass  we  had  a  fine  view  of  a 
most  beautiful  green  plain,  called  Basha,  which 
was  the  hunting-place  of  Taimur  Shah.  Hawks  are 
found  abundantly  in  that  place. 

Our  journey  continued  through  small  valleys,  the 
earth  in  some  of  which  was  saltish,  and  others  were 
covered  with  verdure.  We  passed  the  red  plain 
called  Dasht  Surkhak,  which  led  us  by  the  foot  of 
a  mountain.  On  the  top  we  visited  a  wall  of 
stones,  which  was  the  burial-place  of  Khwajah  Irya, 
a  pious  individual  of  the  last  age.  In  this  place 
thieves  often  conceal  themselves,  and  rob  travellers 
of  their  goods,  and  even  of  their  clothes. 

We  were  very  anxious  to  go  to  Sabzawar,  of 
which  place  we  had  heard  a  great  deal  in  old  his- 
tories ;  but  the  head  of  our  caravan  was  a  bad,  low 
fellow,  who  would  not  agree  to  our  request,  though 
he  at  first  promised  to  do  so. 

Aug.  1. — We  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Naib  Mullah 
Karim,  the  ruler  of  Sabzawar,  who  was  very  much 
pleased  at  receiving  it.  I  flattered  him  greatly 
in  the  epistle,  on  which  he  immediately  sent  an 
escort,  who  conducted  all  the  caravan  to  Sabzawar, 
twelve  miles  from  our  place,  by  compulsion.     On 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        283 

OUT  left  hand  were  Tillages  and  black  tents  in- 
habited by  Afghans,  called  Ilat,  and  on  our  right 
were  the  Chungal  hillocks.  We  crossed  a  great 
many  streams,  upon  small,  very  dangerous  wooden 
bridges,  and  passed  through  the  gardens  of  the  city, 
where  the  Naib  came  to  receive  us. 

Aug.  2. — We  halted  in  Isfazar,  or,  as  it  is  called, 
Sabzawar,  on  account  of  the  distressing  heat.  The 
country  is  twenty-four  miles  long,  and  twenty-eight 
broad.  It  is  rich  in  productions,  and  on  every  side 
bounded  by  hills :  300  walled  villages  are  said  to  be 
under  its  ruler's  conunand,  each  of  which  is  watered 
by  300  kahrazes.  The  country  is  inhabited  by  Ta* 
jiks  and  Parsiban,  and  a  few  Afghans.  Sabzawar, 
the  residence  of  Shahzadah  Jalaluddin,  is  a  very 
small  place,  fortified ;  there  is  a  high  structure,  re- 
paired by  the  prince  for  his  fiunily,  and  the  houses 
of  the  chiefs  and  common  people  numbered  nearly 
sixty.  The  buildings  are  destroyed  by  the  rain  and 
snow,  and  have  a  very  dismal  appearance.  The 
market  is  on  Friday,  when  all  bargains  are  managed 
by  twenty  Hindu  merchants.  10,000  kharvars  of 
com  is  the  produce  of  the  whole  country  of  Sab- 
zawar. In  the  city  stands  a  lofty  arch,  the  remains 
of  an  ancient  mosque,  which  shews  that  Sabzawar 
is  a  very  old  place.  It  is  said  that  the  city  was  the 
winter  residence  of  Rustam,  a  celebrated  personage 
in  the  Shah  Namah.  It  is  not  half  a  mile  round, 
and  contains  only  500  souls.  The  place  is  not 
worth  seeing.     From  Jambaran  are  three  difierent 

284        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAH. 

roads  to  Candahar;  one  by  Ghor,  over  which  no 
man  can  travel  on  horseback;  the  other  through 
Tut  Qasrman;  and  the  third  hj  Farah.  Anardarah 
lies  south  of  Sabzawar,  and  is  famous  for  fine  gar- 
dens of  pomegranates ;  it  is  almost  encircled  by  hills. 
The  yallej  terminates  at  last  in  an  extensive  plain, 
which  is  abundantly  filled  with  asafoetida.  The 
capital  of  Anardarah  is  Qilah  Kah,  surrounded 
by  enormous  sandy  hills.  On  moving  a  little, 
we  were  informed  that  a  sound  like  the  beating  of 
a  drum  comes  out  of  the  hills,  which  is  believed  by 
the  people  to  be  a  miracle.  The  country  belongs 
to  Shamshuddin  Khan,  one  of  the  favourite  con- 
nections of  Shah  Kamran. 

August  3. — Having  left  Sabzawar,  and  crossed  the 
Adraskan  and  Rodgaz,  we  came  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  first-named  river,  and  perceived  a  fortified 
village  named  Emarat,  ten  miles  distant.  It  is 
situated  on  the  left  hand,  and  is  inhabited  by  Nur- 
zais.  The  sons  of  Ahad  Khan,  the  chief,  came  to 
meet  us  with  a  basket  of  fine  grapes,  and  said,  though 
the  king  had  ordered  them  to  give  us  an  escort,  yet 
they  could  not  move  to-day.  The  Qafilah  Bashi 
would  not  allow  us  to  stop  for  the  night,  on  account 
of  the  scarcity  of  provisions  in  the  caravan ;  but  the 
above  Afghans  answered  him  in  a  haughty  and  inde- 
pendent tone,  that  they  would  not  go  to-day,  though 
the  Aflatun  might  come  to  order  them. 

Before  we  reached  our  camp,  we  traversed  a  very 
high  and  pleasant  pass,  and  had  the  pleasure  of  visit- 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        286 

ing  the  forts  of  the  maiden  and  the  youth,  the  legend 
of  which  is  as  follows  :  She  was  an  oriental  girl»  who^ 
being  attacked  with  severe  fever,  determined  to 
travel.  She  had  a  lover,  who  followed  her  step  by 
step.  When  she  encamped  under  this  mountain,  she 
found  the  air  so  fine  and  pleasant,  that  she  recovered, 
and  determined  to  pass  her  life  on  this  healthy  spot. 
She  built  a  fort,  surrounded  by  magnificent  walls,  and 
ordered  the  garrison  not  to  allow  any  one  to  enter 
the  castle.  The  poor  lover  was  deeply  distressed  at 
being  thus  excluded  from  the  sight  of  his  beloved, 
and  implored  Providence  to  bestow  on  him  a  treasure. 
His  petition  was  granted,  and  he  erected  a  fort  on 
the  top  of  this  hill  (the  walls  of  which  are  a  mile 
and  a  half  in  circumference,  built  of  stone  and  brick), 
whence  he  could  see  into  the  window  of  the  palace 
in  which  his  beloved  resided. 

The  lover  grew  rich  and  powerful  in  the  country, 
and  sent  a  proposal  of  marriage  to  the  maiden,  with 
a  present  of  precious  stones.  She  consented  to  their 
nuptials,  on  condition  that  he  finished  first  the  whole 
of  the  fort.  The  youth  sent  orders  that  all  the  vil- 
lagers should  come  before  sunrise,  and  work  at  the 
fort,  on  pain  of  death  for  one  minute's  delay.  The 
fort  was  nearly  finished,  but,  unfortunately,  a  mar- 
riage took  place  among  the  workmen,  and  the 
morning  after  the  wedding,  the  bridegroom,  having 
overslept  himself,  could  not  go  to  work  before 
sunrise,  when,  rending  the  air  with  lamentations,  he 

286        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAB. 

exclaimed  that  he  should  be  pot  to  death.  His  bride 
pacified  him,  saying  she  would  go  to  the  youth,  and 
remedy  the  fault.  Accordingly,  covered  with  jewels 
and  ornaments,  she  went  to  the  youth,  who  was 
urging  the  people  to  work,  and  soon  obtained  the 
pardon  of  her  husband,  and  so  wrought  upon  the 
youth,  that  he  made  her  the  head  of  all  his  masons. 
After  a  short  time,  he  fell  asleep  in  her  lap,  when 
she  told  the  workmen  to  throw  baskets  of  earth 
and  stones  upon  him,  under  which  he  was  suf- 

Emarat  produces  500  kharvars  of  com,  and  is  in 
the  vicinity  of  a  mountain  where  sweet  melons  are 

Aug.  4. — ^A  march  of  twenty-eight  miles  brought 
us  to  Jaijah,  which  is  a  walled  place,  and  surrounded 
by  black  tents  of  the  Afghans  called  Khail.  The 
hills  are  of  extraordinary  shape,  forming  a  circle 
round  the  village,  and  make  it  cool.  200  kharvars 
of  com  are  raised  here  annually. 

Our  route  first  lay  over  an  extensive  plain,  which, 
on  our  left  hand,  was  occupied  by  numerous  Khails 
who  had  considerable  herds  of  sheep  or  gosfEcnds. 
At  the  end  of  the  journey,  we  entered  a  rugged 
valley,  which  made  our  camels  exceedingly  tired. 
The  difierence  between  the  Imaq  and  the  Ilat  is, 
that  the  former  live  in  round  tents  of  reeds,  gene- 
rally covered  with  white  namads  (carpets),  and 
ornamented  inside  with  fine  flowers,  and  bunches  of 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        287 

yellow,  red,  and  green  silk;  the  latt^  reside  in 
irregolar  tents,  dressed  with  black  blankets,  through 
which  they  feel  the  sun's  rays. 

Atig.  6. — Having  passed  a  dark  night  in  travel- 
ling, we  reached  Hauz  before  daylight,  twenty  miles 
distant.  The  road  continued  a  long  time  through 
the  rugged  valleys,  where  guns  would  meet  some 
difllculty  in  passing.  We  were  in  want  of  water 
while  we  got  up  to  our  ground,  and  were  also 
obliged  to  take  precautions  against  robbers,  who 
followed  US  from  the  village.  On  hearing,  from  the 
head  of  the  caravan,  that  there  was  now  no  danger, 
we  dismounted  from  our  horses,  in  order  to  go  into 
the  camel-baskets,  or  kajavas.  Our  servants  went  on 
ahead,  and  there  was  only  one  gunner,  with  twenty 
camels.  At  the  end  of  the  valley,  which  was  sur- 
rounded by  dark  caves  and  hillocks,  in  which  the 
robbers  choose  their  ground,  a  few  camels,  accom- 
panied by  one  of  us,  had  gone  a  little  in  advance. 
As  soon  as  they  had  emerged  out  of  the  valley,  they 
were  suddenly  attacked  by  eleven  robbers,  who  took 
two  camels,  loaded  with  our  things.  On  one  were  all 
my  papers,  including  my  Journal,  and  a  few  English 
articles  we  had  brought  to  present  to  the  Can- 
dahar  chiefs.  We  were  a  mile  behind  the  robbers, 
and  being  informed  of  the  occurrence,  I  rode  up 
with  my  musket,  and  told  all  the  people  to  light 
pieces  of  cloth,  which  might  be  mistaken  for 
matchlocks  by  the  robbers.  Accordingly,  the  rob- 
bers thought,  in  the  dark,  that  the  footmen  (who 

288        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

had,  in  reality,  not  a  piece  of  stick  in  their  hands) 
were  protected  by  guns.  Mr.  Gerard,  without  any 
weapon,  often  desired  to  follow  the  thieves,  but  I 
did  not  let  him  go,  because  we  were  all  unarmed. 
At  last  the  day  dawned,  and  the  caravan  encamped 
near  Hauz.  I  was  exceedingly  vexed  and  annoyed 
at  losing  my  Journal,  which  I  expected  would  be 
the  only  means  for  me  to  get  access  to  the  presence 
of  the  Governor-General. 

The  annoyance  which  I  suffered  on  this  occasion 
would  not  allow  me  to  dismount  from  my  horse,  and 
induced  me  to  go  straight  to  Farah,  a  distance  of 
thirty  miles.  Having  travelled  over  a  dry  plain,  I 
passed  a  ruined  caravansarae,  where  my  tongue 
stuck  to  the  roof  of  my  mouth,  and  I  felt  ready  to 
fall  from  the  horse,  through  excessive  thirst.  The 
fiery  winds  burnt  my  eyes,  and  the  rays  of  the  scorch- 
ing sun  pierced  through  my  body.  The  eyes  of  my 
companion,  the  servant  of  the  Herat  chief,  who  was 
robbed  also,  were  filled  with  tears,  on  account  of 
thirst  and  hunger.  He  wished  to  lie  down  under 
the  burning  base  of  the  hill,  which  I  did  not  agree 
to,  and  besought  him  to  follow  me  to  Farah ;  but  it 
availed  nothing.  Having  journeyed  alone  through 
many  villages,  I  crossed  the  rapid  and  pebbly  river 
called  Farahrod,  which  had,  in  some  places,  very 
deep  water.  This  river  seems  to  have  a  dreadful 
current  in  spring.  I  scarcely  believed  the  people, 
who  informed  me  that  it  is  dried  up  in  winter,  and 
has  not  enough  water  in  it  to  quench  a  man's  thirst 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        289 

in  the  whole  bed.  The  water  was  clear,  blue,  and 
very  wholesome  indeed.  I  entered  Farah,  and  met 
Salem  Khan,  the  raler,  a  negro  slave  of  the  king. 
I  explained  to  him  all  that  had  happened,  and 
begged  of  him  to  get  back  my  papers  by  any  means. 
He  carelessly  replied,  that  the  inhabitants  of  the 
country  had  rebelled  against  him,  and  that  he  could 
do  nothing  at  present.  Being  disappointed  and 
broken-hearted,  I  sent  two  men  to  the  robbers,  to 
ofier  a  sum  of  money  for  the  papers,  if  it  were  pos- 
sible to  get  them  back. 

August  6  to  11. — We  halted  in  Farah,  in  the  hope 
of  recovering  my  papers,  and  also  to  be  protected 
by  an  escort  as  far  as  the  dangerous  road.  But  the 
slave  was  such  a  low  and  mean  creature,  that,  not- 
withstanding we  showed  him  a  passport  and  an  order 
from  Prince  Kamran,  still  he  asked  us  to  pay  him  a 
great  deal  of  money  for  an  escort,  which  we  could 
not  give.  In  short,  surrounded  as  we  were  by  diffi- 
culties, we  relied  on  God,  and  made  ourselves  ready 
to  start. 

In  the  evening,  I  was  delighted  at  the  return 
of  our  servants,  who  brought  my  Journal  and  all  my 
papers,  except  some  English  and  silver  things.  The 
spy-glasses,  which  were  considered  to  be  of  gold, 
were  burnt  by  the  robbers.  They  were  all  spoiled. 
Some  papers  they  had  washed  with  water.  Praised 
be  heaven,  that  I  have  been  fortunate  in  the  reco- 
very of  my  Journal,  which  was  twice  stolen  by 
thieves ! 


290        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

Farah  is  said  to  be  the  oldest  place  in  Afghani- 
stan, and  to  have  been  built  by  Faredun,  an  ancient 
king,  mentioned  in  the  Shah^namah.  It  ia  sor* 
rounded  by  a  high  wall,  and  a  small  ditch.  There 
are  three  gates ;  one  of  them  is  blocked  up  with 
mud.  The  houses  are  very  poor  and  dirty.  The 
people  looked  harassed,  and  were  vagabonds.  Great 
part  of  the  town  was  in  ruins,  and  abounded  with 
large  tanks  of  dirty  waten  In  a  word,  it  is  not 
worthy  of  notice.  Dr.  Macneill,  the  envoy  at  the 
court  of  Tehran,  was  very  anxious  to  get  some  infor- 
mation respecting  Farah.  We  made  a  good  deal 
of  search  to  find  an  old  man,  who  could  give  us 
some  particulars  about  the  place ;  but  none  was  to 
be  found,  and  consequently  we  were  unable  to 
obtain  the  information  sought. 

The  inhabitants  are  all  Afghans,  and  are  never 
obedient  to  their  governors.  They  have  rebelled 
against  their  sovereigns,  and  have  often  waged  wars 
with  them.  They  pay  annually  something  to  their 
masters,  according  to  their  own  will ;  for  if  they  are 
required  to  obey  any  order,  they  resist  with  swords 
in  their  hands. 

Farah  is  very  hot  in  the  summer,  when  the  people 
are  often  attacked  by  fever,  and  die  very  soon.  The 
winter  is  not  cold.  Snow  seldom  &lls  here,  and 
when  it  does,  it  melts  directly.  The  soil  is  very  rich : 
wheat  and  other  necessaries  of  life  are  exported  to 
Herat,  and  sold  at  a  great  profit. 

Nadir  Shah  wrote  to  the  king  of  Constantinople, 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        291 

that  he  had  recently  possessed  himself  of  a  conntiy, 
the  earth  of  which  killed  his  enemies,  and  was  sold 
at  a  high  price :  that  is,  saltpetre,  which  is  produced 
in  considerable  quantity  in  Farah,  and  makes  a 
strong  gunpowder;  it  is  exported  to  Herat,  and 
other  places. 

August  12. — We  took  leave  of  Farah  in  the 
evening,  without  any  guard,  though  we  heard  that 
the  robbers  were  waiting  for  us  on  the  road.  We 
crossed  many  small  streams  over  dangerous  and 
weak  bridges,  one  of  which  gave  way  under  the  feet 
of  a  camel,  who  fell  instantly  into  the  water.  All 
the  caravan  were  so  much  afraid  of  the  banditti,  that 
they  could  hardly  speak  with  each  other.  We  tied 
all  our  useful  papers  round  our  waists,  and  waited 
the  attack  of  the  robbers  till  the  day  dawned  upon 
our  weary  eyes.  Having  travelled  over  a  hilly  road, 
we  passed  near  the  Hauz  of  Kallu,  and  reached  Khur 
Malaq,  a  distance  of  twenty  miles.  The  inhabitants 
are  all  Nurzais,  and  their  chief  is  a  good-tempered 
person.  Here  were  two  old  caravansaraes  built  by 
Abbas  Shah  Safvi.  The  village  is  watered  by  a 
beautiful  kahrez,  and  is  surrounded  by  numerous 

August  13.  —  A  march  of  twenty-four  miles 
brought  us  to  the  village  of  Chagaz,  or  Durahi :  the 
road  to  Farah  joins  that  of  Herat,  for  which  it  is 
called  Durahi  (or  *  two  roads').  Our  route  was  for  a 
long  time  through  a  pass,  and  after  descending,  we 
entered  upon  a  spot  adorned   with   verdure,   and 



encircled  by  a  canal.  We  reached  Siah  Ab,  at 
which  there  is  an  old  rabat,  where  the  body  of  Shah- 
wali  Khan  reposes.  He  was  the  Yazir  of  Ahmad 
Shah,  who  used  great  exertions  to  place  Sulaiman 
Shah  on  the  throne,  which  so  excited  the  indignation 
of  Taimur  Shah,  that  he  took  his  life.  He  was  mas- 
sacred, along  with  his  four  sons,  by  the  hands  of 
Taimur  Shah's  men. 

The  head  men  of  the  village  brought  presents  of 
melons  and  milk  for  us,  and  were  very  attentive. 
This  village  is  famous  for  its  butter,  which  is  ex- 
ported to  Herat  in  great  quantities.  Two  seers  and 
a  half  (Indian  weight)  of  butter  is  sold  for  five 
annas,  and  a  large  sheep  for  one  rupee. 

August  14.  —  We  came  to  Kirta,  eleven  miles 
distant,  a  village  situated  at  the  end  of  the  Bakva 
country.  We  left  the  direct  road  for  fear  of  meeting 
robbers,  and  bent  our  course  from  the  fort  of  Dost 
Mohammed,  towards  our  left  hand,  over  an  uneven 
road,  covered  with  long  grass  and  weeds. 

The  thieves  came  into  the  caravan  in  disguise,  as 
poor  travellers,  and  began  to  intrude  upon  the 
people :  some  of  them  were  detected,  and  the  rest 
escaped.  Travellers  must  be  very  cautiouB»  in 
passing  through  Bakva,  the  people  of  which  are  the 
.most  renowned  thieves  in  Afghanistan. 

The  peaks  of  the  hill  called  Fanj  Angusht  had  a 
striking  appearance  at  a  distance.  Their  shape  was 
like  the  fingers  of  the  human  hand,  whence  they 
.have  the  name  of  Panj  AngushU  or  'five  fingers.' 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        293 

August  15. — ^After  obtaining  an  escort  from  Kallu 
Khan,  the  headman  in  Kirta,  we  journeyed  into  an 
extensive  plain,  concealed  under  thorny  bushes,  and 
the  darkness  of  the  night.  In  the  thickness  of  the 
jangal,  on  the  bank  of  the  stream  called  Ju  Ibra- 
himi,  a  man  of  our  caravan  was  suddenly  attacked 
by  robbers,  who,  having  deprived  him  of  his  clothes 
and  ass,  concealed  themselves  in  a  ravine  of  the 
bank.  The  accident  alarmed  all  the  qafilah,  and 
made  us  very  cautious.  We  loaded  our  guns,  drew 
out  our  swords,  and  waited  the  attack  till  the  sun 
rose  upon  our  tired  eyes.  We  encamped  under  the 
shade  of  the  walls  of  the  ruined  fort  of  Dilaram, 
situated  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Khashrod,  which 
divides  the  country  of  Herat  from  that  of  Candahar. 
The  distance  of  our  journey  was  twenty-two  miles. 
This  place  is  the  resort  of  famous  robbers  of  Be- 
luchistan,  who  do  not  hesitate  to  murder  travel- 
lers for  a  small  booty,  and  sometimes  reduce  them 
to  bondage.  When  they  go  to  plunder,  two  men 
ride  on  one  camel,  galloping  day  and  night,  with  guns 
in  their  hands,  and  they  face  their  enemy  on  both 
sides.  Owing  to  fear,  we  did  not  sleep  one  wink 
daring  the  night  and  day. 

Aug.  16. — We  forded  the  rapid  current  of  Khash- 
rod, and  travelled  at  dark  over  a  sandy  desert,  in 
apprehension  of  the  Beluchis.  When  we  reached  a 
well  adjoining  to  a  ruined  rabat,  we  saw  fresh 
water  spilt  on  the  margin  of  it,  and  marks  of  ani- 
mals' feet  along  the  road.     This  circumstance  crea- 

294        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

ted  a  strong  suspicion  that  the  robbers  had  been 
here  before  onr  arrival.  On  this,  we  quickened 
our  pace,  and  when  the  sun  grew  high,  we  reached 
an  untenanted  fort,  named  Sakhak,  thirty-two  miles 
distant,  where  we  encamped,  watching  on  all  sides 
for  the  Beluchis. 

Aug.  17* — Having  traversed  a  sandy  tract,  we 
reached  Shoravak,  nine  miles  distant,  and  congra- 
tulated each  other  on  our  safe  arrival  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Candahar.  In  this  place  I  slept  soundly 
eight  hours,  and  ate  my  dinner  with  great  satisfae- 
tion.  The  villagers  informed  us*  that,  the  day 
before  yesterday,  3,000  sheep  were  taken  away  by 
the  Beluch  robbers,  who  encamped  for  two  hours 
by  the  same  well  which  we  passed  on  our  route  on 
Friday  night. 

At^.  18. — A  march  of  thirty-seven  miles  brought 
us  to  Girishk,  where  we  were  handsomely  received 
by  Mohammed  Saddiq  Khan,  the  eldest  son  of  the 
Sardar  of  Candahar.  He  is  about  twenty-six  years 
of  age,  and  possesses  great  talents,  which  give  a 
grace  to  his  manners.  When  he  learnt  that  I  had 
a  knowledge  of  the  English  language,  besides  that 
of  the  Persian,  he  appeared  very  anxious  to  go  to 
India,  and  thence  to  England,  for  the  sake  of 
acquiring  the  sciences  of  that  civilized  country. 
He  was  sorry,  he  said,  that  his  father  would  never 
allow  him  to  leave  Girishk,  otherwise  he  would  be 
very  happy  to  accompany  us  to  India,  and  from 
thence  he  would  sail  straight  to  England. 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        295 

Aug.  19  to  22. — We  continued  in  Girishk,  and 
were  treated  with  a  rioh  dinner  by  Mohammed 
Saddiq  Khan.  He  sat  in  a  glazed  room,  with  a 
few  of  his  choice  companions,  and  changed  turbans 
with  Mr.  Gerard,  a  custom  among  Asiatics  signifi- 
cant of  strong  friendship. 

The  fort  of  Girishk  is  not  Tory  large,  but  has 
solid  walls,  constructed  on  pebbly  land.  There  is  a 
Bmall  garrison  in  the  castle,  with  abundance  of  pro- 

The  most  part  of  the  revenue  of  Girishk  is  raised 
from  the  country  of  Zimindavar,  which  extends  on 
the  left  margin  of  the  Khashrod,  and  runs  as  far 
as  Beluchistan.  The  residents  on  this  bank  possess 
great  numbers  of  cattle,  and  employ  their  time  in 
cultiyation,  which  has  excited  the  jealousy  of  their 
neighbours.  The  other  district  of  Girishk  is  called 
Nadali,  and  is  enriched  by  the  luxuriant  produc- 
tion of  asafoetida,  &c.  &c. 

The  caravan  of  Herat  is  one  of  the  principal 
sources  of  the  income  of  Girishk.  There  are  no 
gardens,  except  an  avenue  lately  planted  by  Ko- 
han  Dil  Khan.  The  current  of  the  Hilmand  flows 
past  the  walls,  and  is  frequented  by  two  small 

Aug.  23. — Having  traversed  a  sandy  plain,  and 
then  passing  over  a  rich  ground,  we  arrived  at 
Khak  Chaupan,  a  distance  of  twenty-nine  miles, 
and  encamped  in  the  cool  shade  of  mulberry 
trees.      Canals  of  crystal  water  were  running  on 

296        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

every  side  of  us.  Mr.  Gerard  entered  the  camp 
very  late,  as  he  had  missed  the  road  ia  the  night. 

Aug.  24. — Our  route  led  us  into  a  fertile  vil- 
lage, named  Kashk  Nakhud,  famous  for  the  tem- 
ple of  a  saint.  There  has  been,  since  the  invasion 
of  Nadir  Shah,  a  dead  body,  covered  with  cloth, 
lying  on  the  ground  in  a  small  room.  The  deceased 
is  believed  to  have  been  a  godly  man,  because  his 
body  has  not  putrefied  for  such  a  length  of  time, 
and  no  animal  dares  to  touch  it,  though  the  doors 
are  always  open. 

We  reached  Hauz  Madad,  a  distance  of  twenty- 
eight  miles.  Here  we  met  the  men  of  the  chief 
of  Candahar,  with  four  baskets  of  fresh  fruit.  The 
preparations  for  our  reception  at  this  place  appeared 
very  liberal. 

Villages  are  scattered  over  the  whole  sur&ce  of 
this  country.  The  farmers  are  negligent,  owing 
either  to  their  being  naturally  disinclined  to  labour, 
or  to  misgovernment. 

Our  tent  was  pitched  on  a  rising  ground,  very 
&r  from  the  water,  which  is  conducted  through 
kahrezes  into  the  fields  of  tobacco ;  this  article  is 
exported  to  Shikarpur.  The  wheat  here  is  whiter 
and  sweeter  than  that  of  Herat,  and  is  sent  to  the 
city  for  sale.     The  rice  is  not  so  good  as  in  Herat* 

Aug.  25. — We  took  our  departure  from  Hauz, 
and  travelled  over  an  even  road.  On  our  left  hand 
were  the  high  hills  which  run  to  Kabul,  and  join 
the  snowy  mountains  of  Hindu  Kush ;  on  our  right 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CAKDAHAR.        297 

was  a  line  of  flourishing  villages,  lying  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Arghandab  river,  which  we  forded 
at.  midnight.  We  met  here  a  few  horsemen  of 
Candahar,  with  a  palankin,  covered  with  red  velvet, 
sent  by  Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan  to  receive  us.  After 
making  a  respectful  salam,  they  wished  us  to  go 
into  the  palankin,  which  we  refused.  In  the  morn- 
ing we  reached  the  garden  of  Taimur  Quli  Khan, 
where  we  were  told  to  halt  a  short  time.  His 
son,  a  good-tempered  youth,  a  relation  of  the  pre- 
sent chiefs,  brought  us  a  present  of  delicious  grapes* 
Jan  Mohammed  Khan  Naib,  accompanied  by  an 
escort,  came  to  receive  us,  and  delivered  a  friendly 
salam  from  the  Sardar.  He  has  visited  a  great 
port  of  India,  where  he  has  been  enriched  by  trade. 
He  speaks  Hindusthani,  and  is  acquainted  with  a 
number  of  gentlemen  in  that  country.  He  took 
bold  of  Mr.  Gerard's  hand,  and  urged  us  to  enter 
the  palankin,  which  we  still  refused.  Our  entry 
into  the  city  was  somewhat  public  and  honourable. 
We  were  conducted  into  the  house  of  the  Sardar, 
and  were  entertained  with  all  kinds  of  delicious 
food.  In  the  evening  we  visited  the  Sardar,  who 
was  very  kind  to  us. 

Aug.  26  to  31. — Candahar.  We  visited  the  great 
Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan,  who  stood  and  received  us 
in  a  stately  manner.  He  placed  us  next  to  him, 
and  talked  a  great  deal  about  the  Christian  religion. 
His  dress  was  rich,  and  he  was  encircled  by  a  set 
of  his  chiefs,  who  were  astonished  to  see  an  Eng- 

298        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

lishman  in  their  country.  They  spoke  of  the 
British  Government  in  terms  of  great  praise,  and 
especially  applauded  Mr.  Elphinstone  and  Sir  John 
Malcolm,  with  whom  they  had  had  correspondence. 
Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan,  our  kind  host,  paid  us  two 
visits  in  return,  and  said  he  was  a  great  friend  of 

Sept.  1. — At  evening  we  took  a  ride  out  of  the 
city  with  the  Sardar,  who  told  Mr.  Grerard  and  me 
to  mount  on  a  beautiful  camel  with  himself  and  his 
son,  a  great  friend  of  mine.  We  went  about  two 
miles  from  the  city,  and  ascended  a  very  steep 
hill,  called  Kohnigar,  from  whence  we  saw  the  old 
city  of  Candahar.  We  sat  upon  the  bastion  made  by 
Nadir  Shah,  who  carried  up  large  guns,  throwing  a 
quantity  of  raisins  under  the  wheels,  as  the  road 
was  difficult.  We  ate  grapes  with  the  Sardar,  who, 
with  his  finger,  pointed  out  the  directions  of  the 
various  roads. 

Sept.  2. — Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan  sent  for  me  in 
the  morning  to  his  court,  which  was  crowded  with 
people.  He  sat  on  a  velvet  bed,  having  his  shoulder 
supported  by  a  pillow.  He  told  me  to  sit  down 
by  his  side :  after  inquiring  how  we  lived,  he  said 
that  his  pir,  or  religious  father,  was  anxious  to 
see  us;  and  whenever  we  were  willing  to  go,  he 
should  be  very  glad  to  send  his  mirza  and  palan- 
kin  for  us. 

Sept.  3. — After  sunrise  we  set  out  to  Mazrah, 
the  residence  of  Akhund  MuUa  Sahibuddin,  the  pir 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        299 

of  the  Sardar.  The  village  is  fertile,  and  very  popu- 
lous. It  is  situated  five  miles  to  the  north-east 
of  the  city.  There  are  about  twenty  shops  in  the 
hamlet,  whidi  is  a  place  of  refuge  for  criminals,  as 
well  as  for  persons  in  debt,  or  who  have  quarrelled 
vnth  any  one,  or  killed  any  body.  The  government 
cannot  touch  them,  as  long  as  they  live  in  that  place. 
We  entered  a  garden  adjoining  a  beautiful  mosque, 
which  was  full  of  fruit-trees.  The  Akhund  was  sit- 
ting under  the  shade  of  fig-trees,  surrounded  with  a 
band  of  his  followers.  He  stood  to  receive  us,  and 
placed  us  near  him.  We  kissed  his  hands,  and  he 
spoke  veiy  kindly.  He  is  an  old  man,  with  a  smil- 
ing countenance.  It  is  said  that  he  dislikes  bigotted 
people.  He  sent  for  a  quantity  of  delicious  grapes ; 
the  weight  of  each  bunch  was  nearly  a  seer  and  a 
hal^  Indian  weight.  He  has  1,000  followers,  but 
his  power  is  so  great  that  he  could  raise  30,000  men. 
Sept  4. — ^I  paid  a  second  visit  to  the  Akhund, 
who,  vnth  a  smiling  face,  asked  me,  of  what  nation 
were  the  best  people,  and  what  place  I  liked  most 
in  my  journey  ?  I  answered  him,  **  The  Uzbegs  are 
dirty  in  their  persons,  and  credulous ;  they  are  hos- 
pitable while  you  are  in  their  house,  and  treacherous 
when  you  leave  it.  The  Persians  speak  lies,  and 
are  fond  of  pomp  and  show.  And  now,  Akhund 
Sahib,  I  beg  you  will  pardon  the  character  I  give 
of  the  Afghans,  who  are,  in  my  opinion,  jealous, 
thievish,  and  deceitful."  Upon  this,  the  Akhund 
could  not  help  laughing  for  a  long  time,  and  said  to 

300        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

Lis  associates,  that  the  M irza  (meaning  myself)  was 
a  good  judge.  He  presented  me  with  sweetmeats 
and  grapes,  and  talked  very  cordially. 

Sept.  5  to  20. — We  continued  in  Candahar,  where 
there  is  nothing  curious  to  be  seen.  The  Sardar 
was  very  attentive  and  kind  to  us ;  in  his  company 
we  passed  very  comfortable,  but  idle  days.  Rumours 
of  Shah  Shuja's  success  in  Sindh  were  spreading 
rapidly  in  the  families  of  the  Durranis,  who  appeared 
to  like  him  very  much.  It  was  believed  among  the 
citizens  that  he  was  assisted  by  the  English  Govern- 
ment, of  which  they  were  greatly  afraid.  The  Sar- 
dars,  who  had  no  fear  in  their  hearts,  said,  that  Shah 
Shuja  could  never  keep  his  throne  in  Kabul,  as  long 
as  the  Barakzai  chiefs  were  alive. 

In  the  evening,  we  were  gratified  at  receiving  an 
affectionate  and  respectful  invitation  from  the  Mama, 
to  dine  in  his  house.  There  were  a  great  many 
persons  sitting  in  a  straight  line  under  the  roof  of 
an  old  palace,  where  Ahmad  Shah  and  Zaman  Shah 
kept  their  courts.  The  structure  appeared  to  have 
been  splendid,  but,  through  neglect,  it  is  now  much 

The  dinner  was  excellent ;  it  had  a  very  different 
appearance  from  Indian  feasts.  The  host  was  very 
friendly  and  kind  to  us.  He  was  astonished  to 
observe  the  thermometer  rise  two  degrees,  as  soon 
as  he  took  it  in  his  hand.  He  remarked,  that 
Englishmen  were  the  first  in  wisdom,  and  could  do 
every  thing,  except  save  people  from  death. 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        301 

Sept.  21  to  29. — We  were  delighted  to  receive  a 
kind  letter  from  Captain  Wade,  with  a  large  bundle 
of  newspapers,  which  were  almost  filled  with  the  Rev. 
J.  WolflTsand  Mr,  Bumes'  remarks  upon  each  other. 

As  the  desire  of  travelling  had  taken  possession 
of  my  mind,  I  was  anxious  to  direct  my  route  from 
hence  to  Kashgar  and  Kohkan,  passing  through  the 
&mous  country  of  Badakhshan ;  these  places  lie  due 
east  of  Bokhara.  Being  afraid  of  losing  the  oppor- 
tunity, I  obtained  letters  of  introduction  from  the 
Vazir  to  his  family,  in  the  above  countries.  The 
letters  are  couched  in  very  favourable  terms,  which 
I  am  sure  will  gain  for  me  respectful  treatment  in 
that  country,  if  I  should  ever  go  there. 

Sept.  30. — We  took  a  ride  in  the  evening  round 
the  wall,  and  entered  the  city  through  the  Shikar- 
pur  gate.  The  northern  and  southern  suburbs  of 
the  city  are  parched  and  dry,  but  towards  the  east 
we  had  a  refreshing  sight  of  flower-fields.  The 
Shikarpur  bazar  is  a  poor  one,  and  thinly  occupied 
by  fruit-sellers.  The  men  looked  at  us  with  asto- 
nished eyes,  and  said,  "  This  is  the  Farangi."  There 
was  a  cloud  of  dust  over  the  face  of  the  bazar, 
which  prevented  our  seeing  well. 

Oct.  1. — We  were  informed,  by  a  respectable 
man,  that  HabibuUah  Khan,  after  getting  mad, 
killed  his  two  beautiful  wives,  four  servants,  and 
three  slave-girls,  and  he  himself  is  now  wandering 
through  the  deserts  of  Dadar. 


The  city  of  Candahar  is  not  so  strongly  built  as 
that  of  Herat ;  the  walls  are  new,  and  endrcled  by 
a  small,  dry  ditch.  The  circumference  of  the  city 
is  9,000  paces,  of  two  and  a  half  feet  each.  It  is 
an  oblong  square,  and  has  six  gates ;  two,  on  the 
western  side,  are  c^ledDarvazahTopkhanah  andDar- 
vazah  Herat,  which  last,  after  making  the  two  sides 
(or  bazars)  of  the  charsu,  runs  straight  through  the 
dome,  and  meets  the  Darvazah  Kabul,  standing  on 
the  eastern  side ;  it  measures  1,870  paces  from  one 
gate  to  another.  The  Darvazah  Topkhanah  is  oppo- 
site to  the  Bardurrani  gate,  which  is  situated  near 
the  Kabul  Darvazah.  The  southern  side  has  agate 
called  Darvazah  Shikarpur.  The  street  goes  straight 
through  the  dome,  and  joins  the  gate  of  the  arg,  or 
Idgah,  which  is  on  the  northern  side.  They  make 
two  sides  also,  and  a  length  of  1,470  paces.  The 
charsu,  or  fournsided  streets,  are  called  by  different 
names.  Bazar  Shah  and  Bazar  Shikarpur  have  401 
shops,  omitting  small  ones.  The  bazars  of  H^rat 
and  Kabul  are  exceedingly  well  filled  with  shops. 
The  bazars  are  not  covered,  like  those  of  Herat,  and 
are  very  small  in  some  places.  The  arg,  or  citadel, 
stands  separately,  walled  by  itself,  and  on  two  sides 
it  is  surrounded  by  a  deep,  narrow,  and  pebMy  dry- 
ditch.  The  gate  of  the  arg  towards  the  city  has  an 
iron  chain  barrier,  which  prevents  men  from  going 
through  on  horseback.  In  the  vicinity  is  a  large, 
dry  cistern,  flanked  by  high  trees,  which  bear  a  great 

FBOM  HERAT  TO  GANDAHAR.        303 

beam,  fixed  with  iron  hooks,  high  upon  their  trunks. 
It  is  a  gallows,  and  made  for  hanging  criminals. 

The  present  city  and  aig  of  Candabar  were  built 
by  Ahmad  Shah,  ninety-four  years  ago.  In  the  arg 
were  many  magnificent  houses,  which  the  present 
chiefs  spoil,  out  of  spite,  and  ma]ce  new  buildings 
after  their  own  fiashion.  The  houses  in  Candabar 
are  commonly  of  one  story  high,  constructed  of 
nnbnmt  bricks  and  clay,  which  resist  the  snow  and 
rain  for  many  years.  The  rafters  are  brought  from 
Kabul,  for  there  is  a  great  want  of  wood  in  this 

Oct.  2. — In  the  evening  we  took  a  ride  in  the 
vicinity,  towards  the  north,  and  visited  a  white 
building,  on  the  top  of  a  mountain,  three  miles  from 
the  city.  It  is  a  very  pleasant  abode,  open  on  four 
sides.  The  circumference  is  thirty-five  paces.  Ah- 
mad Shah,  on  the  day  of  his  coronation,  sat  on  the 
top  of  this  hill,  and  shot  an  arrow  towards  the  plain ; 
and  where  it  dropped,  he  ordered  a  menar  to  be 
built,  thirty  feet  high,  and  twenty-five  spans  in  cir- 
cumference, to  perpetuate  his  memory.  The  rock 
consists  of  difierent-coloured  stones.  They  are  black- 
ish, and  somewhat  reddish.  We  dug  out  some  of 
them  for  specimens,  to  present  to  the  Asiatic 
Society,  and  also  picked  up  a  shell,  or  rounded  peb- 
ble, which  seems  to  prove  that  the  sea  must  once 
have  covered  this  mountain,  though  it  is  nearly 
3,000  feet  above  its  present  level. 

The  Afghans  form  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants, 

304        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

and  the  PersianSy  who  are  all  dealers,  and  have  pos- 
session of  the  authority,  occupy  nearly  2,000  houses. 
They  intermarry  with  Afghans  or  Sunnis,  which 
custom  does  not  prevail  in  Persia,  or  even  in  Ma- 
shad.  The  people  are  all  fond  of  dress.  Their 
turbans  are  graceful,  and  their  kamarbands  generally 
consist  of  English  shawls.  They  laugh  at  a  person, 
and  think  him  a  poor,  cowardly  fellow,  if  he  is  not 
loaded  with  weapons.  They  stick  two  or  three 
pistols  round  their  waists,  besides  a  couple  of  dag- 
gers and  swords ;  they  bear  beautiful  shields  upon 
their  backs,  and  leave  the  border  of  their  turbans 
hanging  upon  them.  Under  the  turban  they  put  on 
a  thin  cap,  covered  with  gold  embroidery,  called 
araqchin^  which  is  open  on  the  occipital  part  of  the 
head ;  this  is  considered  to  be  a  mark  of  foppery,  as 
well  as  of  a  great  man.  The  dresses  were  different 
from  those  we  saw  in  other  parts  of  Afghanistan, 
and  indicate  that  the  Afghans  are  bold  and  careless, 
with  a  mixture  of  rudeness.  They  are  accustomed 
to  shoot  on  horseback,  and  a  good  marksman  is 
always  respected,  although  he  may  be  of  a  low 
family.  They  speak  Pashtu,  and  also  Persian; 
quarrel  for  an  insignificant  thing,  and  kill  each  other 
for  a  trifling  offence.  They  boast  of  their  heroism, 
and  think  themselves  the  most  incomparable  war- 
riors of  the  age.  Their  heart  is  the  seat  of  revenge 
and  jealousy,  and  humanity  never  touches  their 
breasts.  They  cut  off  a  man's  head  with  as  much 
indifference  as  we  cut  a  radish. 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        306 

Oct.  3  to  7. — In  the  company  of  Mirza  Yahya,* 
a  good-tempered  man,  in  the  service  of  the  Sardar, 
I  bad  the  satis&ction  of  feasting  my  eyes  with  the 
sight  of  Bahavali  fair,  or  Melah.  It  takes  place 
once  a  year,  and  people  of  every  cafite,  with  their 
families,  after  returning  from  the  fair  of  Shah  Maq- 
sud,  halt  a  day  at  the  above  spot,  and  enjoy  the 
pleasures  of  the  senses. 

Babavali  lived  400  years  ago  ;  he  was  a  pious  and 
respectable  man  in  his  time.  His  tomb  is  situated 
upon  a  high  hill,  and  is  visited  weekly  by  pilgrims. 
He  has  performed,  according  to  report,  a  great 
many  miracles,  and  was  not  a  bigoted  man.  The 
hills  command  a  pretty  country  towards  the  north, 
on^  the  left  bank  of  the  Arghandab  river.  We 
passed  a  whole  day  in  a  garden  of  delicious  fruits, 
and  Mirza  anxiously  inquired  about  the  English 
laws,  which  excited  his  attention,  as  he  expected  to 
go  to  India. 

The  people  of  the  fair  sing  love-ballads,  and 
play  upon  guitars.  Many  of  them  had  good  coun- 
tenances, and  were  finely  dressed ;  but  they  were 
mounted  upon  asses  and  old  ugly  camels,  which  gave 
a  bad  effect  to  their  showy  dresses.  This  fair,  which 
is  not  comparable  with  the  fairs  of  India,  was  con- 
sidered by  the  people  as  the  most  striking  scene 
ever  witnessed  in  Candahar. 

Oct.  8  to  11. — I  went  to  congratulate  the  Sardar, 

*  He  lost  his  life  through  an  accident  in  1837. 

306        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

on  account  of  the  birth  of  a  child  in  hid  house.  He 
received  me  respectfully,  and  did  not  allow  me  to 
go  till  the  dance  of  an  ugly  woman  was  over.  There 
were  many  jugglers,  and  also  a  set  of  Luti,  who 
repeated  very  shameless  words.  We  presented  a 
shawl  to  the  Sardar's  man,  according  to  the  custom 
of  the  country,  in  consequence  of  his  bringing  us  the 
good  news  of  the  birth. 

Oct.  12  to  15. — At  five  o'clock  in  the  morning 
we  set  off  from  Candahar  to  examine  a  celebrated 
grotto,  known  by  the  name  of  Ghar  Jamshaid.  It 
is  situated  sixteen  miles  south-west  of  the  city,  in 
the  range  of  the  Panj  Bai  hills,  which  overlook  the 
left  bank  of  the  Arghandab  river.  We  ascended  about 
800  feet,  by  an  elevated  gorge,  which  led  us  to  the 
entrance  of  the  cavern ;  at  about  ten  paces  we  were 
obliged  to  stoop,  till  it  opened  into  a  large  place, 
stretching  on  our  left;  while,  on  our  right  hand, 
we  beheld  a  natural  abyss,  which  was  totally  dark. 
The  depth  was  very  great ;  we  threw  down  a  stone, 
which,  after  stopping  in  many  places,  sounded  at  the 
bottom  after  three  minutes.  Our  party  now  con- 
sisted of  twelve  men  and  two  guides.  We  were 
accompanied  by  two  large  torches,  or  mashals,  with 
two  maunds  of  burning  oil.  Our  entrance  into  the 
ghar  was  worthy  of  description.  The  roof  was  covered 
by  numerous  large  bats,  which,  from  the  heat  of 
the  torches,  took  flight,  and  darted  about  so  as  to 
endanger  the  lights,  and  sometimes  our  own  heads, 
making  a  humming  noise  with  their  wings.     The 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        307 

gfotmd  was  coTered  with  damp  mould,  from  the 
filth  of  the  bats.  The  heat  was  oppressive,  and 
induced  a  violent  perspiration,  the  thermometer 
being  SS''.  From  the  noxious  and  stagnant  air, 
some  of  the  party  complained  of  headaches,  and 
others  found  a  diflSculty  of  respiration.  When  we 
came  to  the  large  chamber,  which  the  inhabitants 
call  charsu,  we  were  astonished  to  perceive  the  whole 
roof  beautifully  carved,  as  if  it  was  artificial.  In 
the  winter  season,  when  much  rain  falls,  the  water 
drops  through  the  rock,  and  is  converted  into 
strange  figures,  which  appear  like  icicles.  When 
we  broke  several  of  them,  they  looked  like  fine 
shining  marble.  Our  guides  pointed  out  two  masses 
of  rock,  which  they  call  huts  or  idols,  but  they  were 
evidently  of  natural  formation,  and  not,  as  the 
people  assert,  productions  of  art.  Tradition  tells  us 
that  the  famous  Jamshaid,  one  of  the  kings  of  the 
Kinan  dynasty,  was  the  first  to  discover  this  cave, 
from  whom  it  derives  its  name.  Regarding  its 
origin,  the  following  story  is  told  at  Candahar : — 

An  enormous  snake  had  been  in  the  habit  of 
devouring  the  people  who  passed  by  the  above  hills. 
Hazrat  Ali,  having  heard  of  this,  vowed  vengeance 
against  the  monster,  and  arrived  at  the  spot  where 
it  was.  As  soon  as  he  cast  his  eyes  upon  it,  the 
snake,  being  afraid  of  his  godlike  power,  ran  away, 
and  appeared  on  the  other  side  of  the  mountain, 
forcing  a  passage  through  it,  and  this  was  the  form- 
ation of  the  cavern.     The  animal,  as  alleged,  was 


308        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

converted  into  stone,  which  still  lies,  in  the  same 
figure,  upon  the  top  of  the  rock.  Some  time  after 
this,  when  Hazrat  Ali  was  returning  from  the 
Khaibar  country,  he  found  that  the  people  of  this 
p]ace  were  infidels,  and  having  asked  them  whether 
they  had  not  heard  of  the  Mohammedan  religion, 
they  replied  in  the  negative ;  upon  which  the  saint 
was  incensed,  and  told  them  they  deserved  to  be 
changed  into  the  sang,  or  stone,  which  happened 

We  collected  various  specimens  of  the  different 
rocks  which  composed  the  grotto  and  the  mountain, 
some  of  which  were  like  marble,  and  others  had  a 
greenish  tinge,  as  if  they  contained  some  kind  of 
metal,  perhaps  copper.     The  whole  of  the  rock  was 
limestone.     The  sides  of  the  cave  were  bathed  with 
damp,   which,  when  tasted,  had  a  salt  and  bitter 
flavour.      After  remaining   more   than  two  hours 
among  the   bats,  in  the  unwholesome  air  of  the 
cavern,  we  enjoyed    daylight  and  the   cool  atmo- 
sphere outside,  where  the  temperature  was  about 
ten  degrees  lower.    We  returned  to  our  camp  at  the 
foot  of  the  hill,  and  regaled  our  appetites  upon  ka- 
babs,  in  the  Afghan  style.     We  came  to  the  city  by 
a  different  route,  that  of  Panj  Bai,  on  purpose  to 
see  the  famous  gardens  of  pomegranates,  which  are 
much  praised  in  Candahar. 

We  were  on  camels,  the  speed  of  which  exceeded 
that  of  horses,  and  reached  the  city  a  little  after 
dark.     Near  the  gate,  my  camel,  being  blind  of  one 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        309 

eye,  fell  down,  and  precipitated  me  from  my  seat, 
but  without  my  sustaining  any  injury.  The  distance 
of  our  trip  was  nearly  thirty-five  miles,  and  the  next 
day  we  found  ourselves  so  much  fatigued  that  we 
could  scarcely  move  our  limbs. 

Oct.  15. — In  company  with  the  Sardar,  we  made 
an  excursion  to  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  city  of 
Candahar,  which  is  situated  three  miles  west  of  the 
present  one.  Having  passed  through  rich  cultiva- 
tions of  clove,  rice,  and  tobacco-fields,  we  crossed 
many  small  streams  on  wooden  bridges,  and  emerged 
before  the  ruins  of  the  city,  which  occupy  a  consi- 
derable extent  of  ground.  We  entered  by  the 
gateway,  and  observed  the  thickness  of  the  wall, 
which  appeared  to  be  thirty  feet.  The  western 
side  is  bordered  by  a  high  and  steep  cliff  of  bare 
rock,  forming  a  natural  wall.  We  were  surprised 
to  see  many  houses  still  standing,  after  the  lapse 
of  more  than  a  hundred  years.  These  habitations 
looked  as  solid  as  if  they  had  been  vacated  a  few 
years  before.  There  are  many  wells  in  the  city ; 
one  of  them  is  said  to  contain  great  riches,  for 
which  we  looked  in  vain.  In  this  country  we  saw 
neither  stone  nor  brick  buildings,  such  as  exist  in 
India ;  and,  consequently,  there  are  no  remains  of 
antiquity  visible  ;  the  whole  is  mouldering  to 

Husain  Shah  Ghilzai  was  the  founder  of  the  city, 
about  forty  years  anterior  to  Nadir  Shah's  invasion. 
The  place  was  of  such  great  strength,  that  it  resisted 

310        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

the  conqueror  for  fourteen  months,  and  was  finally 
betrayed  by  the  Vazir  of  Hufiain  Shah,  who  pointed 
out  a  road  for  Nadir's  guns.  They  were  dragged 
up  by  means  of  raisins  put  under  the  wheels.  The 
arduous  nature  of  this  undertaking  may  be  judged 
of  from  the  fact  that,  when  upon  the  top  of  the  hill, 
I  was  unable  to  look  down  without  a  sense  of  giddi- 
ness, it  appearing  nearly  perpendicular. 

The  Sardar,  like  a  bold  Afghan,  shewed  us  the 
way  to  the  summit  of  this  high  mountain,  and  we 
followed  him  with  fearful  steps.  We  passed  two 
hauzes,  or  cist^*ns,  one  about  half-way  up,  the  other 
nearly  at  the  top.  These  were  made  for  a  supply 
of  water  to  the  garrison  who  were  stationed  for  the 
defence  of  the  hill. 

We  rode  up  the  first  part  of  the  way,  and  walked 
on  foot  till  we  came  to  the  steep  cliiF,  upon  which 
was  no  vegetation.  Here  we  were  obliged  to  creep 
on  all  fours,  and  even  then  we  had  a  difficulty  in 
keeping  our  hold.  We  succeeded,  after  much  exer- 
tion, in  reaching  the  top,  where  the  wind  blew  so 
furiously  as  to  endanger  our  footsteps.  The  Sardar 
went  on  in  advance,  and  Mr.  Gerard  followed  him ; 
but  I  had  not  n^ve  to  go  any  further.  The  Sardar 
pursuing  another  road,  I  retreated  by  the  same  way, 
and  joined  the  Sardar  at  the  bottom,  who  was  quite 
amused  at  my  inexperience  in  the  hills. 

From  thence  we  visited  a  curious  well,  cut  into 
the  solid  rock  to  the  depth  of  fifty-six  feet.  On 
Nadir's  invasion,  Husain  Shah,  it  is  said,  deposited 

FROM  HERAT  TO  GANDAHAR.        311 

all  his  wealdi  in  this  well,  and,  to  secure  it,  caused 
a  quantity  of  melted  lead  to  be  poured  over  it. 

On  returning  from  the  well,  we  paid  a  Tisit  to  the 
old  ruined  arg,  or  citadel,  which  is  called  Naranj, 
from  its  resemblance  to  an  orange.  Here  we  went 
in  search  of  a  well,  where,  it  is  related,  Husain 
Shah,  to  preserve  his  jewels  from  Nadir,  suspended 
them  by  a  chain,  which,  on  the  invasion  of  the  city, 
was  cut,  and  the  whole  disappeared  under  the  water, 
and  none  have  to  this  day  been  discovered.  So  the 
natives'  account  informs  us,  but  whether  it  be  true 
or  false,  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining. 

We  proceeded  now  to  visit  the  famous  building 
named  Chihal  Zinah,  or  Forty  Steps,  erected  by  the 
noble  king  called  Mohammed  Zahir  Uddin  Babar 
Badshah,  whose  bones  rest  in  a  beautiful  garden 
near  Kabul.  This  structure  makes  me  feel  the  want 
of  words  to  describe  its  magnificent  appearance : 
however,  I  will  pen  a  few  lines  about  it. 

The  same  range  of  rock  which  forms  the  barrier 
of  the  old  city  of  Candahar  springs  very  high  in  a 
north  direction ;  the  summit  of  the  rock,  where  it 
terminates,  appears  in  the  shape  of  a  head,  or  pro- 
jecting point.  It  commands  an  extensive  view  on 
all  sides,  and  the  arch,  which  stands  above  forty  steps 
almost  perpendicular,  attracts  the  sight  of  passengers 
from  a  long  distance.  It  is  cut  in  the  solid  hard 
rock,  which  is  composed  of  black  stone,  with  white 
veins  and  moles.  I  found  great  difficulty  in  climbing 
the  steps,  or  Chihal  Zinah,  the  stone  being  slippery. 

312        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

The  Sardar  had  made  great  preparations  for  our 
entertainment  under  the  arch.  Fruits  were  brought 
in  abundance,  and  a  kabab  of  a  £Eit  sheep  was  pre- 
pared in  the  Afghan  fashion. 

The  inside  of  the  arch,  as  well  as  its  outer  wings, 
was  completely  covered  with  Persian  inscriptions, 
some  of  which  were  illegible.  They  express  that 
Babar  Badshah,  after  taking  Candahar,  built  this 
conspicuous  edifice,  which  is  so  high  as  to  converse 
with  the  sky.  He  had  also  ordered  to  be  engraved 
the  names  of  all  the  Indian  cities  in  his  possession, 
and  the  kind  Sardar  insisted  upon  my  copying  them 
in  my  journal,  which  I  did  agreeably  to  his  wishes. 

Translation  of  the  Persian  Inscription. 

'^  On  the  Idth  of  Shawal,  A.  H.  928,  the  emperor  Babar  con- 
quered Candahar,  and  in  the  same  year  ordered  his  son,  Mohammed 
Kamran  Bahadur,  to  construct  this  lofty  and  splendid  building. 
The  skilful  workmen,  of  high  station,  under  the  charge  of  Shab- 
zadah  Ferozbakht,  finished  this  edifice  in  the  year  953,  and  when 
this  prince  delirered  the  government  of  Candahar  into  his  young- 
est brother's  hands,  named  Mohammed  Askari,  the  emperor  pos- 
sessed himself  at  the  same  time  of  Delhi.  His  conquests  extended 
so  far  on  each  side  of  the  globe,  that  no  one  could  pass  from  one 
boundary  to  another,  if  he  were  to  travel  for  two  years."  piere 
follow  the  names  of  the  towns,  namely,  '^Adesah,  Jaganath, 
Chatganv,  Bardwan,  Sulaimanabad,  Sanargam,  Koragat,  Sher- 
pur  Hirohah,  Pimiz  Hajipur,  Patnah,  Rohtas,  Sihram,  Chansa^ 
Ghazi  Pur,  Chinar,  Banaras,  Jonpur,  Gara,  Malikpur,  Kalpi^ 
Kanjar  Atawah,  Kalach,  Lakhnau,  Kiraroh,  Sambal,  Amroyah^ 
Bahraun,  Geljalali,  Shamsabad,  Agrah,  Gwaliyar,  Sarannj, 
Chanderi,  Raesain,  Saharanpur,  Ujjain,  Malwah,  Mando,  Hin- 
diyah,   Borar,  Ashero,  Burhanpur,    Nazar  Baz,   Bandar  Sural, 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        313 

Hanatabdew,  Janagar,  Nawanagar,  Kaj,  Kankar,  Ahmadabad, 
Andar,  Pattan,  Nabrmalali,  Jaipur,  Sarohi,  Merath,  JudpoTy 
Narnaul,  Jasalmer,  Nagaur,  Ajmer,  Rantayor,  Nilmir,  Chitaur, 
Bajotah,  Fatahpnr,  Mathra,  Delhi,  Paniput,  Maham,  Hiaar, 
Firozabad,  Nesar,  Sarhind,  Tijarah,  Sultanpnr,  Jalandar,  Labor, 
KaUnpor,  Haidarkot,  Nagarkot,  Rotas,  Atak,  Jamn,  Jalalabad, 
Derah,  Gbaznin,  Sehorbin,  Sehaikb,  Farid,  Mnltan,  Dudaija, 
Acha,  Bakar,  Sehwan,  Umarkot,  Thatab."^  '^  Great  hopes  are 
entertained  that  some  more  of  the  rich  countries  will  &I1  into  the 
emperor  8  hand,  on  account  of  the  good  fortune  of  the  princes 
named  Shah  Salem,  Shah  Murad,  Danial  Shah,  Khairu  Shah,  and 
Parvez  Shah.  When  Shah  Beg  Khan  Kabul!  was  made  the  ruler 
of  Candahar,  I  held  also  a  public  situation  in  that  country.  My 
name  is  Mohammad  Mosum,  the  descendant  of  Hasan  Abdal." 

Sardar  Kohan  Dil  Khan,  a  man  of  liberal  heart, 
is  not  so  popular  as  Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan,  who 
has  more  agreeable  manners.  He  has  much  trea- 
sure and  many  jewels,  which  were  bequeathed  to 
him  by  the  valiant  Sardar,  named  Sher  Dil  Khan. 
This  enterprising  nobleman,  a  few  years  before  his 
death,  proceeded  to  Kabul,  to  quell  some  insurrec- 
tion, where  he  imprisoned  HabibuUah  Khan,  the 
chief  of  that  metropolis,  and  the  son  of  Moham- 
med Azim  Khan,  Sardar,  an  opulent  chief  of  the 
Barakzai  &mily :  he  was  the  ruler  of  Kashmir  for 
a  long  time,  and  oppressed  his  subjects,  nay  de- 
prived them  of  their  privileges  and  property,  which 
made  him  powerful,  and  master  of  greater  riches 
than  any  one  in  the  whole  country.  He  loaded 
his  wives  with  precious  stones,  but  when  he  was 
dying,  he  thought  it  best  to  get  back  all  the  jewels 

314        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

from  them,  and  give  them  to  his  son,  Habib- 
ullah  Khan.  So  he  sent  for  his  wives,  and  told 
them  that  he  was  approaching  the  grave,  and  >¥as 
anxious  to  see  them  once  more  ornamented  with 
jewels  and  gold.  When  they  came  with  their 
beautiful  attire  before  him,  he  asked  them  to  take 
off  the  jewels,  &c.  and  put  them  on  the  ground 
before  his  sight,  in  a  heap,  as  he  wished  to  know 
how  much  they  were  worth.  When  they  had  done 
so,  he  called  his  son,  Habibullah  Khan,  and  desired 
him  to  take  them  all.  But  this  man  was  always 
intoxicated,  and  never  applied  himself  to  make  his 
power  strong,  till  Sher  Dil  Khan  came  from  Can- 
dahar,  who  reduced  him  to  poverty,  by  extorting 
all  the  wealth  from  him,  which  he  gave  to  his  bro- 
ther, Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan,  who  possesses  them 
now  at  Candahar.  He  is  a  good-looking  man,  and 
has  2,000  horsemen  under  his  command.  He  has 
four  sons ;  his  wife  rules  him,  though  she  is  not  a 
miracle  of  beauty. 

Kohan  Dil  Khan  has  five  wives,  besides  three 
slave-girls,  and  several  sons ;  the  eldest  of  them  is 
a  promising  youth.  Mehr  Dil  Khan,  the  youngest 
brother  of  the  present  chief  at  Candahar,  pursues 
pleasure.  He  dresses  beautifully,  and  lives  very 
high.  He  has  four  or  five  wives.  He  passes  much 
of  his  time  in  study,  and  is  a  good  poet.  He  has  ao 
prejudices  of  religion  like  his  other  brothers.  Par 
Dil  Khan,  who  was  the  eldest,  is  remembered  with 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        315 

gratitnde  by  his  lelations.  Though  the  administra* 
tion  of  these  chiefs  is  much  better  thau  that  of  the 
Saduzais,  they  are  still  unpopular. 

In  Candahar,  the  winter  is  not  cold,  nor  the  sum- 
mer hot ;  the  air  is  yery  pleasant,  and  makes  those 
who  live  there  strong  and  healthy.  There  are  four 
seasons.  Winter,  which  continues  for  three  months, 
seldom  canses  the  falling  of  snow,  and  when  it  does 
fell,  it  melts  away  quickly.  Spring,  which  lasts 
also  for  three  months,  is  yery  pleasant ;  the  hills  are 
dressed  in  red  and  yellow  flowers ;  the  earth  clothes 
itself  with  yerdure,  and  the  trees  are  decked  with 
blossoms.  Summer,  which  is  not  more  than  three 
months,  supplies  the  natives  with  good  fruits ;  and 
Autumn  makes  the  fruits  much  sweeter  and  more 

The  eastward  of  Candahar,  which  reaches  to  Ma- 
kur,  sizty  miles'  distance,  is  divided  into  five  dis- 
tricts, called  Vatak,  Tukhi,  Andar,  Nasri,  and  Ja- 
lalzai,  which  yield  500,000  rupees  yearly.  They 
are  mutinous,  and  pay  nothing  to  the  Barakzais; 
nay,  the  people  rob  the  caravans. 

The  western  boundary  joins  Bavashir,  160  miles* 
distance.  It  contains  nine  districts,  as  Panjbai, 
Kishk,  Nakhud,  Garmsail,  Nauzad,  Nad  All,  Girishk, 
Tamiri,  and  Zamin  Darvar.  They  are  all  ruled  by 
Sardar  Kohan  Dil  Khan,  who  gains  400,000  rupees 

Baham  Dil  Khan  rules  as  far  as  Tezin,  eighty 
miles  distant ;  towards  the  north  are  Bagna,  Jaghari, 

316        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

Gharaq,  Dalak,  Vambisb,  Deravat,  Chisurjoyah,  Bagni, 
and  Jairli ;  the  amount  of  their  yearly  revenue  is 
500,000  rapees. 

Mastang,  Shoravak,  Savi,  Rabet  Reg  Mamf, 
Qalachi,  Batizai,  Fashing,  Biloch,  situated  on  this 
side  of  Savi,  are  140  miles  towards  the  south. 
This  part  of  the  country  is  governed  by  Mehr  Dil 
Khan  Sardar,  who  raises  300,000  rupees  yearly  from 
the  ground. 

In  a  word,  the  whole  country  of  Candahar  is  ex- 
tremely fertile,  producing  all  sorts  of  fruits,  princi- 
pally pomegranates  and  grapes,  for  which  it  is  &mousl 

Maranjan,  which  extends  to  the  skirt  of  the 
northern  hills,  is  a  most  flourishing  country,  cele- 
brated for  beautifril  gardens,  which  amount  to  300 
in  number.  The  base  of  each  tree  is  washed  by  the 
water  of  Arghandab.  From  the  top  of  the  hills  the 
country  has  a  very  striking  view,  and  the  meadows 
look  refreshing. 

The  grave  of  Ahmad  Shah,  which  is  situated  iu 
the  bosom  of  the  city  of  Candahar,  is  not  remark- 
able for  beauty.  A  small  meadow  which  encircles 
it  is  almost  destroyed.  The  inside  of  the  cupola  is 
painted  and  gilt,  but  very  roughly.  The  circum- 
ference of  the  building  is  125  paces,  and  the  whole 
expense  of  building  it  was  not  more  than  90,000 
rupees.  There  are  a  few  Korans  lying  on  the 
shelves,  upon  the  heads  of  the  buried.  The  comers 
are  full  of  inscriptions  in  the  Arabic  character, 
which  contain  nothing  but  numerous  })lessings  upon 

FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        317 

the  soul  of  Shah  Durran,  or  Ahmad  Shah.  The 
following  inscription  (which  is  in  Persian)  gives  us 
the  date  of  the  deceased's  death. 

^^  Ahmad  Shah  Dairani  was  a  great  king.  The  fear  of  his 
justice  was  so  great,  that  the  lion  and  deer  were  fed  in  one  phuse. 
The  ears  of  his  enemies  were  always  filled  bj  the  mmoors  of  his 
oonqnests.     When  he  died,  the  Hejra  year  was  1 186." 

Oct.  16  to  19. — The  commerce  of  Candahar  owes 
much  to  the  supplies  which  it  receives  from  Bom- 
bay.   When  the  Saduzais  were  reigning  in  Afghan- 
istan,  the  shawls  of  Kashmir  were  dispersed  over 
the  whole  country;  the  duties  were  then  less,  and 
there  was  no  danger  of  extortion.    Goods  worth  100 
rupees,  brought  from  Bombay  by  the  route  of  the 
Gulph  of  Catch,  through  the  Biloch  country,  ruled 
by  Meh  Rab  Khan,  after  paying  the  whole  expenses 
of  road  and  town  duty  in  Candahar,  gave  the  mer- 
chants a  profit  of  30  per  cent.,  and  passed  on  to 
Herat,  subject  to  great  imposts,  and  often  to  Kabul ; 
but   the  route  of  the  Luhanis,  who  provide  the 
largest  proportion  of  merchandise  to  Kabul  and 
Torkistan,  is  the  only  one  by  which  the  commercial 
intercourse  is   conducted.    It  leaves  Candahar  on  . 
the  west,  and  proceeds  straight  to  Ghaznin,  by  a 
good  and  well-frequented  road,  and  from  that  spot 
to  Kabul  it  is  like  travelling  over  plains. 

From  Bombay  to  the  seaport  town  called  Miya-ni 
is  fourteen  days'  voyage,  and  thence  to  Candahar,  the 
marches  by  camels  are  twenty-eight.  The  naviga- 
tion of  the  Indus  will  be  an  important  advantage  to 

318        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

the  merchante,  who  spend  large  snms  upon  land- 
carriage,  and  often  meet  tdth  robbers  in  Biln- 

Shikarpur,  which  may  be  reached  from  Bombay 
by  water,  is  a  jonmey  of  fourteen  days  from  Can- 
dahar.  The  road  is  even,  but  in  some  places 
destitute  of  provisions. 

List  of  the  Names  of  English  Fabrics,  inclvding  Duty 
AND  Expense  of  the  Road. 

BoQglit  in  Sold  in 

BomlMy.  Candafaar. 

Rs.   As.  Rs.    As. 

1.  Fine  book  mal-mal,  or  muslin,  eaoh 

piece                3    0  6  8 

2.  Abrahor  jamayar                         . .      2  12  10  0 

3.  A  pair  of  fine  shawls,  or  razai      . .    20     0  40  0 

4.  Sahan,  or  long  clotfa,  35  jards,  each 

piece                 12  0  27  0 

5.  fignredchinte,  called  Onli,     ditto  13  0  28  0 

6.  Common  chintz,  called  rahdar  10  0  18  0 

7.  Jamdani                3  8  7  0 

8.  Fine  alvan,  made  of  wool            ..180  30  0 

9.  One  piece  of  yelvet                      . .  27  0  85  0 
10.  Velvet  chintz,  called  Makhmali    . .  60  0  120  0 

Six  and  a  half  rupees  of  Candahar  are  equal  to  five  rupees 
of  Bombay. 

All  these  drticles  are  sold  in  Herat,  which  is 
twenty  marches  beyond  Candahar,  at  qnadruple  their 
price  in  Bombay ;  but  the  merchants,  notwithstand- 
ing their  profit,  do  not  carry  the  trade  through  the 
inhabited  road,  in  consequence  of  mal-govemment. 
In  the  time  of  Prince  Haji  Firoz,  who  reigned  six- 
teen years  ago,  and  is  remembered  with  praise  by 



his  poBteiity,  Herat  was  the  richest  and  best  market 
in  Khorasan.  The  caravans  of  Bokhara  then  came 
twice  or  thrice  in  a  year,  but  now  they  come  very 
seldom.  It  is  one  hundred  and  ten  farsangs  from 
Herat,  each  farsang  being  calculated  at  nearly  four 
English  miles. 

The  road  through  Maimanah  to  Bokhara  is  the 
best,  and  more  inhabited  than  the  one  which  follows, 
but  the  duties  are  very  heavy. 

Route  from  Herat  to  Bokhara. 

Names  of  tlie  places. 
1«  Parvanah    .. 

2.  KhoBh  Rabat 

3.  BadGhais 


Duty  taken  on  the  road. 

A  duty  of  10  Rs.  on  each 
camel.  The  rulers  are  of 
the  Jamshadi  tribe,  de- 
pendent on  Herat. 

4.  Sir  Chaahmah 


Ditto,  5  Rs.  on  each  camel- 

5.  OhaMunBait 


6.  Fatmah  Qidak 


A  small  inhabited  yiUage. 

7.  Panjdeh      . . 


On  each  camel-load  7  rupees. 
Formerly    it    belonged    to 
Herat,  and  now  to  Khiya. 

8.  Ditto,  caUed  Wall 


9.  Pnlpukhtah 


10.  Bala  Murghaab 


11.  (^Oah  Bn  Ran 


Carayans  leaTe  Sarakhs  on  the 
left  hand. 

12.  Yoda  un    . . 


Duty  on  each  camel-load,  one 
dacat  and  one  rupee. 

13.  Talkhu  Tun,  inhabited 

phce        ..         .. 


320        FROM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR. 

14.  Gundchah   .. 


The  water  of  this  well  is 

15.  NazahSliikan 


16.  EufAtak    .. 


17.  Qaxaval 


18.  KelahMoRan 


19.  Charju 


20.  Paruk 


21.  QaraKoI     .. 


Famous  place  for  fir,  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Oxus. 

22.  Shairlalam 


23.  Bokhara 


Duty  is  here  taken  according 

to  the  order  of  the  Shariat, 
on  40  Rs.  goods  is  1  R.  dntj; 
hut  the  infidels  (not  the 
Mohammedans)  pay  double. 

From  Astrabad,  a  seaport  town  on  the  shore  of 
the  Caspian,  it  is  eighteen  days'  journey  to  Herat, 
and  from  thence,  passing  through  the  hilly  country 
of  the  Hazara  people,  you  arrive  at  Kabul  on  the 
eleventh  day. 

Shah  Zaman,  and  also  Mahmud  Shah,  with  both 
in&ntry  and  cavalry,  started  from  Herat  on  the  first 
of  the  new  moon,  and  reached  Kabul  on  the  12th. 
The  Hazaras  are  independent  and  Shias.  They 
possess  large  herds  of  cattle,  and  great  numbers  of 
fine  shawls. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  duties  taken 
at  Candahar  upon  Herat  and  Bombay  goods.  1, 
Kharch  Chehalyak ;  2,  Kharch  Milyak ;  3,  Kharch 
Abdulrahman ;  4,  Kharch  Sar  Sanduqi ;  6,  Kharch 
Yazdah  Ropaiya;  6,  Kharch  Mangat;  7,  Kharch 

FBOM  HERAT  TO  CANDAHAR.        321 

Abdullah  Khan ;  8,  Faiz  Talab  Khan ;  9,  Saduzai ; 
10,  Kharch  Sohbat  Khan ;  11»  Kharch  Rasam  Cha- 
butarh ;  12,  Kharch  Sarkar;  13,  Kharch  Ghula- 
manah ;  14,  Kharch  Darvazah ;  15,  Kharch  Piya- 
dah;  16,  Sadu  Khan;  17,  Kharch  Sugamal;  18, 
Kharch  Vazankash ;  19,  Kharch  Valdah  Shah  Pa- 
sand  Khan;  20,  Kharch  Taalleiqat.  When  the 
amount  of  such  multiplied  duties  is  added  up,  it  is 
a  tenth  part  of  the  value  of  the  merchandise.  The 
merchants  complain  much  of  the  heavy  tax  of  ten 
per  cent.,  but  the  Government  is  deaf  to  their 



Oct  20. — Before  we  started  from  Candahar, 
under  charge  of  a  respectable  man,  in  the  service  of 
Sardar  Raham  Dil  Khan,  Jan  Mohammed  Khan 
came  with  us  out  of  the  city,  and,  when  he  left  us, 
said,  that  our  separation  grieved  him  very  much. 

We  encamped  at  Dih  Khojah,  a  distance  of  one 
mile.  We  were  very  cautious  at  night,  on  account 
of  thieves ;  and  our  kind  Sardar  did  not  forget  to 
send  us  a  party  of  soldiers. 

This  village,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  city,  has  been 
ever  the  residence  of  thieves,  who  steal  the  nose- 
bags, and  even  the  strings,  of  the  horses.  Our 
guard  surrounded  the  qafilah,  and  some  of  them 
concealed  themselves  in  hollow  places,  to  peep  at 
the  thieves.  After  midnight,  a  body  of  six  men, 
covering  their  faces  with  dirty  cloth,  came  to  steal. 
They  saw  our  guard  lying  against  a  ruined  struc- 
ture, with  their  guns  under  their  heads.  They 
thought  that  they  were  sleeping,  and,  to  be  sure  of 
it,  cast  stones  at  them,  upon  which  the  guard  fired. 
This  continued  about  half  an  hour,  when  the  thieves 
ran  away. 

Oct.  21. — After  sunrise  we  took  our  departure 


for  Qilah  Azam  Khan,  a  distance  of  fifteen  miles. 
Our  road  lay  in  an  ext^isive  plain,  which  was  quite 
parched.  This  country,  we  hear,  was  covered  with 
villages,  before  the  invasion  of  Nadir  Shah  ;  it  has 
mnce  gradually  fallen  into  ruin. 

The  Ghiljais  are  the  original  inhabitants  of  the 
country  which  lies  between  Candahar  and  Ghaznin. 
The  extreme  coldness  of  the  latter  place  obliges  the 
poor  residents  to  leave  their  native  country,  and 
stop  in  the  districts  of  Candahar,  2,800  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea. 

The  Ghiljais  cannot  boast  of  beauty,  which  they 
strive  to  supply  by  ornament.  The  girls,  from 
the  age  of  eight  to  twenty,  are  not  much  veiled, 
but  they  twist  their  hair,  and  tie  it  like  a  cake, 
which  hangs  over  their  forehead,  and  a  little  below 
their  eyebrows.  The  centre  of  the  lock  (or  hairy 
cake)  is  adorned  by  a  gold  or  silver  coin,  which,  in 
black  hair,  shines  very  beautifully,  like  the  moon 
springing  suddenly  from  black  clouds.  This  is  the 
si^  of  virginity  amongst  the  Ghiljais.  The  women 
allow  their  twisted  locks  to  hang  upon  their  ears, 
and  even  as  far  as  their  arms.  The  men  are  tall, 
and  have  very  marked  features. 

Our  camp  was  neatly  walled,  and  had  a  small 
fomitain,  abounding  with  fishes ;  but  the  people  are 
very  poor  Durranis. 

Od.  22. — A  march  of  thirty-five  milei?  brought  us 
into  a  village  eaUed  Potah  Sadu  Zai.  After  passing 
through  a  plain,  we  crossed  a  small  pass  or  hill, 


324        FROM  GANDAHAR  TO  KABUL. 

which  joins  that  of  Kabul.  Our  road  lay  now  on 
the  right  bank  of  a  beautiful  river,  called  Tumak. 
Both  banks  of  the  stream  were  richly  cultiyated.  At 
noon  we  came  to  a  small  hamlet,  named  Khail-i- 
Akhund.  I  saw  a  Hindu  making  his  bread,  and 
said  to  him,  "  Ram^  Ram^  which  is  a  compliment. 
He  was  quite  astonished  to  hear  this,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  see  me  in  the  Afghan  dress. 

The  tomb  of  the  Akhund  is  a  beautiful  struc- 
ture. He  left  this  world  thirty-five  years  ago: 
respect  and  esteem  accompany  him  even  beyond  the 
grave.  The  following  inscription  was  written  on 
the  tomb : — 

"  When  MuUa  Nur  Mohammed  knew  that  this  world  is  not 
eyerlasting,  he  left  this  for  an  eternal  one,  and  the  earth  appeared 
dark  by  his  loss.  I  asked  Wisdom  the  date  of  his  death  ? — She 
sighed,  and  said  such  a  year." 

Our  camp  was  colder  than  yesterday.  A  tank  of 
water  contained  fine  fishes,  but  the  people  are  pre- 
vented from  catching  them,  by  some  religious  cause. 

Oct.  23. — A  march  of  thirty-five  miles  brought  us 
to  Jaldak,  a  very  small  village.  The  people,  who  are 
handsome,  were  civil.  They  came  and  kissed  our 
hands,  as  they  do  those  of  their  priests,  saying  that, 
though  we  were  not  Sayads,  yet  we  were  travel- 
lers from  India,  where  their  religious  fiither  was 
residing.  In  the  vicinity  of  the  hamlet,  a  range  of 
high  mountains  overlook  a  hot  fountain  of  beauti- 
ful water,  in  which  we  bathed,  and  found  ourselveB 
quite  refreshed. 

FROM  GANDAHAR  TO  KABUL.        325 

Oct.  24. —  At  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  we 
departed  towards  Divalak,  and  our  route  was  fiill  of 
cultivation,  but  there  were  very  few  people  in  the 
country.  The  productions  are  sent  to  Candahar. 
We  are  now  among  the  Ghiljai  tribe,  and  are  greatly 
indebted  to  the  Chevalier  Allard,  who  sent  us  a 
quantity  of  newspapers  from  India.  We  lodged  in 
the  house  of  the  Katkhuda,  who  treated  us  very 
civilly,  and  presented  us  with  pomegranates,  which 
were  very  delicious.  On  the  road  we  passed  the 
fertile  villages  called  Umi  and  Tirwaz,  which  pay 
nothing  to  government. 

Oct.  25. — We  remained  in  Divalak,  in  consequence 
of  being  obliged  to  wait  for  our  guide,  who  joined  us 
the  second  morning.  This  village  lies  under  the  base 
of  a  beautiful  mountain,  which  runs  towards  the 
north-east.  Our  guide,  Saddu  Khan,  told  us  that 
2,000  kharvars  of  almonds  are  procured  in  the  skirt 
of  this  hill,  which  is  a  boundary  between  the  Tukhi 
and  Hutaki  countries.  The  other  side  of  the  hill 
is  the  rich  country,  inhabited  by  Hutakis,  the  best 
tribe  among  the  Ghiljais.  They  are  6,000  families, 
and  their  head,  who  was  our  guide,  was  the  grandson 
of  Husain  Shah,  the  late  king  of  Candahar,  who  was 
defeated  by  Nadir  Shah.  Our  guide  was  a  beautiful 
and  delicate  youth,  and  possessed  a  good  temper. 

In  the  Hutak  country  flows  a  fine  river,  called 
Arghistan,  which  makes  it  fertile,  and  falls  into  the 

Oct.  26. — We   came  to  a    large  village,  called 

326        FROM  CANDAHA&  TO  KABUL. 

Qilah  Jumah,  a  distance  of  twenty-fiye  miles* 
Hefe  I  met  a  Sikb  believer  of  Baba  Nanak,  who 
"WBB  in  great  doubt  whether  I  was  a  Kashmerian  or 
an  Indian,  because  my  dress  was  like  that  of  the 
Patans ;  but  my  conversation  on  religious  topics  fully 
convinced  him  that  I  was  not  one  of  the  latter. 

Having  leffc  our  last  camp,  we  crossed  a  small 
hill,  and  entered  the  territory  of  Shahabuddin,  who 
was  the  head  of  the  Tukhis.  He  was  independent 
whilst  he  lived,  and  his  sons  are  so  at  present.  He 
never  troubled  the  caravans,  which  paid  him 
willingly  the  duty  for  passing  through  his  countiy; 
but  his  twenty-two  descendants  harass  the  travel- 
lers, violating  humanity  and  justice.  The  whole 
party  of  passengers  was  in  great  fear,  and  besought 
us  to  liberate  them  from  the  ill4;reatment  of  their 
rulers.  Such  was  the  influence  of  oUr  guide,  that 
none  of  them  touched  our  caravan ;  but  we  were 
summoned  by  Sultan  Mohammed  Khan,  one  of 
Shahabuddin's  sons. 

He  was  sitting  against  a  stcme,  and  had  on  very 
mean  and  dirty  clothes.  His  fyj^e  was  black,  and 
of  brutal  expression.  His  small  eyes  and  frowning 
countenance  denoted  that  he  Was  naturally  a  robber. 
He  did  not  shew  us  any  sort  of  respect,  and  told 
us  that  the  recommendations  of  the  Candahar  chiefs 
were  useless,  had  we  not  been  protected  by  Sadda 
Khan,  his  friend,  on  whose  account  he  would  be 
happy  to  present  us  with  a  fat  gosfand  for  dinner^ 
which  we  refused  civilly. 


On  our  leaving  his  place,  a  beggar  of  our  caravan, 
with  a  small  bag  on  his  back,  remained  behind,  and 
was  seized  bj  Sultan  Mohammed's  people,  for  the 
purpose  of  robbing  him  of  his  ragged  clothes ;  but 
he  called  out  for  help,  and  we  turned  our  horses, 
which  made  the  robbers  release  him. 

Oct  27. — ^A  march  of  fifteen  miles  brought  us 
to  Gari,  a  village  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tumak, 
under  the  government  of  Kabul.  On  the  road  we 
saw  manj  robbers  waiting  for  the  travellers,  but  we 
passed  safely  under  our  guide. 

Having  crossed  a  small  range  of  hills,  which  were 
richly  cultivated,  we  came  into  an  extensive  plain. 
Our  companion  shewed  us  a  red  cave  and  an  old 
city,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tumak,  a  distance 
of  eight  miles.  We  were  informed  that  the  founda* 
tion  of  this  city  was  laid  by  an  ancient  king, 
named  Daqyanus.  By  that  place  goes  the  straight 
and  shortest  road  to  Candahar,  which  has  lately 
been  closed  by  the  robbers  of  Shahabuddin  Khan. 
No  caravan  can  go  by  that  road,  except  those  which 
are  accompanied  by  800  or  400  horsemen.  In  the 
old  city,  we  hear  that  ancient  coins  and  many  other 
valuable  things  are  found  by  the  natives  after  the 
rains.  We  used  great  exertions  to  obtain  one  of 
them,  but  did  not  succeed. 

After  fording  the  bed  of  the  Tumak,  we  as- 
cended a  very  high  bank,  and  saw  a  quantity  of 
bones  lying  on  the  ground.  When  inquiry  was 
made,  we  heard  that  Nadir  Shah  fought  with  the 

328        FROM  CANDAHAR  TO  KABUL. 

Ghiljais,  who  were  all  made  prisoners,  and  10,000 
of  them  were  put  to  the  sword.  Their  heads  were 
not  destroyed,  and  many  limbs  remain  perfect  to 
the  present  time. 

Oct.  28. — We  bent  our  course  to  the  village 
called  Tumak,  a  distance  of  sixteen  miles.  West 
of  the  place,  under  the  base  of  the  mountain,  are 
four  fountains,  which  contain  plenty  of  fishes.  This 
is  the  source  of  the  Tumak  river,  which  waters  the 
whole  country  of  the  Ghiljais. 

The  houses  of  Tumak  are  very  clean,  and  the 
people  civil.  Its  revenue,  besides  com,  is  said  to 
amount  to  12,000  rapees  yearly. 

On  our  left  hand,  beyond  the  road,  was  a  dry  hill, 
named  Navard,  and  on  our  right,  a  beautiful,  rich 
country,  which  put  me  in  mind  of  India.  The  pro- 
ductions are  exuberant,  and  are  exported  to  Kabul. 
We  crossed  many  deep  streams  conducted  from 
the  river,  and  in  many  places  were  water-mills. 
In  this  part  of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan's  country 
there  is  no  fear  of  robbers  and  thieves ;  towards 
Pashavar,  twelve  miles  from  Kabul,  the  travellers 
are  often  plundered. 

Oct.  29. — We  reached  Qaraa  Bagh,  twenty-eight 
miles  distant.  The  village  is  peopled  by  the  Hazara 
tribe,  and  is  surrounded  by  extensive  cultivation. 
Before  the  govemment  of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan, 
the  Hazaras  and  Afghans  of  their  neighbourhood 
were  always  fighting  against  each  other,  but  nov^ 
remain  quiet. 

FROM  CANDAHAB  TO  KABUL.        329 

We  travelled  for  a  long  time  over  a  barren  plain, 
in  which  there  was  a  scarcity  of  water.  Towards 
the  west  we  perceived  the  snowy  hill  called  Gulkah, 
behind  which  the  Hazara  tribe  reside.  Our  com- 
panion, MuUa  Jalal,  gives  us  information  that  the 
city  of  Balk  lies  across  this  hill,  and  is  only  twelve 
marches  from  hence. 

Oct.  30. — A  march  of  thirty  miles  brought  us  to 
Ghaznin.  The  east  of  our  road  was  covered  with 
villages;  the  west  was  bare.  Travellers  are  pre- 
vented halting  in  the  city,  and  we  put  up  in  a  cold 
and  wet  ravine. 

Before  we  reached  the  camp,  we  crossed  a  river 
of  beautiful  water,  and  entered  then  the  ruins  of  the 
old  city.  Our  road  was  over  the  plain,  great  part  of 
which  was  cultivated.  Towards  the  north-east  we 
beheld  a  snowy  range  of  hills,  which  stands  out  far 
from  Kabul. 

Oct.  31. — The  officers  of  the  Ghaznin  custom- 
house came,  and  searched  our  baggage.  Nothing 
was  found  in  it  liable  to  duty ;  however,  incited  by 
avarice,  they  levied  taxes  upon  our  caps,  cloaks, 
teacups,  &c.  &c.,  and  asked  for  fifty  rupees,  which 
we  were  obliged  to  pay. 

Nov.  1,  2. — We  continued  at  Ghaznin,  and  had 
the  pleasure  of  examining  the  city.  It  is  ancient* 
and  has  undergone  many  alterations.  In  former 
days  the  extent  of  the  city  was  ten  miles ;  at  pre- 
sent it  is  only  one  mile.  The  walls  are  irregularly 
built,  having  a  great  many  unequal  sides  and  angles. 

830        FROM  CANDAHAB  TO  KABUL. 

The  ditch  is  not  deep ;  there  are  three  gates,  and 
four  bazars,  which  are  very  thinly  covered  with 
mats  and  wood.  The  houses  are  two  stories  high, 
and  the  Bala  Hisar,  or  citadel,  commands  the  whole 
city,  and  also  the  neighbouring  villages.  No  man 
is  allowed  to  go  with  arms  into  the  town. 

Ghaznin  is  6,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea ; 
its  winters  are  severe :  it  was  once  destroyed  by  snow* 
The  suburbs  are  monopolized  for  20,000  rupees,  or 
30,000  kharvars  of  com.  The  yearly  income  of  the 
custom-house,  an  officer  told  me,  is  one  lack  of 
rupees.  The  caravan  of  Luhanis  is  in  the  highest 
degree  advantageous  to  Ghaznin. 

There  are  no  good  fruits,  on  account  of  the  cold. 
The  grapes  are  very  small  and  withered,  and  with* 
out  taste ;  but  the  almonds  are  good,  having  a  soft 

The  inhabitants  of  Ghaznin  are  mostly  Tajiks, 
whose  features  are  by  no  means  good ;  they  are 
poor,  and  oppressed  by  the  Barakzai  rulers. 

Having  passed  through  two  high  doors,  we  came 
into  a  small,  decayed  square,  which  led  us  to  a  large 
room,  where  the  body  of  the  Sultan  reposes.  The 
doors  of  the  room  are  thought  to  be  of  a  fine-scented 
wood,  named  sandal.  They  were  taken  from  the 
Hindu  temple  called  Sumnath,  in  India,  and  brought 
to  Ghaznin,  by  the  promoter  of  Islam,  the  Sultan,  for 
the  purpose  of  placing  them  by  his  tomb.  The 
grave  is  covered  with  marble;  it  is  twelve  spans 
long,  and  six  broad.     There  are  many  Arabic  and 

FROM  CANDAHAB  TO  KABUL.        331 

Cnfic  inscriptions  on  the  tomb,  which  I  could 
neither  read  nor  copy,  except  the  date  of  the 
Sultan's  death  (421  Hijri,  or  1006  A.D.).  The 
rafters  of  the  roof  are  all  rotten,  and  the  silken 
canopy  is  reduced  to  pieces. 

Tradition  says  that  the  introducer  of  the  Moham- 
medan faith  into  India,  levelled  a  great  many  Hindu 
idols  to  the  ground.  When  he  reached  the  temple 
of  Sumnath,  he  continued  his  bigoted  operations  in 
that  place ;  but  the  wing  of  one  of  the  idols  flew 
to  the  sky,  and  dropt  in  some  distant  and  unknown 
country.  He  searched  diligently  for  it,  but  could 
not  find  it,  at  which  he  exceedingly  lamented.  At 
night,  he  was  told  in  a  dream,  that  one  of  the 
believers  would  get  hold  of  the  wing  of  the  idol, 
and  fix  it  to  the  tomb  of  Sultan  Mahmud. 

Towards  the  feet  of  the  grave  is  a  small  hole  dug 
in  the  ground,  the  earth  of  which  the  sick  people 
eat,  and  recover  from  their  disorders.  On  the  arch 
of  the  door  of  the  room  were  three  muddy  bunches, 
hanging  down  in  a  singular  shape ;  their  durability 
is  considered  a  miracle  by  the  natives*  Between 
the  city  and  the  grave  stand  two  high  menars,  which 
are  beautiAiUy  carved  and  pointed.  One  of  them  is 
towards  the  east,  and  the  other  towards  the  west. 

The  people  of  Constantinople  highly  respect  the 
man  who  has  paid  a  visit  to  the  tomb  of  Sultan 
Mahmud,  as  he  is  called,  the  promoter  of  the  Mo- 
faiunmedan  faith ;  but,  at  the  same  time,  as  a  test  of 
his  veracity,  they  ask  him,  what  are  the  famous 

332        FROM  CANDAHAR  TO  KABUL. 

signs  of  the  city  of  Ghaznin,  and  when  he  gives 
them  a  satisfectory  answer  in  the  Persian  verses,  of 
which  the  following  is  a  translation,  he  is  treated 
with  honour,  and  considered  a  true  Mohamme- 

^' There  are  foar  signs  of  the  city  of  Ghaznin,  which  are 
known  only  to  a  clever  man :  first,  the  gate  of  the  religions  king, 
in  which  hang  down  the  side  three  objects  in  mortar,  in  the  shape 
of  a  bunch  of  grapes ;  second,  the  arch  in  the  roof  of  the  menar, 
which  has  a  view  of  the  sun  from  every  side ;  third,  the  stone 
basin  of  water,  placed  in  the  jamah  masjid ;  fourth,  the  mosque 
of  Arbab,  which,  though  it  has  a  crooked  arch,  yet  points  to  the 
Qiblah  (or  Mecca)." 

Near  the  tomb  is  a  small,  old  mosque,  the  foot  of 
which  is  washed  by  a  beautiful  stream,  flowing  from 
the  mouth  of  a  marble  lion.  It  is  exquisitely  cut, 
and  handsomely  figured. 

Nov.  3. — We  set  out  from  Ghaznin  before  the 
iSun  was  up,  and  passed  through  a  valley  called  Sher 
Dahan  (or  the  *  Mouth  of  the  Lion  *)•  Then  we 
ascended  a  small  pass,  and  had  a  fine  view  of  the 
Haft  Asiya  country.  On  our  right  hand  were  barren 
rocks,  and  on  our  left,  fields  covered  with  green. 

On  our  road  we  met  a  qasid,  sent  to  us  by  our 
man  at  Kabul,  with  a  package  of  newspapers,  and  a 
letter  from  Mr.  Sterling. 

Our  camp  was  in  the  village  named  Takyah, 
twenty  miles  distant. 

Nov.  4. — We  reached  Qilah  Sher  Mohammed,  a 
distance  of  thirty  miles.  The  village  was  bare  of 
inhabitants,  and  filled  with  mud  and  filth. 


On  the  left  of  our  road,  we  gazed  at  the  hills 
sheeted  with  snow,  which  we  scarcely  imagined  was 
cold.  We  crossed  the  noisy  current  of  a  fine 
river  called  Daryaelogar,  running  to  Kabul.  Our 
road  lay  all  day  in  an  extensive  plain,  which  was 
destitute  of  water. 

Not).  5. — We  journeyed  through  a  valley,  and 
ascended  a  small  pass,  which  shewed  us  the  beau- 
tiful and  rich  country  of  Maidan.  It  is  commanded 
by  a  lofty  mountain,  which  runs  as  far  as  the  eye 
could  reach,  and  passes  through  the  Koh  Daman 
country.  It  is  known  by  its  handsome  gardens  of 
delicious  fruits.  The  emperor  Babar  praises  this 
valley  for  the  fertility  of  its  soil,  and  its  fine  orchards. 
On  the  road  we  passed  near  the  fort  of  Mir  Ghazab, 
where  the  Nawab  came  to  receive  us,  and  wished 
us  to  stop  there  all  night.  We  civilly  refused,  to 
avoid  losing  a  day.  In  the  evening  we  reached  the 
renowned  city  of  Kabul,  a  distance  of  twenty-eight 

At  dinner  we  were  highly  delighted  to  see  Mr. 
Masson,  a  &mous  traveller,  of  whom  we  had  heard 
firom  Mr.  Macneill  at  Mashad.  He  has  made  curious 
discoveries  about  the  Bactrian  dynasty  in  Kabul, 
and  possessed  himself  of  numerous  old  Grecian 
coins,  from  the  ancient  ruined  city  of  Bag  Ram, 
situated  two  days'  journey  north  of  Kabul.  He  is 
young,  wise,  and  as  good  a  poet  as  I  ever  saw.* 

*  It  has  ^yen  me  great  pain  to  read  in  the  writings  of  this 
^ntlejnan  most  unjust  attacks  upon  official  persons,  who,  for 
their  talents,  as  well  as  their  noble  and  amiable  disposition,  were 

334        FROM  CANDAHAft  TO  KABUL. 

Nao.  6  to  20. — We  continued  in  Kabul,  and  went 
to  dine  with  Sardar  Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  who 

onuunents  of  their  country,  and  eiteemed  by  ail  the  people  vitli 
whom  they  came  into  contact ;  I  refer  to  the  late  Sir  William 
Macnaghten,  Sir  Alexander  Barnes,  and  Lieutenant  Loyeday. 
I  had  a  very  high  regard  for  Mr.  Ma^son,  on  account  of  his 
scientific  discoyeries.  Before  he  was  taken  into  the  eeryice  of 
the  Indian  Goyemment,  in  1835,  he  had  rendered  himaelf  amen- 
able to  the  military  law,  as  a  deserter  from  the  East-India 
Company's  army,  and  he  was  wandering  in  distress,  in  foreign 
countries.  Dr.  Gerard  gaye  him  money  in  Kabul,  and  Sir  A. 
Bumes,  when  in  England,  in  conjunction  with  Sir  John  Mac- 
neill,  obtained  Mr.  Masson's  pardon  from  the  king,  and  then  Sir 
Claude  Wade  procured  for  him,  from  Lord  William  Bentinck, 
an  appointment  as  newswriter  at  Kabul,  at  250  rupees  per 
month,  which  salary,  in  1838,  was  increased  by  Lcml  Auckland, 
at  the  solicitation  of  Sir  W.  Macnaghten  and  Sir  A.  Bumes,  to 
500  rupees.  He  has  made  an  ill  return  for  these  seryioes  by  the 
groundless  charges  which  he  has  brought  against  Sir  William 
and  Sir  Alexander,  as  well  as  Lieut.  Loyeday,  at  a  time  when 
neither  was  aliye  to  reply  to  them.  I  saw  no  dogs  with  lient. 
Loyeday  at  Khelat,  which  Mr.  Masson  says  that  officer  let  koee 
upon  the  Biloches.  He  may  be  justified  in  stating  that  the 
Biloches  mentioned  Lieut.  Loyeday's  name  with  abuse  in  his 
(Masson's)  presence,  which  is  the  practice  of  the  people  beyond 
the  Indus,  who  will  flatter  you  to  your  &ce,  and  yilify  yon 
behind  your  back,  if  they  expect  thereby  to  please  the  person 
they  speak  to.  I  heard  myself  many  of  the  A^^ians  and  Bilo^ 
ehes  abuse  Lord  Keane  before  the  political  authorities,  and  vilify 
the  political  before  the  military  functionaries :  would  it  be  just« 
upon  such  eyidence,  to  cast  a  stigma  upon  either  ?  When  the 
army  of  the  Indus  reached  Kabul,  many  persons  in  the  Bala 
Hisai*,  even  the  Armenians,  amongst  whom  Mr.  Masson  livedo 
as  well  as  Nawab  Jubbar  Khan,  on  hie  return  from  Toorkistan, 
made  many  accusations  against  the  public  and  privale  chaimcter 

FROM  CANDAHAR  TO  KABUL.        335 

talked  with  us  a  long  time.  He  inquired  about  the 
progress  of  Abbas  Mirza  in  the  territory  of  Kho- 
rasan,  and  how  he  behaved  to  the  conquered  people. 
We  gave  him  very  satisfactory  answers,  which 
pleased  him  highly.  He  asked  us  to  stop  with  him 
at  Kabul,  and  shew  him  how  to  drill  and  dress  sol- 
diers. He  spoke  unfavourably  of  Mir  Murad  Beg, 
the  chief  of  Qunduz,  because  he  has  no  partiality 
for  European  travellers,  and  especially  the  English, 
who  always  experience  difficulty  in  Murad  Beg's 
country.  Mr.  Gerard  asked  him,  wfiy  he  did  not 
raise  an  army,  and  take  the  country  of  Murad  Beg  ? 
The  Sardar  answered,  that  he  was  anxious  to  do  so ; 
but  the  reason  why  he  had  been  delayed  he  would 
be  happy  to  explain,  when  they  were  alone.  He 
asked  Mr.  Gerard,  when  Abbas  Mirza,  who  was  a 
friend  to  Russia,  came  to  invade  Kabul,  what  the 
English  Government  in  India  would  do?  Mr. 
Gerard  replied,  that  he  would  also  tell  him,  when 
he  found  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  Sardar  alone. 

of  Mr.  Masson  before  Sir  A.  Buines ;  and  Jnbbar  Kban  went 
80  far  as  to  say,  tbat  tbe  ^lure  of  his  mission  was  owing  to  the 
extraordinary  intercourse  of  Mr.  Masson  with  the  Amir.  Was 
Sir  Alexander  to  have  believed  these  stories,  and  proclaimed 
them  in  his  work  on  Kabnl,  which  he  afterwards  published  ? 
Sorely  not  He  and  Sir  William  had  a  reliance  upon  the  inte- 
grity of  Mr.  Masson,  and  treated  them,  aj»  slanders,  with  con- 
tempt. If  this  should  meet  the  eye  of  Mr.  Masson,  I  hope  it 
may  make  him  repent  the  injury  he  has  done  to  the  characters 
of  those  fsEdsely-aocnaed  officers,  and  expunge  the  passages  from 
his  yalnable  wort:. 



Nov.  21. — After  noon,  we  quitted  Kabul,  under 
the  charge  of  Nawab  Jubbar  Khan's  men,  who  were 
acquainted  with  the  chief  of  every  Tillage,  from  the 
city  till  we  came  to  a  small  pass.  Our  route  lay 
along  a  straight  causeway,  which  was  made  in  Tai- 
mur  Shah's  reign. 

Having  crossed  the  Logar  river,  over  a  decayed 
bridge,  we  arrived  at  But  Khak,  a  distance  of  twelve 
miles.  The  depth  of  water  had  been  increased  by 
a  sudden  junction  of  the  Shekhbad  and  Saadabad 
streams.  A  great  quantity  of  water  is  taken  from 
them  into  the  fields,  which  seemed  very  rich. 

But  Khak  is  a  small  fort,  overlooked  by  the  Gbarib 
Ghandah  hill,  which,  on  account  of  its  perpendicu- 
larity, never  retains  the  snow.  In  the  same  range, 
about  one  mile  towards  the  north-east,  the  snow 
remains  till  the  close  of  August,  which  is  considered 
a  miracle  by  the  villagers. 

Noc.  22. — A  march  of  twenty-eight  miles  brought 
us  to  Tezin,  which  stands  in  a  rich  and  beautiful 
valley.  Towards  the  south-east  of  the  village,  we 
had  a  fine  view  of  the  Kharkacha  hill,  which  was 
buried  under  the  snow.     All  this  range  is  hidden 


by  trees,  which  produce  chil  ghozab  (a  kind  of  Dut), 
which  is  expwted  to  Kabul,  Candahar,  Herat,  &c. 
The  wood  is  used  for  fiiel,  aa  well  as  for  build- 
ing. At  the  door  of  the  village  flows  a  fine  stream, 
which  fertilizes  the  whole  valley.  The  inhabitants 
are  few,  and  their  bouses  dirty. 

Our  road  to  the  pass,  or  kotal,  of  Sokhtah  Reg 
ccmtinued  through  deep  hollows,  many  of  which 
were  finely  cultivated.  We  descended  then  to  a 
fountain  of  clear  water,  which,  tradition  says,  dries 
up  every  three  years.  After  this  we  entered  a 
romantic  valley,  called  Sokhtah  Chinar,  in  which 
the  air  was  very  wholesome  and  refreshing.  It  con- 
tained a  fine  green  rock,  which  we  had  never  seen 
in  our  journey.  On  our  left  hand  we  visited  an 
open,  handsome  arch,  which  we  considered  to  be  a 
natund  curiosity.  It  was  near  the  top  of  the  hill. 
The  valley  extends  nearly  four  miles,  and  is  watered 
by  a  canal. 

Nofo.  23. — We  shaped  our  course  to  Jagdalak,  ten 
miles  distant,  travelling  for  a  long  time  at  the 
mouth  of  a  stratified  valley.  The  colour  oi  the  rock 
was  black,  with  a  red  vein ;  it  most  likely  contained 
a  mine  of  some  metal.  Our  guide  says,  that  the 
whole  country  of  Afghanistan  abounds  in  metals, 
gold,  silver,  copper,  &c.,  but  they  are  little  known. 

We  began  now  to  ascend  a  very  high  pass  buried 
under  the  snow,  which  in  some  places  was  up  to  the 
knees  ef  the  horses.  We  walked  a  long  time,  on 
acoount  of  the  dreadful  height,  and  could  hardly 



breathe.  The  thermometer,  when  looked  at  by 
Mr.  Gerard,  at  the  end  of  the  pass,  was  30  degrees. 
After  descending,  we  arrived  at  the  pebbly  bed  of  a 
dry  stream.  On  the  bank  we  saw  three  black  tents, 
occupied  by  wandering  Afghans.  Their  females 
possessed  beautiful  features,  which  seemed  to  be 
spoiled  by  cold  and  dust.  Their  hair  was  very 
clean,  and  twisted  in  a  strange  way.  The  males  are 
not  handsome,  but  stout.  They  put  on  a  large  cap 
projecting  to  a  point,  and  their  trowsers  are  tight 
to  the  ankle,  and  broad  above  the  knees.  We 
were  quite  surprised  to  see  their  children  naked  in 
the  snow.  We  were  told  that  they  are  made  to 
endure  the  cold  by  their  parents,  and  even  to  bathe 
in  the  snow,  when  they  are  under  three  years  of 
age.  They  feed  large  flocks  of  gosfands,  and  live 
upon  milk  and  meat.  Their  tents  are  very  low,  and 
made  of  blankets  of  gosfands*  hair.  They  are  not 
sewn,  but  fastened  with  large  needles. 

Our  ground  was  formerly  a  large  village,  now 
unpeopled.  The  houses  have  all  gone  to  ruin ;  but, 
fortunately  for  us,  we  were  provided  with  plenty  of 
dry  wood  to  warm  ourselves. 

Nov.  24. — We  started  before  sunrise,  and  passed 
over  a  small  sandy  hill.  The  morning  was  hazy,  and 
the  wind  cold.  We  now  entered  upon  the  same 
road  which  we  traversed  on  our  late  journey  to 

Our  route  lay  along  the  bed  of  a  dry  stream, 
called  Kimichauki,  and  we  ascended  to  the  crest  of 


the  pass.  Here  we  turned  back  our  horses,  and 
bade  adieu  to  the  grand  range  of  the  Hindu  Kush» 
which  appeared  uniformly  capped  with  snow.  On 
our  right  hand  was  the  White  Mountain,  or  Sufaid 
Koh,  famed  for  its  fruits,  and  especially  for  those 
delicious  pomegranates  which  are  exported  to  India. 
We  were  told  by  our  guide  that  the  mountain  has 
snow  upon  it  all  the  year;  but  we  can  scarcely 
believe  this,  when  we  compare  its  height  with  that 
of  the  Hindu  Kush,  where,  Mr.  Masson  told  us, 
very  small  patches  of  snow  were  seen  during  the 
month  of  September.  The  Sufaid  Koh,  we  imagine, 
is  nearly  16,000  feet  above  the  sea. 

We  continued  to  travel  in  deep  dells,  generally 
cultivated.  The  husbandmen  plough  before  the 
winter,  and,  sowing  the  seed  corn,  they  depart 
to  a  warmer  place,  and  return  when  the  snow  is 
over,  and  their  labours  of  cultivation  thrive  under 
it.  Near  Hindu  Kush  the  Hazara  people  begin 
their  cultivation  when  the  snow  is  melted  away ; 
here  they  commence  before  it  begins  to  fall. 

We  forded  the  Surkhab  river  near  the  bridge, 
which  is  200  yards  in  length  and  8  in  breadth, 
supported  by  the  rock,  and  has  only  one  arch.  It  was 
erected  by  Ali  Mardan  Khan,  and  the  following 
inscription,  which  is  engraved  on  a  black  stone  of  the 
rock  by  the  bridge,  shews  us  the  date  of  its  founda- 
tion : — 

'^  In  the  reign  of  the  impartial  Shah  Jahan,  the  founder  of  this 
brid^  was  Ali  Mardan  Khan.     I  a^ked  Wisdom  the  date  of  its 



erection ;  it  answered,  ^  The  builder  of  the  bridge  is  Ali  Mardan 

The  source  of  this  water  is  in  the  Sufaid  Roh, 
which  divides  it  into  two  rivers.  One  goes  through 
the  hills  to  Peshawer,  waters  the  rice-fields,  and  is 
called  Barah ;  the  other  is  named  Surkhab,  which 
joins  three  rivers  near  Darauntah,  thirty  miles 
north-west  of  this  bridge ;  two  of  them  come  from 
the  Luqman  country,  and  a  passage  for  them  was  cut 
through  the  mountain  by  a  single  man,  Farhad,  the 
famous  lover  in  old  days ;  and  the  third  river  is  that 
of  Logar,  which  passes  by  KabuL  These  four 
rivers  run  to  that  of  Jalalabad,  and  fall  into  the 
bed  of  the  Indus. 

We  reached  Grandu  Mak,  twenty-four  miles  dis- 
tant, and  put  up  in  a  small  house  of  a  villager. 
This  place  stands  in  a  ridi  spot,  and  has  a  fine  view 
of  the  Sufaid  Koh.  The  people  have  a  bad  cha- 
racter. Between  one  of  our  escort  and  a  person  of 
the  village,  a  quarrel  took  place  for  a  piece  of 
tobacco,  and  suddenly  grew  high.  A  woman  climbed 
to  the  roof,  and  called  for  help.  The  people  of  the 
neighbouring  village  ran  with  guns,  swords,  and 
daggers  in  their  hands,  and  were  desirous  of  blood- 
shed; but  the  interference  of  our  servant  quelled 
the  insurrection. 

Nao.  25. — On  our  road  we  passed  through  the 
beautiful  garden  of  Nimlah,  which  refreshed  our 
sight.  The  fine  scented  nargis  (narcissus)  abounded 
in  this  orchard.    The  flower  in  the  centre  is  yellow. 


and  open,  like  a  lovelj  eye.  The  Persian  poets, 
Hafiz,  Jami,  &c.,  have  likened  an  eye  to  this 
flower.  A  Persian  yerse  (a  translation  of  which 
follows)  suddenly  came  into  my  mind,  to  confirm  the 
above  explanation : — 

*'  The  nargis  in  the  garden,  as  well  as  the  deer  in  the  plain, 
have  become  senseleas  at  the  sight  of  your  lovely  eyes." 

We  traversed  many  hollows  and  dry  stony  hills, 
and  reached  the  bank  of  a  rapid  and  pebbly  stream. 
Here  we  breakfasted.  We  resumed  our  journey, 
and  on  our  arrival  in  Bala  Bagh,  a  small  town,  we 
were  sent  for  by  the  chief,  named  Mohammed 
Usman  Khan,  who  repeatedly  asked  us  to  stay  the 
night,  and  dine  with  him.  We  civilly  refused,  and 
came  to  the  fort  of  our  Nawab,  called  Tatang,  a 
distance  of  twenty  miles. 

Nov.  26. — We  continued  in  Tatang,  in  search  of 
ancient  Roman  coins,  and  to  make  inquiries  about 
the  **  topes,"  or  old  monuments,  which  are  situated 
under  the  base  of  an  adjoining  hill,  which  runs 
towards  Luqman  and  Kanur.  We  regretted  very 
much  not  being  able  to  open  their  valuable  re- 
mains, as  Mr.  Gerard  was  anxiously  making  hasty 
inarches  towards  India. 

This  fort  has  lately  been  bought  by  the  Nawab, 
who  rebuilt  it  at  a  great  expense.  The  productions 
of  the  country  are  wheat,  barley,  rice,  and  sugar- 
cane, and  he  has  also  planted  two  small,  beautiful 
orchards,  in  which  are  trees  of  different  fruits.  The 
people  of  this  country  are  ignorant  of  the  arts ;  they 


cannot  make  the  fine  sugar,  or  khand,  and  manu&c- 
ture  only  bad  shakur  and  gur.  A  man  of  India 
could  easily  make  his  fortune  by  monopolizing  the 
whole  sugar-canes  of  Jalalabad,  which  is  a  fertile 
country  in  Afghanistan.  His  supplies  of  sugar  in 
Turkistan  and  other  countries  would  put  him  in 
possession  of  great  riches.  The  people  of  the  village 
are  Afghans  and  Tajiks ;  but  the  language  of  the 
latter  is  Persian. 

The  country  of  Siah  Posh,  of  which  we  know  very 
little,  lies  beyond  the  snowy  mountain  called  Karanj, 
sixty  miles  north  of  this  village.  The  Afghans, 
who  know  their  language,  go  there  for  trade,  and 
make  bargains  with  the  people  of  Nimchah,  or 
half-caste.  They  live  under  the  foot  of  the  high 
mountain,  the  top  of  which  is  occupied  by  the  real 
Kafar  Siah  Posh.  No  man  is  allowed  to  ascend  the 
hill  except  the  beggars  of  India.  The  Mohamme- 
dans attack  their  villages,  and  bring  away  a  great 
many  slaves.  The  highest  price  of  a  slave  is  200 
rupees,  and  the  lowest  fifty.  The  whole  of  Afghan- 
istan is  full  of  Siah  Posh  and  Hazara  slaves ;  but  the 
former,  we  hear,  are  the  most  beautiful  creatures, 
and  sold  at  a  higher  price  than  the  latter. 

Nod.  27. — Having  left  Tatang  in  the  morning, 
we  came  into  Jalalabad,  a  distance  of  fifteen  miles. 
Our  road  was  highly  pleasant,  fine  green  villages 
appearing,  encircled  by  beautiftil  canals.  We  passed 
not  one  foot  of  dry  or  uncultivated  land  till  we  got 
to  our  ground.     The  husbandmen  looked  comfort- 


able,  and  richer  than  those  of  the  other  parts  of 
Afghanistan.  The  houses  are  built  in  the  Indian 
fashion,  two  or  three  stories  high.  We  crossed  two 
rapid  streams,  running  over  pebbly  beds,  on  our 
road ;  the  dashing  of  water  and  the  notes  of  birds 
upon  the  lofty  green  cypress-trees  were  a  delightful 
recreation  to  the  heart  of  a  fatigued  traveller  like 

Sultanpur,  a  beautiful  large  village,  which  we 
passed  on  our  way,  has  numerous  fountains  of 
crystal,  well-tasted  water. 

Nov.  28  to  30.— We  halted  at  Jalalabad,  which  is 
in  a  rich  country  between  Peshawer  and  Kabul.  It 
is  bounded  by  Dakka,  a  village  on  the  east,  one 
hundred  miles,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Surkhab  river, 
eighty  miles.  The  northern  boundary  of  it  is 
Kanur,  fifty  miles,  a  place  famous  for  excellent 
rice ;  and  the  south  barrier  is  Shanvari,  fifty  miles. 
The  climate  is  like  that  of  India,  except  in  summer. 
The  inhabitants  are  mostly  descendants  of  Indian 
people.  They  speak  also  the  Hindusthani  language, 
besides  Persian  and  Afghani.  Their  features  do  not 
boast  much  beauty.  The  ruler  of  the  country  is 
Nawab  Mohammed  Zaman  Khan,  a  cousin  of  the 
Barakzai  chiefs.  He  is  stingy  in  his  domestic  con- 
cerns, but  otherwise  liberal,  and  is  considered  half- 
mad  by  the  people.  The  productions  of  Jalalabad 
are  like  those  of  India.  The  rice  is  exported  to 
Kabul,  Candahar,  Herat,  &c.  The  wheat,  barley, 
javar,  bajri,  and  makai,  are  abundant,  and  sugar-cane 


is  produced  in  great  quantity.  The  sugar,  however, 
is  not  good,  as  the  natives  are  unskilful.  The  bazar, 
which  is  one  continued  straight  line,  is  thickly 
occupied  by  various  merchants.  The  fruits  oome 
from  Kabul,  and  are  sold  at  a  high  price.  The 
houses  within  the  walls  of  the  city  are  two  stories 
high;  they  are  neatly  built  of  mud  and  unbumt 
bricks.  Wood  is  abundant.  The  annual  income  of 
the  country  of  Jalalabad  is  nine  lacs  of  rupees; 
five  lacs  are  collected  by  the  different  chie&  for 
their  subsistence,  and  four  come  into  the  Nawab's 
treasury,  who  has  1,000  horsemen  and  200  in- 

The  gunners  throughout  the  whole  of  Afghanistan 
are  deserters  from  the  Hon.  East-India  Company. 

The  Mufti,  who  often  came  to  see  Mr.  Gerard, 
and  has  lately  travelled  into  the  country  of  the  Siah 
Posh,  or,  as  he  called  them,  Kafars,  kindly  gave  us 
the  following  brtef,  but  very  accurate,  account  of 
the  above  tribe :  —  From  Jalalabad  he  went  to 
Kanur,  and  from  thence  to  Chaghul  Sarae.  Having 
passed  through  the  valleys  called  Darrah  Nur, 
Damanj,  and  Vakul,  he  arrived  the  third  day  at 
the  village  named  Katar,  occupied  by  the  Siah 
Posh.  The  inhabitants,  whom  he  called  masters 
of  beauty,  came  to  see  him,  and  were  surprised  at 
some  feats  of  his  horse,  an  animal  which  is  hardly 
known  in  the  country  of  the  Siah  Posh.  Their 
dress  is  of  goats'  skin,  and  their  hair  hangs  down 
to  their  shoulders.     They  drink  wine  as  well  as 


water,  and  never  sit  upon  the  ground,  but  only 
in  chairs.  This  shews,  perhaps,  that  they  are  de« 
scendants  of  Alexander  the  Great.  As  to  their 
religion,  they  worship  idols,  made  either  of  stone 
or  wood,  which  they  call  Baruk^  or  Maha  Dev. 
They  wear  an  iron  ring  in  their  ears,  and  a  string 
ornamented  with  shells  round  their  necks.  This 
seems  to  resemble  the  custom  of  the  Hindu  jogis, 
or  red -dressed  beggars,  in  India.  They  sacri- 
fice cows  on  their  holidays,  as  the  Mohammedans  do 
in  the  day  of  Iduzzuha.  If  a  stranger  happens  to 
ask  them,  where  is  God?  they  point  with  their 
fingers  towards  the  west,  or  Mecca.  They  read  the 
Mohammedan  Kdimah  to  please  the  Musalmans,  and 
at  the  same  time  confess  themselves  to  be  Ka&rs ; 
in  short,  their  religion  is  not  known.  They  never 
intermarry  with  their  relations,  as  some  tribes  of 
the  Hindus  do.  The  wedding  ceremonies  are  very 
singular.  They  bring  their  wives  unveiled  on  their 
shoulders,  dance,  run,  and  jump  in  the  streets  (*'  like 
a  jackass,"  as  the  Mufbi  said),  accompanied  by 
crowds  of  men  and  women,  who  play  upon  drums 
and  flutes,  and  make  a  great  noise.  The  parents  of 
the  girl  are  exceedingly  pleased  to  see  the  husband 
using  his  utmost  exertions  in  jumping,  as  they 
think  him  in  consequence  the  more  devoted  lover 
of  his  wife.  They  have  erected  a  public  receptacle, 
where  they  send  the  pregnant  women  before  their 
accouchement,  and  keep  them  forty  days  there.  No 
man  is  allowed  to  enter  the  room,  or  pass  by  the 


house,  but  only  females.  This  custom,  I  believe, 
prevails  among  the  Jews.  The  funerals  of  the  Siah 
Posh  people  are  solemnized  in  a  joyful  manner.  The 
corpse  is  attended  by  young  men,  who  sing,  skip, 
dance,  and  play  upon  drums ;  unwashed,  it  is  carried 
upon  the  shoulders  of  men,  in  a  large  box,  to  the  top 
of  a  high  mountain,  and  laid  open  in  the  sun.  They 
sacrifice  a  cow  and  give  a  feast  to  the  attendants  of 
the  funeral,  and  return  home,  not  weeping  at  all. 
After  sixty  days,  when  the  body  is  putrefied,  or 
eaten  by  the  birds,  the  women  of  the  family  go  in  a 
body  upon  the  mountain,  where  they  pick  up  the 
bones,  and,  after  washing  them  in  a  stream,  bring 
them  home,  sit  round  them,  and  then  mourn  for  a 
short  time  ;  after  this  the  men  come  and  convey  the 
bones  to  a  large  cave,  excavated  in  the  ground. 
They  throw  them  in  it,  and,  turning  to  the  bones, 
say,  *^  This  is  your  heaven." 

The  language  of  the  Siah  Posh  is  mixed  with 
Hindusthani,  Persian,  and  Afghani.  They  use  the 
word  "  wire,"  which  means,  either  in  Hindi  or  San- 
scrit, *a  wife;*  they  say  "ratw^,"  which  signifies,  in 
Afghani,  *  to  bring.*  They  also  use  the  word  "  khub,^ 
which  imports,  in  Persian,  *  good.'  From  the  instru- 
ments of  war  of  the  Siah  Posh  people,  it  is  imagined 
that  they  are  formed  after  those  of  the  Macedonian 
soldiery.  They  use  spears,  and  are  good  archers. 
They  fis^ten  scimitars  round  their  waists,  and  carry 
shields  upon  their  backs.  They  fight  with  great 
ferocity,  gnashing  their  teeth,  and  roaring  like  a 


lion.  The  victors  are  crowned  with  chaplets,  made 
of  the  leaves  of  the  mulberry-tree. 

The  women,  who  possess  great  beauty,  manage 
all  the  out-door  business,  while  their  stout  and 
handsome  husbands  remain  in  the  house,  feeding  the 
children  in  their  arms.  The  females  negotiate  bar- 
gains, and  rove  about  to  procure  a  livelihood.  The 
men  follow  no  employment,  except  that  of  occa- 
sional warfare.  The  labours  of  the  women  in  til- 
lage produce  fine  rice,  wheat,  and  barley.  Fruits 
are  abundant.  From  the  fine  grapes  they  make 
good  wine.,  and  they  use  the  syrup  of  water-melons 
instead  of  sugar.  They  eat  the  flesh  of  every  ani- 
mal, except  dogs  and  jackals. 

If  any  stranger  is  found  guilty  of  adultery  with 
anybody's  wife  or  daughter,  the  Siah  Posh  never 
sentence  him  to  death,  like  the  Mohammedans,  but 
exact  from  him  a  small  sum  of  money,  amounting 
to  twelve  or  thirteen  rupees.  The  Siah  Posh  Kafars 
(according  to  the  Mufti),  in  lieu  of  feeling  jealousy 
or  anger  at  such  acts,  commend  the  liberality  of 
their  females  towards  every  man,  who  is  the  best  of 
God's  creatures  in  the  world. 

Kambir,  Save,  and  Kalman  are  the  largest  towns 
in  the  country  of  the  Kafars.  They  are  well  built, 
having  long  and  broad  streets,  without  a  single 
shop.  The  Siah  Posh  have  very  few  she-goats  in 
their  country. 

The  Siah  Posh  claim  a  descent  from  the  Arabs, 
but  some  of  them  acknowledge  that  they  are  de- 


Bcended  from  the  Macedonian  soldiers.  For  my 
part,  the  names  of  the  Siah  Posh  males  seem  to  be 
quite  different  from  all  nations  in  the  world,  except 
the  Europeans,  namely  Shantlah  and  Jankhen.  The 
artists  in  that  country  are  called  Bari.  They  are 
not  civilly  treated  by  other  Siah  Posh,  who  are 
known  by  the  name  of  Sahu,  and  they  are  not  even 
allowed  to  sit  before  them. 

Many  of  the  Siah  Posh  call  themselves  maliks,  or 
princes,  who  use  force  to  sell  the  children  of  the 
Baris  to  the  neighbouring  Mohammedans.  They 
call  them  the  descendants  of  those  slaves  which 
their  lion-figured  fathers  brought  at  the  invasion  of 
India ;  but,  the  Mufti  says,  they  do  not  mention 
particularly  the  name  of  Sikandar  (Alexander). 

I  could  not  extend  my  inquiries  much  farther 
about  the  Kafars,  as  the  Mufti  left  us  soon,  on  his 
route  to  Kabul. 

In  our  late  journey  to  Bokhara,  we  had  one  Ba- 
dakhshani  pilgrim  in  the  caravan,  to  whom  we  were 
highly  indebted  for  valuable  information.  He  men- 
tioned, that  the  rulers  of  his  neighbouring  regions, 
besides  the  chiefs  of  Darvaz,  Kator  Shah,  Sulaiman 
Shah,  and  Ghazab  Shah,  being  Mohammedans,  de- 
rive their  origin  from  the  heroic  son  of  the  Mace- 
donian Philip.  He  adds,  also,  that  the  soldiera  under 
them,  whose  origin  is  derived  from  the  Siah  Posh, 
trace  their  genealogy  from  the  warriors  of  that  great 
conqueror.  In  my  opinion,  the  Siah  Posh  soldiers^ 
..who  claim  also  the  same  descent,  were  the  countiy- 


men  of  those  of  Badakbshan ;  but  when  the  invasion 
of  Mohammed  conquered  the  rich  valley  of  the 
Oxus,  many  of  the  Macedonian  descendants  were 
converted  to  Islam,  and  many,  to  avoid  persecution, 
left  the  valley,  and  chose  to  dwell  upon  the  moun- 
tains, near  the  Hindu  Kush,  where  they  live  now 
independently,  adhering  to  their  former  worship  of 
idols,  and  calling  themselves  the  heroic  descendants 
of  Alexander's  soldiers.  They  wear  the  black  skin 
of  the  goat,  and  do  not  believe  in  Mohammed  ;  and, 
therefore,  they  are  called  Kafar  Siah  Posh,  or 
*  black-dressed  infidels/  I  shall  remain  in  great 
anxiety  till  I  can  examine,  with  my  own  eyes,  the 
customs  and  manners,  and  the  features,  of  this 
curious  and  little-known  nation  of  Siah  Posh,  or 
till  we  receive  more  authentic  information  from 
an  European  traveller  in  that  country. 

Dec.  1  to  3. — We  continued  at  Jalalabad,  waiting 
for  an  escort  to  take  us  to  Peshawer,  and  employed 
our  time  in  searching  for  ancient  remains.  We 
opened  a  tope,  in  which  we  operated  for  five  days. 
The  workmen  hired  by  Mr.  Gerard  were  very  expert 
in  excavating.  They  dug  seven  paces  at  the  base 
of  the  tope,  and  then  were  checked  by  a  wall, 
through  which  they  broke,  and  found  themselves  in 
a  fine,  small  room.  It  appeared  as  if  only  to-day 
plastered  with  lime ;  but  our  labours  met  with  dis- 

Between  Jalalabad  and  Bala  Bagh,  on  both  banks 
of  the  river  Surkhab,  stand  numerous  topes,  like 


that  of  Manakyala,  but  not  quite  so  high*  Mr. 
Martin  Honigberger,  a  German  gentleman,  lately  in 
Ranjit  Singh's  service,  continued  his  operations  for 
five  months,  in  the  villages  of  Darauntah  and  Ka^ 
nur,  near  Jalalabad,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  above 
river.  He  spoiled  nearly  thirty  topes  in  Kabul  and 
in  these  places.  In  one  of  the  topes  of  Darauntah» 
he  found  some  liquid,  inclosed  in  a  small  golden 
box,  accompanied  with  sixty  Roman  copper  coins.  In 
another,  he  got  some  ashes,  containing  gold  earrings 
and  two  small  pearls,  which  shews  that  some  lady 
was  interred  there ;  and  in  a  third,  he  possessed 
himself  of  a  stone  box,  filled  with  bones,  and  a  gold 
coin,  mentioning  the  name  of  Cytra  Gas,  which  I 
could  not  find  in  Quintus  Curtius. 

South-east  of  the  city  of  Kabul,  a  distance  of  six 
miles,  we  opened  one  of  the  monuments,  nearly 
fifty  feet  high.  It  was  built  of  lime  and  large 
heavy  stones.  Our  operations  lasted  for  seven  days. 
General  Ventura  began  to  dig  the  tope  of  Manaky- 
ala,  first  from  the  bottom,  and  then  from  the  top, 
where  he  found  numerous  copper  coins;  but  not 
having  time,  we  commenced  the  work  from  the 
bottom,  and  on  the  sixth  day  we  discovered  another 
complete  burj,  encircled  by  the  outer  one.  We  put 
on  ten  men,  who,  in  a  day,  got  through  the  centre 
of  it,  and  found  a  small  stone  frame-work,  containing 
five  lamps  filled  with  small  pieces  of  bones.  I  think 
if  we  had  worked  the  tope  from  the  top,  perhaps 
we  should  have  foimd  some  coins  also,  but  the  want 


of  time  obliged  Mr.  Gerard  to  leave  all  these  vala- 
able  relics.  Mr.  Honigberger  told  us,  that  he  had 
dug  many  topes  from  the  top,  but  found  nothing. 

From  Kabul  to  Jalalabad,  which  was  one  of  the 
capitals  of  the  Bactrian  dynasty,  there  are  numerous 
topes  or  burjs  scattered  over  the  country.  Many  of 
them  are  ruined  by  the  rains,  and  many  still  stand  in 
their  complete  iBgure.  It  surprised  me  very  much 
that  the  English  power,  being  so  near  to  Jalalabad, 
never  thinks  of  such  valuable  discoveries  respecting 
the  old  Grecian  provinces,  which,  history  tells  us, 
existed  in  these  very  tracts. 

South  of  Kabul,  two  miles  distant,  we  dug  heaps 
of  earth,  the  remains  of  the  ancient  city.  After  five 
days'  work,  we  found  an  idol  cut  in  black  stone. 
The  figure  is  singular  and  beautiful,  having  two 
small  figures  carrying  an  umbrella  on  both  shoulders. 
I  think  the  Hindus,  on  the  invasion  of  Mohammed, 
destroyed  their  lodgings,  under  which  they  buried 
their  property,  along  with  their  idols,  in  the  hope  of 
recovering  their  country.  In  rainy  days,  the  people 
of  the  neighbouring  villages  find  rubies,  and  even 
decayed  clothes,  in  the  earth.  The  idol,  Mr.  Gerard 
says,  represents  the  figure  of  a  Buddha.  It  has 
curling  locks,  which  flow  on  its  shoulders,  and  both 
his  hands  are  placed  on  his  knees,  while  he  frown* 
ingly  looks  over  them.  His  forehead  is  mutilated. 
The  waist  of  the  umbrella-bearers  is  thin,  like  that 
of  Hanuman,  while  their  breasts  are  broad.  The 
figure  of  the  idol  puts  me  in  mind  of  that  Salag 


Ram,  which  is  generally  worshipped  by  i^ose  Hin- 
dus who  never  eat  meat  Through  the  favour  of 
Mr.  Gerard,  I  hope  to  shew  the  idol  to  the  com- 
mittee of  the  Delhi  college. 

Near  Bala  Bagh  is  a  ruined  place  called  Behar, 
where  the  Mohammedans  dig,  and  find  gold,  and 
also  idols,  which  are  afterwards  broken  into  pieces, 
in  the  excitement  of  their  foolish  prejudices.  During 
their  labours  at  the  spot,  they  are  often  rewarded  by 
obtaining  large  stone  vessels,  containing  dead  bodies, 
looking,  a  man  tells  me,  like  those  of  people  who 
do  penance.  Their  locks  and  eye-brows  are  not 
worn  out  by  age,  and  what  is  astonishing,  under 
their  feet  they  find  numerous  copper  coins,  inclosed 
in  small  brass  boxes. 

Dec  4. — We  left  the  old  town  of  Jalalabad  in  the 
afternoon,  and  arrived  at  Batti  Kot  a  little  before 
dark.  The  distance  of  the  march  was  twenty  miles ; 
when  we  reached  the  plain  of  Surkh  Divar,  which  is 
a  place  of  danger.  Many  caravans  have  often  been 
robbed  in  this  place.  On  the  left  of  this  is  another 
safe  road,  called  Gidikash,  but  it  is  hilly.  We  saw 
six  robbers  sitting  in  hollows ;  but  our  guides,  being 
men  of  power,  pui^osely  went  to  them,  and  asked 
for  tobacco,  which  they  humbly  reftised,  telimg  them 
that  they  were  poor  travellers  of  the  hills. 

Dec.  6. — A  march  of  twelve  miles  brought  us  to 
the  large  village  of  Hazara  Naa,  wiiere  we  lodged 
in  the  house  of  our  old  frigid,  a  late  harkarah  in 
Rai^t  Singh's  service.      On  our  road,  we   passed 


through  the  beautiful  and  rich  hamlet  of  Ambar 
Khanah.  We  saw  many  black  tents  of  the  wandering 
Ghiljais,  who,  an  hour  before  our  arrival,*  were  vio- 
lently deprived  of  their  land,  and  1,000  sheep,  by 
the  people  of  Shinvari.  They  are  independent,  and 
also  mutinous.  They  always  rob  on  the  road  to 
Surkh  Divar,  though  they  are  called  the  subjects  of 

Dec.  6. — Having  passed  through  the  valley  of 
Little  Khaibar,  we  travelled  over  an  uneven  road. 
On  our  right  hand  was  the  range  of  Sufaid  Koh, 
capped  with  snow,  and  on  our  left  the  large  and 
thickly-peopled  town  of  Lalpur.  It  is  the  residence 
of  Sadat  Khan,  the  ruler  of  the  Dakka  country,  who 
is  under  Jalalabad,  and  can  levy  20,000  infantry 
irom  the  neighbouring  hills.  He  takes  a  duty  of 
three  rupees  on  each  loaded  pony,  and  four  rupees 
on  each  horseman.  Having  walked  over  a  difficult 
pass  for  nearly  a  mile,  we  came  to  Little  Dakka, 
twelve  miles  distant.  It  is  situated  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Kabul  river. 

Dec.  7. — At  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  took 
onr  departure  for  Haidur  Khan,  a  distance  of  fifteen 
miles.  When  we  crossed  a  high  and  troublesome 
pass,  we  came  to  the  right  bank  of  the  Kabul  river, 
which  is  navigated  by  means  of  inflated  skins,  or 
Jalahs.  It  abounds  with  small  girdabs,  or  whirlpools, 
where  the  jalahs  go  round,  land  get  out  of  them  after 
.great  difficulty.  We  now  ascended  a  very  high  pass, 
where  we  walked  for  nearly  two  miles.     The  men, 



and  even  the  horses,  find  great  diflficulty  in  breathing 
when  they  reach  the  top.  We  were  qnite  wet  with 
perspiration.  In  the  ravines  on  the  top  we  were 
OTertaken  by  darkness.  I  accompanied  Mr.  Gerard, 
a  little  in  advance,  and  lost  sight  of  our  baggage. 
One  of  our  ponies,  loaded  with  two  bags,  and  being 
also  lame,  was  always  in  the  rear,  and  his  driver, 
one  of  our  servants,  was  surrounded  by  robbers,  who 
took  one  of  the  bags,  which  contained  sugar  and  tea, 
and  a  few  of  my  clothes.  They  would  have  taken 
the  other  bag,  but  the  firing  of  our  servant  made  us 
gallop  to  the  spot,  where  we  saw  the  robbers  run- 
ning over  the  hills. 

We  burnt  bushes  on  this  hill,  and  their  flame 
enabled  us  to  distinguish  the  road.  When  we 
obtained  sight  of  the  village,  we  found  many  people 
firing,  which  terrified  us ;  but  it  appeared  that  this 
firing  was  on  account  of  the  birth  of  a  child  in 
some  MuUa's  house. 

Dec.  8. — Having  descended  nearly  four  miles,  we 
arrived  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Kabul  river.  We 
recrossed  the  river  on  skins,  which  were  tied  to 
each  other.  Here  we  were  again  on  our  guard 
against  robbers,  who  have  plundered  the  caravan  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  stream.  We  entered  now 
the  boundary  of  Peshawer,  and  encamped  in  the 
Qilah  Arbab,  ten  miles  distant.  The  villagers 
did  not  allow  us  to  go  inside  of  the  fort,  and  we 
were  dreadfully  wetted  by  rain  at  night,  our  clothes 
and  beds  being  swimming  in  water.    The  people 


were  here  all  dressed  in  blue,  and  their  tribe  was 

Dec.  9. — It  rained  very  hard,*and  we  continued 
our  march  through  channels  of  water  and  deep 
mud.  The  sky  was  covered  with  clouds,  and  looked 
awfully  dark.  We  were  surrounded  by  rich  villages, 
almost  concealed  by  green  com. 

We  met  Nazir  Morad  Ali,  sent  by  the  Sardar  tor 
receive  us,  who  talked  in  a  very  friendly  manner 
with  us  all  the  way.  At  night  the  Sardar  came, 
and  took  us  into  his  fine  room  of  glass,  where  we 
dined  with  him. 

Dec.  10  to  21.  Peshawer. — We  are  now  among 
crowds  of  people  who  speak  nothing  but  the  praise 
of  the  English.  The  Sardars  often  came  to  see  us, 
and  treated  us  very  civilly.  Among  them  was  a 
kind  man,  Pir  Mohammed  Khan,  the  Sardar  of 
Kohat,  who  behaved  well  to  Mr.  Moorcroft,  and 
also  to  us.  He  often  said  that  his  country  abounds 
with  mines  of  difierent  metals,  which  he  would  be 
happy  to  resign  to  the  English  Government  for  a 
small  sum  of  money.  He  gave  us  a  very  rich  dinner, 
and  for  me  he  sent  also  for  sweetmeats. 

Dec.  22. — In  charge  of  Sardar  Said  Mohammed 
Khan's  son  and  Gholam  Qadir  Khan,  we  quitted 
Peshawer  on  our  road  to  Hasht  Nagar,  a  place 
famous  for  the  ruins  of  the  old  city  of  Bag  Ram. 
Having  forded  the  Shah  Alam  river,  we  crossed 
the  Naguman  and  Hasht  Nagar.  This  last  water 
comes  from  Little  Kasghar,  and  passes  through  the 



mountains  of  Sohat.  There  were  two  strong  boats 
irregularly  made.  The  manner  of  rowing  the  boats 
was  singular,  and  new  to  our  eyes.  They  were 
drawn  by  a  rope  tied  on  both  banks  of  the  river. 
We  travelled  all  day  in  green  fields  of  com,  which 
were  surrounded  by  numerous  canals  conducted 
from  the  above  riven  We  put  up  in  a  village  four- 
teen miles  distant.     The  house  was  well  built. 

Dec.  23. — It  was  a  .very  foggy  morning.  About 
half  a  mile  from  the  village,  we  crossed  the  Hasht 
Nagar  river,  and  came  to  the  fort  of  that  name.  It 
is  very  high,  without  a  ditch,  and  strong,  with  no 
bastion.  The  walls  are  of  stone  and  not  very  thick, 
but,  owing  to  the  high  situation  of  the  fort,  it  could 
stand  the  siege  of  a  month. 

We  re-crossed  the  river,  and  came  to  the  ruined 
heaps  of  the  city  of  Bag  Ram,  called  Shahar  Napur- 
san.  The  people  often  get  old  coins  from  these 
ruins.  There  are  no  perfect  remains  of  the  city, 
only  heaps  covered  with  red  pebbles,  which  ex- 
tend nearly  eight  miles.  Tradition  says  that,  in 
old  days,  there  were  three  forts  in  the  whole  coun- 
try of  Peshawer,  ruled  by  three  brothers.  Two  of 
them  were  on  the  spot  of  the  ruins,  and  the  third 
near  the  present  city  of  Peshawer.  The  brothers 
made  a  rule,  that,  upon  the  invasion  of  an  enemy, 
they  should  inform  each  other  by  the  light  of  a  fire. 
The  younger  brother,  to  try  his  other  brothers,  fired 
three  times,  upon  which  they  came,  with  a  consider- 
able army,  to  assist  him ;  but,  on  their  arrival,  they 


found  it  waB  a  ridiculous  joke.  Sultan  Mahmud, 
on  his  invasion  of  India,  first  besieged  the  fort  of 
the  younger  brother,  who  made  a  fire,  but  none 
came  to  assist  him  till  the  place  was  taken.  After- 
wards, his  other  brothers  met  the  same  fate. 

We  arrived  at  a  large  village,  called  Mubarak,  a 
distance  of  eight  miles.  The  buildings  in  this  place 
are  of  mud  and  decayed  wood. 

Dec.  24. — We  returned  to 'the  city  of  Peshawer, 
twenty-two  miles  distant.  On  the  road  we  fell 
into  conversation  with  a  traveller,  who  had  been  in 
Little  Kashgar.  He  said,  that  the  people  of  that 
country  have  a  very  singular  custom  of  saying 
prayers  in  the  mosque  with  dirty  shoes  on  their 
feet.  Fruits  are  abundant  in  that  tract,  but  salt  is 
unknown.  If  a  traveller  has  salt,  he  is  surrounded 
by  men  and  women,  who  treat  him  civilly,  to  be 
allowed  to  suck  the  salt  from  his  cooking-pot.  They 
have  considerable  stores  of  butter,  of  200  or  300 
years  old.  Their  dress  is  made  of  goats'  hair,  of 
which  also  they  make  fine  shawls. 

Dec.  25  to  30.  Peshawer.  —  Gholam  Khan,*  a 
respectable  man  of  the  Durrani  family,  invited  us  to 
dine  in  his  orchard,  where  we  saw  a  few  Indian 
soldiers.  They  all  came  on  leave  to  him,  expecting 
good  service  in  Peshawer;  but  they  were  disap- 
pointed, and  anxious  to  return. 

Jan.  1  to  6. — Our  host,  Sardar  Sultan  Mohammed 
Khan,  made  great  preparation  to  give  us  a  dinner 

*  He  died  in  1843,  of  a  broken  heart,  in  exile,  for  serying  the 
British,  for  which  he  received  no  reward. 


in  his  private  room»  which  wai^  beautifully  adorned 
with  fine  European  pictures  (gaudy,  like  those  of 
the   French),  and   entirely  covered  with  glasses. 
There  were  English  chandeliers,  presented  to  our 
host  by  Mr.  Moorcroft,  whom  he  praised  with  great 
warmth  of  friendship.     This  feast  had  a  very  pomp- 
ous appearance.     The  floor  was  laid  with  Kashmir 
shawls,  loaded  with  lace,  which  put  me  in  mind  of 
the  showy  and  rich  court  of  Ranjit  Singh.     The 
fireworks  were  not  so  fine  as  those  of  India,  and 
dangerous.    A  fair  takes  place  once  a  year  in  Peshar 
wer,  and  the  Sardar  asked  us  to  accompany  him  out 
of  the  city  to  see  it.     We  sat  with  him  on  an  ele- 
phant, surrounded  by  1,000  horsemen.    The  people, 
all  in  good  dresses,  commenced  the  race  in  a  vast 
plain,  completely  covered  with  a  countless  crowd  of 
spectators.     The  Sardar  left  Mr.  Gerard  and  me 
on  the  elephant,  and  mounted  on  horseback.     He 
said,  he  would   shew  us    the    exercise    that    he 
learned  when  very  young.     He  ran  his  horse  with 
a  spear  in  his  hand,  and  discharged  it  through 
an  orange   put  on  the   palm    of  a  footman,  who 
received  no  wound.     Two    men  were   run   over 
by  horses,  and   killed.     We  were  informed,  that 
every  year  accidents  happen  like  this.     The  Sardar 
got  a  letter  from  Jalalabad,  which  informed  him, 
that  Sardar  Dost  Mahomed  Khan  had  arrived  ynth 
his  army  near  the  above  place,  which  he  intended 
to  take.     The  Sardar  said,  he  would  go  to  fight  him. 
This  fair  is  called  Jhanda. 

Kohat,  one  of  the  Peshawer  districts,  contains 


numerous  mines  of  different  metals,  including  sona- 
makhi  and  pitalmakhi.  A  high  range  of  neigh- 
bouring hills  abounds  with  mines  of  coal.  The 
Peshaweris  bring  it  in  great  quantities,  and  often 
bum  it  for  the  purpose  of  melting  iron,  but  do  not 
succeed.  I  think  this  is  owing  to  want  of  science 
and  art.  There  is  also  found  naphtha,  which  bums 
like  oil.  The  villagers  generally  use  it  for  lamps. 
Momjai,  a  most  useful  and  valuable  medicine  in 
India,  is  dug  out  of  the  hills  of  Kohat;  it  is 
black,  and  like  gum.  When  a  bone  in  any  part 
of  the  body  is  broken,  the  people  eat  this  drug,  and 
aJfter  three  days  they  find  their  bone  entirely  joined. 
This  gum  is  very  dear  in  India,  and  seldom  found. 

Near  Kohat  is  a  country  named  Vaziri,  famous 
for  its  breed  of  active  horses.  Mr.  Moorcroft,  as 
the  people  say,  pretended  to  be  in  search  of  horses 
at  Vaziri,  but  came  to  see  a  gold-mine,  which  un- 
doubtedly exists  in  that  region.  The  inhabitants, 
being  ignorant,  do  not  work  it,  and  never  shew  it 
to  strangers  for  fear  of  losing  their  country. 

Jcem.  7. — On  the  arrival  of  Ranjit  Singh's  letter, 
who  kindly  acceded  to  our  solicitation  to  be  allowed 
to  visit  Kashmir,  we  left  Peshawer  under  charge  of 
the  Sardar's  escort,  and  came  to  Chamkani,  a  dis- 
tance of  two  miles.  The  village  was  very  large, 
and  had  a  small  bazar,  inhabited  by  Khatris.  On 
the  road  we  passed  a  stream  called  Barah,  and  visited 
the  patches  of  snow  over  the  adjacent  hills,  which 
the  natives  said  had  never  fallen  before.   The  Sardar 


parted  with  us  very  sorrowfully.  He  squeezed  my 
hand,  and  said  that  he  should  be  very  happy  to  see 
me  again  in  Peshawer,  and  would  give  me  a  respect- 
able service  and  a  jagir  (estate). 

Jan.  9. — A  march  of  fourteen  miles  brought  us 
to  a  large  village,  thinly  inhabited,  called  Per  Pai. 
The  people  live  in  huts,  and  are  plundered  by  the 
Sikhs.  They  are  all  Afghans,  and  understand  only 
Pashto.  The  productions  are  wheat,  javar,  and 
makai :  but  barley  is  but  little  cultivated.  We 
travelled  on  an  extensive  plain,  all  barren  and  diy. 
The  earth  is  saltish.  The  caravans  are  here  often 
attacked  by  robbers  of  the  Afridi  tribe,  who  are 

Jan.  10. — We  reached  the  town  of  Akora,  a 
distance  of  ten  miles.  The  temple,  of  which 
Mr.  Elphinstone  speaks  with  great  praise,  is  de- 
stroyed by  the  Sikh  soldiers.  The  inhabitants  are 
Khataks,  one  of  the  Afghan  clans.  Mr.  Moorcroft 
had  nearly  gone  to  fight  with  these  people,  on 
account  of  his  property,  which  they  wished  to  plun- 
der, by  the  secret  sanction  of  Ranjit  Singh.  Sardar 
Sultan  Mohammed  Khan  quelled  the  insurrection. 
We  passed  a  very  large  village  named  Nau  Shahrah» 
which  is  entirely  ruined  by  the  Sikhs.  Our  road 
was  dry  and  pebbly.  We  met  no  travellers,  except 
people  of  Kashmir,  all  distressed  by  famine. 

Jan.\\. — We.  travelled  along  the  right  bank  of 
the  Kabul  river,  and  saw  from  a  distance  the  fort  of 
Jahangiri,  lately  built  by  one  of  Ranjit  Singh's  officers. 


The  road  was  iu  a  plain,  but  latterly  we  crossed  a  few 
steep  cliffi.  We  left  the  road  of  Gidar  Gali  on  our 
right,  and  passed  through  the  town  of  Khairabad, 
which  is  well  peopled,  and  has  been  repaired  since 
our  last  visit.  The  bazar  is  very  narrow,  having 
nearly  one  hundred  fine  shops. 

We  crossed  the  Indus,  and  put  up  in  the  fort  of 
Atak,  where  we  were  not  allowed  to  enter  before. 
The  Sardars,  well  dressed,  came  to  visit  us,  and 
offered  a  bag  of  money  as  a  present.  They  seemed 
a  great  deal  afraid  of  Abbas  Mirza's  conquests  in 
Khorasan,  and  were  thinking  of  his  invasion  of  the 

Jan.  12.  —  We  came  to  Haidru,  a  distance  of 
twelve  miles,  over  plains  denuded  of  verdure.  We 
passed  through  a  thickly-inhabited  hamlet,  where  the 
people  were  surprised  to  see  the  elephant  on  which 
we  were  mounted.  The  children  assembled  in  a 
considerable  number,  calling  the  name  *'Hati,  Hati," 
or,  *  elephant,  elephant.' 

The  fort  of  Atak  stands  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Indus.  The  western  rampart  commands  the  bed  of 
the  river.  It  is  nearly  seventy  feet  from  the  edge 
of  the  wall  to  the  surface  of  the  water.  Notwith- 
standing that  depth,  the  people  say  the  river  once 
rose  so  high  that  a  boat,  crossing  the  walls,  floated 
into  the  fort  in  which  the  Abduzd  is  situated. 

The  circumference  of  the  fort  is  two  miles ;  the 
walls  are  of  stone  and  lime.  It  has  a  very  small 
bazar,  with  beautiful  shops.    The  houses  ai-e  two  or 


three  Btories  high,  having  a  clean  appearance.  The 
major  part  of  the  population  are  bigoted  Hindus. 
Here  are  five  guns,  and  one  thousand  soldiers ;  but 
the  fort  is  so  large,  that  it  requires  a  garrison  of  ten 
thousand  men.  Akora  and  other  Afghan  villages 
supply  the  fort  of  Atak  with  boats  of  provisions, 
by  the  deep  current  of  the  Kabul  river,  which 
falls  into  the  Indus.  It  is  fordable  in  three  places 
above  the  village  of  Haidru :  twenty-five  boats  can 
make  a  fine  bridge  on  the  Indus  near  Atak. 

Jan.  13. — A  march  of  twelve  miles  brought  us 
into  the  famous  place  named  Hasan  Abdal.  It 
is  gone  to  total  decay.  Our  road,  before  we  crossed 
the  current  of  Haro,  led  into  dreadful  ravines, 
where  passengers  are  often  robbed.  This  water  I 
heard  comes  from  the  Indus,  and  falls  again  into  it. 
Having  forded  the  Panjab  stream,  we  passed  by 
the  large  village  called  Burhan. 

Jan.  14.  —  Having  traversed  a  bushy  road,  we 
heard  that  there  were  two  other  topes  in  the  vicinity 
of  Usman  Khatar,  besides  that  which  we  visited 
before.  On  this  we  left  the  proper  way  on  our  right 
hand,  and  bent  our  course  to  the  above  village,  a  dis- 
tance of  eight  miles.  Our  search  regarding  the  topes 
met  with  disappointment ;  but  we  made  another  dis- 
covery, that,  in  the  neighbouring  hamlet,  called  Shah- 
dab,  is  a  ruined  place,  containing  numerous  idols 
beneath  the  ground,  and  plenty  of  coins  are  found 
above  the  surface.  We  purchased  a  few  of  them, 
obtained  on  the  very  spot,  which  had  the  figure  of  a 


mail  standing,  and  of  an  elephant  on  the  reverse 

Jan.  15. — We  arrived  at  a  small  village,  called 
Janika  Sang,  a  distance  of  fourteen  miles.  Having 
got  fairly  out  of  the  valley  of  the  Indus,  we  passed 
through  the  paved  road  of  Margala  in  21^  minutes. 
The  ground  was  entirely  concealed  under  high  trees 
of  the  wild  plum,  which  forms  the  only  food  of  the 

Jan.  16. — A  march  of  thirteen  miles  brought  us 
into  a  small  town,  called  Raval  Findi,  famous  for 
brass  and  copper  articles.  The  bazar  is  not  very 
large,  but  thickly  and  beautifully  shopped.  The 
dry  fruits  are  plentiful,  and  cheaper  than  at  Labor. 
A  high  range  of  rock,  which  stands  ten  miles  north 
of  this  place,  divides  the  states  of  Rajas  from  this 
region.  The  people  are  Mohammedans,  and  their 
capital  is  Khanpur,  which  is  now  under  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  sovereign  of  the  Panjab.  A  mine  of 
sulphur  exists  in  this  hill ;  it  was  lately  discovered, 
and  is  now  worked. 

The  Indus  is  called,  by  some  people,  "  Aha  Sin^^ 
and  by  others,  "  Aho  Sin!"  The  derivation  of  the 
first  is  this :  ''  aba^^  in  Arabic,  means  *  father,'  and 
"  dnr  in  Afghani,  imports,  *  cold  river,'  because  the 
water  is  colder  than  the  other  streams.  The  ety- 
mology of  the  other  name  is  this :  '*  abo^  in  Afgham', 
signifies  *  water,'  and  the  letter  s  of  the  word  "  sin  " 
is  changed  for  that  of  cA,  whereby  the  word  is  pro- 
nounced **  cAm,"  because,  as  the  people  (who  confess 


their  ignorance  of  its  source)  say,  it  comes  from 
China.  Before  it  arrives  in  the  plain,  and  washes 
a  few  of  the  villages  called  Chatar  Bai,  it  runs 
rapidly,  with  a  noise  which  is  heard  at  a  distance  of 
nearly  two  miles.  The  valley,  which  first  receives 
it,  is  so  narrow,  that  the  natives  have  bridged  the 
quick  current  by  a  single  rafter,  over  which  they 
cross  easily.  There  are  three  fords  between  Chatar 
Bai  and  Haidru,  which  are  fifty  miles  distant  from  I 

each  other. 

Jan.  17. — We  put  up  in  Manikyala,  after  a 
journey  of  four  hours  and  three-quarters.  The  dis- 
tance is  sixteen  miles.  On  our  road  we  saw  nothing  I 
worthy  of  notice.  When  we  left  Raval  Pindi  four 
miles  behind,  we  beheld,  on  our  right  hand,  a  tope, 
erected  on  the  margin  of  a  small  stream.  It  is  | 
damaged  in  a  great  many  parts,  but  no  one  has 
opened  it.  We  collected  numerous  coins,  for  which 
we  paid  a  double  price.  We  forded  a  very  beauti- 
ful and  large  stream,  which  comes  from  the  Indus, 
and  falls  again  into  it. 

Jan.  18. — Having  traversed  a  barren  and  unin- 
habited plain,  we  came  betwixt  dreadful  gorges. 
On  our  left  we  saw  the  snowy  mountains  of  Panjtar, 
which  form  the  valley  of  Kashmir. 

When  we  came  to  Dah  Mak,  twenty  miles  dis- 
tant, we  saw  the  camp  of  General  Ventura,  who, 
accompanied  by  General  Court,  came  to  receive  us. 
At  night  we  had  a  talkative  party  of  gentlemen. 

Jan.  19,  20. — We  continued  at  the  camp,  and 


were  invited  to  dine  with  General  Court,  who  had 
encamped  at  a  little  distance.  Our  host  shewed  us 
numerous  Grecian  copper  coins,  which  were  beauti- 
fully drawn  by  him  on  paper.  He  has  also  made  a 
very  correct  map  of  the  Panjab,  but  says,  that  he  is 
not  allowed  to  visit  Kashmir. 

Jan.  21. — Having  travelled  amongst  tedious  and 
tremendous  defiles,  we  arrived  at  the  fort  of  Rotas, 
a  distance  of  eighteen  miles.  The  fort,  which  we 
are  in  now,  appears  very  strong.  There  are  four  or 
five  gates,  some  of  which  are  blocked  up.  It  con- 
tains a  small  bazar,  of  poor  shops,  and  is  a  ruined 
place  inside.  The  walls,  which  are  in  some  places 
levelled  to  the  ground,  are  very  thick,  built  with 
burnt  bricks  and  lime.  It  is  a  regular  fort,  having 
numerous  angles.  The  inhabitants  are.  all  poorly 
dressed,  and  seemed  starving.  Here  is  a  great 
scarcity  of  provisions,  in  consequence  of  the  country 
being  dry  and  hilly.  About  half  a  mile  east  of  the 
fort  flows  a  very  small  stream,  which  cannot  refresh 
tiie  fields.  When  we  parted  from  General  Ventura, 
he  sent  me  the  following  letter  in  Persian : — 

^  Reepeeted,  &c.  &o.  Mohan  Lai,  send  me  a  student  from 
the  Delhi  College,  who  may  know  both  the  Persian  and  English 
languages,  and  has  also  a  desire  to  travel.  Whatever  salaiy  yon 
think  proper,  I  will  give  him.   Ch.  Ventura." 

Jan.  22. — We  reached  the  village  of  Jelum,  on 
the  bank  of  the  Hjdaspes,  ten  miles  distant  The 
road  was  covered  with  fields  of  green  wheat.  The 
people  of  the  village  had  regular  features,  and  spoke 


the  sweet  language  of  the  Panjab.  Tradition  says, 
that  near  the  village  exists  a  rained  place,  built 
bj  Alexander.  Here  are  about  one  thousand  in- 
habitants, artisans  and  cultivators.  The  houses  are 
of  mud  and  bricks;  the  vicinitj  of  the  river  is 
favourable  for  irrigating  the  fields,  which  extend 
in  a  large  tract  of  green  plain. 

Jan,  23. — Having  crossed  the  beautiful  river 
Hydaspes  (or  Jelum),  we  encountered  dreadful 
gorges,  which  brought  us  into  a  jangal  of  wild  trees. 
The  road  was  all  barren.  We  came  to  an  old  and 
ruined  caravansarae,  called  Khavas  Khan,  a  dis- 
tance of  eighteen  miles.  The  river  Jelum  is  never 
fordable ;  the  northern  hills,  which  are  nearly  thirty 
miles  from  the  ferry,  are  covered  with  deodar-trees. 
Multan  is  140  koss  from  the  Jelum,  between  whidi 
are  situated  forty-five  ferries. 

Jan.  24. — We  reached  the  large  town  of  Gujrat, 
a  distance  of  eleven  miles.  The  bazar,  through 
which  we  passed  on  the  elephant,  is  very  long,  but 
narrow.  The  shops  are  generally  clean,  and  inhar* 
bited  by  Hindus,  whose  dress  was  dirty,  which  is  the 
character  of  the  nation  in  this  country.  We  were 
visited  by  the  rulers  of  the  place,  and  respectfully 

Jan.  25. — Having  crossed  the  river  Chenab,  or 
Acesines,  we  arrived  at  the  beautiful  town  of  Varir- 
abad,  a  distance  often  miles.  Our  road  was  amongst 
green  fields  and  fertile  villages. 

Here  I  went  to  see  a  temple  situated  on  the  right 


bftnk  of  the  Chenab,  a  distance  of  three  miles. 
When  I  entered  the  temple,  I  saw  some  wood  bum* 
ing  in  the  centre  of  the  mausoleum.  On  my  inquiry 
what  it  was,  I  was  answered,  ^^This  is  the  holy  place 
of  Duh  Ni,  the  holy  man  named  Mansaram  Razdan, 
or  the  secret  knower."  The  head  man  of  the  place 
wished  to  rub  a  little  ashes  on  my  forehead,  crying^ 
**  Grod  pardon  thee,  by  the  grace  of  Duhah  Sahab,"^ 
which  I  declined. 

On  our  route  we  had  an  interview  with  Sardar 
Hari  Singh,  who  received  us  in  a  respectable  way, 
and  was  quite  surprised  to  see  us  in  the  Afghan 

Jan.  26. — We  set  out  for  the  camp  of  Mons.  C. 
G.  Avitabili,  who  desired  to  see  us,  and  he  could  not 
leave  the  camp  alone.  We  travelled  twenty  miles 
through  green  fields  of  wheat.  This  gentleman 
lives  a  good  deal  in  the  fashion  of  the  Sikhs,  and 
therefore  I  think  stands  high  in  Ranjit  Singh's 
favour.  We  passed  all  night  agreeably  in  his  com- 

Jan.  27. — We  came  to  Gujronvalah,  eighteen 
miles  distant,  and  took  leave  of  our  host  half-way. 
This  place  is  famous  for  thieves ;  it  has  a  very  long 
bazar,  with  poor  shops.  Sardar  Hari  Singh  has 
built  a  magnificent  house  in  a  beautiful  orchard. 
There  were  two  large  guns  lying  at  the  gate  of  the 

Jan.  28.— A  march  of  eight  miles  brought  us  into 
a  large  village,  called  Amnabad,  the  houses  df  which 


were  built  of  burnt  bricks,  cemented  with  lime. 
It  belongs  to  Raja  Dehyan  Singh.  The  streets  were 
exceedingly  dirty.  Near  the  village  is  a  beautifiil 
tank,  shaded  with  high  trees,  and  surrounded  by 
handsome  apartments,  in  which  Baba  Nanak 

Jan.  29. — Having  journeyed  through  numerous 
villages  encircled  with  green  fields,  we  arrived  at  a 
small  place  called  Mangal,  fourteen  miles  distant. 
Here  we  met  the  servant  of  the  Maharaja,  sent  by 
his  highness  to  receive  us.  The  people  here  are  all 
Mohammedans,  who  suffer  with  patience  the  out^ 
rages  of  the  Sikhs.  We  received  every  attention 
in  the  Maharaja's  country,  but  our  pleasures  were 
spoiled  by  the  cravings  of  the  poor,  embarrassed, 
hungry,  exiled  Kashmirians. 

Jan.  30. — Having  crossed  the  Ravi,  or  Hydraotes, 
we  arrived  at  Labor,  and  put  up  in  the  house  of  our 
old  host,  M.  AUard,  whose  liberal  attentions  were 
extremely  gratifying.  He  spoke  with  me  a  great 
deal  about  his  own  tour  through  Persia. 

Jan.  31-  Labor. — After  sunrise,  Faqir  Nuruddin 
came  to  see  us,  with  a  friendly  salam  from  the  Ma- 
haraja, and  presented  us  with  a  large  bag  of  money 
and  sweetmeats.  His  conversation,  seasoned  with 
eloquent  flattery,  may  deceive  a  foreigner  very  easily. 
He  and  his  brothers  possess  a  good  deal  of  power  in 
the  government  of  the  Panjab,  and  are  covetous  of 

Feb,  1  to  28. — We  continued  in  Labor,  and  visited 


the  Maharaja  at  different  times.  He  spoke  very  little 
with  us,  as  he  was  labouring  under  dysentery.  He 
often  asked  Mr.  Gerard's  advice,  but  did  not  take  it. 
He  was  afraid  of  being  poisoned,  and  never  trusted 
any  doctor.  The  Maharaja  was  very  kind  to  me, 
and  presented  me  with  five  hundred  rupees,  and 
seven  pieces  of  cloth,  including  three  Kashmir 
shawls.  He  told  me  to  write  to  him  of  my  safe 
arrival  at  Calcutta,  and  also  made  me  the  bearer 
of  a  friendly  salam  to  the  honourable  the  vice- 
president.  Sir  T.  Metcalfe. 

On  the  7th  of  March,  having  passed  through  the 
jamous  city  of  Amritsar,  we  arrived  at  Lodiana, 
and  were  kindly  received  by  Captain  Wade,  the 
political  agent  in  that  place,  to  whose  friendly  treat- 
ment I  am  highly  indebted.  He  recommended  the 
Government  to  place  me  under  his  orders.  His 
polite  and  benevolent  deportment  has  rendered 
him  most  popular  in  that  part  of  the  country,  and 
especially  in  Ranjit  Singh's  court. 

I  was  very  coolly  received  by  my  countrymen  at 
Delhi,  who  became  jealous  and  unkind,  in  conse- 
quence of  my  fame  and  the  treatment  I  received  from 
Government.  They  mentioned  my  name  unfavour- 
ably in  my  absence,  but  to  my  face  conversed  with 
me  in  a  friendly  mannen  I  did  not  take  notice 
of  them,  and  always  thought  of  obtaining  the  patron- 
age of  Government  by  rendering  good  and  faithful 
service.  Although  I  had  the  happiness  to  meet  with 
a  very  kind  reception  and  treatment  from  the  gen- 



tlemen  in  authority  at  this  place,  yet  my  enjoyment 
was  embittered  by  the  calumny  and  ill-feeling  towards 
me  of  my  old  friends.  However,  the  kind  interfer- 
ence of  Mr.  Neave  preserved  me  from  all  their  base 
designs,  and  to  him  I  feel  myself  under  deep  obliga- 
tions. I  was  greatly  indebted  to  Mr.  Blake,  the 
assistant  resident  at  Delhi  (since  assassinated),  for 
the  very  friendly  advice  he  gave  me  in  regard  to 
my  future  walk  in  life,  and  for  the  course  he  pointed 
out  for  my  adoption  in  my  studies ;  and  for  him  I 
entertain  a  very  high  esteem  and  great  regard. 

Having  heard  from  Mr.  Trevelyan,  I  left  Delhi, 
and  took  my  route  to  Calcutta.  After  three  marches, 
I  reached  the  ferry  of  Grarh  Mukteshar.  Here  I 
was  provided  with  a  boat,  in  which  we  sailed  down 
to  Farukhabad,  a  town  noted  for  its  manufacture  of 
chintz,  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ganges. 
The  bathing-places,  or  ghats,  which  slope  into  the 
river,  are  very  conspicuous.  What  struck  me  as 
most  remarkable  was,  the  Hindus  of  both  sexes, 
after  bathing  themselves,  worshipping  the  pictures 
of  their  deities,  which  were  painted  on  walls,  some 
of  them  being  represented  with  four  heads,  and 
others  with  monkeys'  heads,  which  they  presented 
with  offerings  of  flowers  and  fruits,  and  afterwards 
worshipped  on  their  knees,  with  their  heads  bowed 
down  to  the  ground,  mumbling  something  in  lan- 
guage that  I  could  not  understand.  Here  is  a  dis- 
play of  utter  ignorance  and  prostitution  of  all  sense 
— ^rational  creatures  turned  fools,  and  deceived  into 


a  belief  in  stones,  water,  and  fire,  all  of  which  I  am 
sure  can  do  them  no  good. 

On  our  passage  to  Alahabad,  our  boat  often  got 
upon  shore.  The  weather  was  dreadfully  hot.  Mr. 
J.  Carter,  the  magistrate  of  Alahabad,  treated  me 
very  kindly,  for  which  I  feel  very  grateful  to  him. 
On  being  informed  that  Mr.  Trevelyan  (who  has 
always  been  favourably  disposed  towards  me)  was 
about  to  leave  Calcutta  for  Agra,  I  determined  upon 
travelling  by  land,  hoping  I  should  meet  him  on  his 
way  to  Agra.  Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Carter, 
I  was  provided  with  a  common  carriage,  in  which, 
after  placing  my  baggage,  I  commenced  my  journey. 
Finding  that  the  rain  had  made  the  road,  after  we 
left  Benaras,  so  exceedingly  muddy,  that  our  car- 
riage could  not  move  along,  we  mounted  the  car- 
riage-ponies, with  our  baggage,  and  pursued  our 
journey.  Before  we  reached  Sherghati,  we  were 
overtaken  by  a  heavy  shower  of  rain,  which  made 
the  road  so  exceedingly  muddy,  that  I  was  obliged 
to  dismount,  and  travel  on  foot  for  about  twenty-six 

With  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  I  reached  Calcutta, 
where  I  had  the  happiness  to  find  Mr.  Trevelyan,  who 
received  me  very  kindly,  and  asked  me  to  live  with 
him  in  the  Grovemment  House,  where  the  secretary's 
oflSce  was  kept;  and  introduced  me  to  several  of 
his  friends,  and  also  to  Lady  William  Bentinck, 
and  to  Sir  T.  (now  Lord)  Metcalfe,  the  vice-presi- 
dent, who  received  me  with  much  kindness  and 



attention.  To  the  former  I  had  a  letter  from  Gene- 
ral Allard,  and  to  the  latter,  one  from  his  brother, 
Mr.  T.  T.  Metcalfe,  of  Delhi. 

Among  the  gentlemen  at  Calcutta  with  whom  I 
had  frequent  intercourse,  Mr.  Jackson  and  Captain 
Pemberton  rendered  me  much  assistance,  in  pre- 
paring my  papers,  to  whom  I  feel  greatly  obliged. 
With  the  society  of  the  gentlemen  Mr.  Trevelyan 
introduced  me  to  I  felt  much  gratified.  The  build- 
ings in  Calcutta  appeared  strange  to  my  eyes. 
Commerce  and  manufactures  have  made  this  the 
richest  place  on  the  continent  of  India.  English 
education  has  civilized  the  natives  of  Bengal  so 
much,  that  many  of  them  have  adopted  European 
customs  and  manners,  and  the  Christian  religion, 
but  many  yet  continue  in  ignorance;  these  rub 
mustard-oil  over  their  bodies,  which  makes  them 
disagreeable  to  those  whom  they  approach  to  con- 
verse with. 

I  was  deeply  indebted  to  the  late  Sir  W.  Mac- 
naghten,  then  secretary  to  Government,  for  his 
favour  and  patronage,  in  obtaining  for  me  the  sanc- 
tion of  the  Government  for  the  payment  of  all  my 
expenses  on  the  road  from  Lodiana  to  this  place, 
and  for  supplying  me  with  surveying  instruments  of 
much  value,  in  addition  to  the  gift  of  an  estate,  in 
land,  at  Delhi.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  very  high 
talent  and  benevolent  disposition. 



The  journal  which  I  had  kept  regularly  in  Cal- 
cutta, and  on  my  departure  from  that  place  in 
January,  1835,  was  taken  from  me,  with  all  my 
oflScial  letters,  in  the  insurrection  at  Kabul.  Fortu- 
nately, I  got  copies  of  some  from  Sir  Claude  Wade, 
under  whose  orders  I  was  placed  by  the  Supreme 
Government  in  that  year.  The  geographical  and  com- 
mercial information,  and  the  account  of  my  travels 
in  disguise  in  the  Mazari  Beloch  country,  on  the 
western  bank  of  the  Indus,  with  the  description  of 
the  old  celebrated  saints  of  Pak  Patau  and  Uch 
Sharif,  are  the  same  which  I  forwarded  to  Govern- 
ment at  the  time  through  that  ofScer.  The  rest, 
excepting  some  letters,  is  from  my  own  recollection 
up  to  the  1st  of  November,  1841,  and  from  the 
memorable  morning  of  the  2nd  of  that  month  on 
which  the  outbreak  took  place  at  Kabul,  though 
myself  a  prisoner,  I  tried  still  to  keep  my  diary  in 
Kabul,  and  thence  up  to  the  year  1846. 

In  January,  1835,  I  received  my  final  instructions 
from  the  Supreme  Government,  and  had  an  audience 
of  leave  from  the  Governor-General,  the  late  Lord 
William   Bentinck,   and  quitted   Calcutta  by  dak 


for  Candahar,  where  I  was  appointed  agent,  a  simi- 
lar situation,  with  the  same  salary,  as  Mr.  Masson's 
in  Kabul.  We  were  both  placed  under  Sir  Claude 
Wade,  the  political  agent  on  the  north-western 
frontier  at  Lodiana.  He  wrote  to  Mr.  Masson 
thus : — 

^'  Sir, — I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  joa  that  his  Exodlencj 
the  Right  Honourable  the  Goremor-Oeneral  in  Council  has 
been  pleased  to  appoint  you  our  agent  at  Kabul,  on  a  salajry  of 
250  rupees  per  mensem, 

^*'  Mohan  Lai  has  been  also  appointed  to  Candahar  on  a  similar 
salary  to  jour  own,  and  I  expect  him  here  in  progress  to  his 

^  I  hare,  &c.  &e. 

"  C.  M.  Wade, 
"  Lodiana,  "  Political  Agent 

"  5th  March,  1835." 

On  my  way  from  Calcutta  to  Lodiana,  I  passed 
through  the  large  cities  and  cantonments  of  Benanus, 
Alahabad,  Cawnpur,  Farukhabad,  and  Delhi.  In 
the  latter  place  I  was  unavoidably  detained  by 
various  circumstances,  and  had  the  honour  to  be 
introduced  by  the  agent  of  the  Governor-General, 
Mr.  T.  T.  Metcalfe,  to  his  late  Majesty  Akbar  Shah, 
a  descendant  of  the  august  family  of  the  great 
Taimur.  His  majesty  mentioned  the  name  of  my 
grandfather,  and  other  late  members  of  the  feonily, 
who  had  held  conspicuous  appointments  in  that 
court  when  in  power.  He  gave  me  a  dress  of 
honour,  with  some  jewels  on  a  turban,  which  his 
majesty  tied  with  his  own  hands  on  my  head. 


When  I  reached  Lodiana,  Sir  Claude  Wade 
addressed  me  as  follows : — 

"  Sir, — With  reference  to  the  date  of  your  departure,  as 
great  delay  has  unayoidablj  occurred  in  joining  jour  situation, 
I  suppose  that  two  or  three  days  will  be  quite  sufficient  to  com- 
plete the  arrangements  described  in  the  first  paort  of  mj  letter, 
and  that  you  may  start  on  your  journey  on  Monday  the  26th 

"  You  will  proceed  by  the  route  of  Firozpur  to  Bahawalpur. 
On  your  arrival  there,  yon  will  wait  upon  Major  Mackeson, 
who  will  furnish  you  with  particular  instructions  for  your 
guidance  hereafter,  and  I  hare  to  enjoin  the  strictest  atten- 
tion on  your  part  to  them  in  the  regulation  of  your  conduct  in 
the  office  to  which  you  are  appointed. 

^  I  hare  the  honour,  &c. 

"  C.  M.  Wadb, 
"  LoDiANA,  **  Political  Agent 

«  2l6t  October,  1835.'* 

We  proceeded  on  our  way  from  Lodiana,  along 
the  left  bank  of  the  Satlej,  and  passing  through 
Jirah  on  the  Ghara,  and  Firozpur,  we  reached 
Mamdout,  where  the  chief  received  us  with  con- 
sideration. His  minister,  Pir  Ibrahim  Khan,  was 
directed  to  make  my  stay  agreeable.  Next  day  we 
went  out  for  an  airing  on  elephants  with  the  chief, 
and  witnessed  their  curious  method  of  fishing. 

Mamdout  is  a  small  fortified  town,  and  commands 
a  view  of  the  Ghara  river.  The  inhabitants  are 
Mohammedans  and  Khatris. 

We  did  not  see  much  fertile  land  after  leaving 
Mamdout ;   cultivation  was  only  visible  just  on  the 


banks  of  the  river,  extending  from  one  to  two  miles 
towards  the  east,  or  the  Sandy  Desert.  Before  we 
reached  Khairpur,  of  the  Daud  Piitra,  we  passed 
through  Ramu,  a  village  on  the  left  bank  of  the  united 
streams  of  the  Hyphasis,  or  Bias,  and  the  Hesudms^ 
or  Satlej,  about  160  miles  south-west  of  Lodiana  ; 
and  we  heard,  that  between  the  two  waters  of  the 
Hyphasis  and  Acesines,  is  a  town  called  Pak  Patau. 
It  was  built  in  ancient  days,  and  is  looked  upon  as 
a  place  of  devotion,  since  the  body  of  Sbekh  Farid 
reposes  there.  We  crossed  the  river  in  a  small 
boat,  and  bent  our  route  in  that  direction.  The 
road  commenced  in  a  fearful  forest,  and  ended  in 
an  extensive  hard  clayey  plain,  which  environs  the 
above  town.  It  is  constructed  on  a  precipice,  which 
is  seventy  feet  from  the  surface  of  the  land.  The 
houses  are  small,  built  of  burnt  and  unbumt  bricks, 
and  the  bazars  are  narrow,  containing  some  poor 

In  the  year  600  of  the  Hegira,  the  town  was 
celebrated  under  the  name  of  Ajwaddhan,  and  was 
governed  by  a  Jogi  of  that  name,  tributary  to  the 
neighbouring  Mohammedan  chiefs.  When  Shekh 
Farid  (whose  original  name  was  Masud),  after 
travelling  in  Asia  and  Arabia,  fixed  his  residence 
in  this  town,  by  the  influence  of  his  piety  he  per- 
suaded the  Jogi  to  believe  in  the  true  faith  of 
Mohammed,  and  changed  the  name  of  the  town 
from  Ajwaddhan  to  Pak  Patau.  Pak^  in  Persian, 
means   '  holy,'  and    Patariy    in   Panjabi,    signifies 


•  ferry. '  It  is  added,  that,  after  some  time, 
the  Shekh  wished  to  undertake  the  Mujahedah, 
which,  I  think,  imports  ^  to  labour  in  defence  of 
the  faith,'  and  asked  permission  of  his  Murshid,  or 
guide  to  salvation,  who  is  buried,  in  a  charming 
place^  called  Qutab,  about  nine  miles  south-west  of 
Delhi.  The  Shekh  Qutbuddin  Bakhtyar,  as  he  is 
called,  in  reply,  desired  his  pupil  to  make  a  "  tet," 
or  fast,  for  three  days.  Farid  accordingly  ate  no- 
thing for  that  time.  On  the  eve  of  the  third  day 
some  person  presented  him  with  a  few  loaves,  of 
which  Farid  ate,  thinking  that  they  were  sent  to 
him  from  the  invisible  world,  or  "  Ghaib."  Mean- 
while, a  crow,  holding  the  intestines  of  some  dead 
animal  in  his  beak,  came  and  sat  on  the  bough  of  a 
tree.  Farid,  at  seeing  this,  felt  an  abhorrence,  and, 
ejecting  the  bread  he  had  eaten  a  few  minutes 
before,  his  stomach  became  quite  empty.  He  told 
the  circumstance  to  Qutbuddin  Bakhtyar,  his  spiri- 
tual guide,  who  replied,  that  God  had  bestowed  a 
great  favour  on  him,  otherwise  this  meal  would 
have  hurt  him.  "  Go  now,  Masud,''  added  he,  "  and 
fast  three  days  more."  When  he  had  not  eaten  any 
thing  for  six  days,  he  became  very  weak,  and  the 
heat  of  hunger  began  to  burn  his  heart.  He 
stretched  his  hand  on  the  ground,  and  taking  a  bit 
of  clay,  put  it  into  his  mouth,  and  found  that  it 
tasted  like  sugar.  This  was  the  effect  of  his  pure 
mouth.     A  verse  says — 


^*  Stone  in  his  hand  becomes  pearl,  and  poiaun  tarns  sngar  ib 
his  mouth." 

Farid  attributed  this  fisiYOiir  of  God  to  a  trick  of 
man,  so  be  tbrew  it  out  of  bis  moutb,  and  fell  again 
deeply  into  the  contemplation  of  the  Omnipresent. 
At  midnight  hunger  rendered  him  still  weaker,  and 
he  again  got  soine  pieces  of  earth,  and  after  putting 
them  in  his  mouth,  discovered  that  they  were  as 
sweet  as  sugar.  The  same  thought  of  deceit  came 
again  in  his  mind,  and  be  ejected  them  once  more 
out  of  his  mouth,  and  engaged  again  in  prayer  as 
before.  By  the  end  of  the  night  Farid  reflected 
in  himself,  that  the  feebleness  caused  by  hanger 
might  render  him  unable  to  stir,  so  he  plucked  up 
again  some  bits  of  clay,  and  they  became  sugar  in 
his  mouth.  He  thought  they  might  have  been  sent 
to  him  by  God,  ate  them,  and  broke  his  fast  in  the 
manner  he  was  directed  by  his  guide  Qutbuddin. 
When  the  sun  rose  he  went  to  Qutbuddin,  who 
said  to  him,  "  Farid,  you  did  well  to  break  your 
fast  with  the  sustenance  sent  to  you  from  the  invi- 
sible world.  Go,  you  will  be  sweeter  than  sugar." 
Hence  he  was  called  Farid  Shakarganj  Shakarbar, 
or  *  Treasure  of  Sugar.' 

Books  have  been  written  of  the  miracles  wrought 
by  Farid.  Tughlaq,  a  man  of  obscure  origin,  and 
an  inhabitant  of  Abur,  seven  miles  from  Pak  Patau, 
presented  him  with  a  load  of  fuel,  and  asked  nothing 
for  its  price.     The  only  petition  he  made  to  Farid 


was,  to  plant  him  on  the  throne  of  Delhi ;  and  it 
happened  so,  by  the  intervention  of  Shakarbar. 
The  reign  of  this  person  may  be  remarkable  for 
other  things,  for  aught  I  know,  but  the  large  and 
strong  fort  he  constructed  now  presents  nothing, 
except  a  heap  of  ruins*  It  was  called  Tughlaqabad, 
and  is  situated  six  miles  south  of  Delhi. 

Farid  Shakarganj  had  many  followers;  one  of 
them  was  Nizamuddin.  His  body  rests  in  a  hand- 
some building  out  of  Delhi.  He  was  the  patron  of 
the  famous  poet  Amir  Khusrau,  who,  by  the  Per- 
sians, was  denominated  ^^Totie  Hind,"  or  the 
'  Parrot  of  India,'  and  he  also  sleeps  in  the  same 
charming  spot. 

The  mausoleum  of  Farid  Shakarganj  is  visited 
by  pilgrims  of  different  faith.  The  Hindus  of  this 
country  believe  him  to  be  an  inspired  man,  and  pay 
respect  to  his  monument,  like  the  Musalmans. 
After  descending  a  few  steps  we  came  into  a  square 
paved  with  bricks,  and  entered  the  cupola  in  which 
Farid  is  interred.  It  is  floored  with  marble  slabs, 
and  opens  by  a  door  towards  the  east.  On  his  left 
hand  is  the  tomb  of  his  son,  Shekh  Badruddin,  dif- 
fering from  his  neither  in  size  nor  in  materials.  Over 
them  is  a  gorgeous  canopy  of  green  brocade,  tied 
with  strings  against  the  roof  of  the  monument.  A 
small  window,  covered  with  oil  and  dust,  is  made  in 
the  direction  of  the  south.  It  is  called  Darwazah 
Bihisht,  or  '  the  Door  of  Paradise,'  and  is  opened 
every  year  on  the  fifth  of  the  month  of  Moharram, 


which  is  the  death-day  of  that  holy  man.  The  people 
flock  thither  on  that  day,  and  pushing  each  other 
forward,  rush  in  at  the  Darwazah  Bihisht,  and  come 
out  by  the  next  door.  By  doing  this,  they  have  been 
persuaded  to  belieye  they  shall  have  the  first  place 
in  heaven  when  they  depart  for  the  next  world. 
The  monument  is  twenty  paces  in  circumference, 
and  thirty  feet  high.  It  was  erected  by  his  disciple, 
Shekh  Nizamuddin  Auliya,  or  the  saint.  It  is 
whitened  with  lime,  and  has  a  beautifiil  appearance 
when  closely  viewed.  Farid  was  bom  in  569  of 
the  Hegira  (A.D.  1174),  and  died  of  colic  in  the 
year  664  (A.D.  1266),  at  the  age  of  ninety-two. 
The  following  verse  gives  the  above  dates : 

Rabm  farma  shud  tawalleud  abide  azadah  nmr. 
Shud  FariduUah  saleh  rablate  Masud  asr. 

The  words  ^^ Rdhm  farma^'  are  taken  for  the  date 
of  his  birth.  The  words  "  Abide  azadah  ^  stand  for 
the  year  of  his  age ;  and  '*  Shud  Faridtdlahj^  the 
date  of  his  death. 

Next  to  this  monument,  in  the  same  square,  is 
another  dome,  built  by  Tughlaq  Shah.  It  contains 
the  tomb  of  the  ,  Shekh  Alah-uddin,  Moizzud- 
din,  Shekh  Fazl,  &c.  &c.  descendants  of  Farid. 
The  height  of  this  dome  is  nearly  fijfty  feet,  and 
the  circumference  thirty-six  paces.  It  is  larger 
than  the  former,  and  has  a  door  opening  to  the 
south.  It  looks  older,  because  it  has  never  been 
repaired.     All  the  graves  were  covered  with  dust. 


but  a  few  flowers  lying  over  them  shewed  that  they 
are  occasionally  visited  by  the  people. 

On  my  arrival  at  Bahawalpur,  the  Nawab  sent 
his  agents  with  sweetmeats  and  necessaries  to  me, 
and  offered  his  kind  assistance  in  facilitating  my 
future  journey.  This  city  is  celebrated  for  its  silk 
manufactures  and  indigo-plantations.  The  gardens 
are  numerous,  and  filled  with  mangoe-trees.  I 
stayed  here  a  few  days  in  the  palace  of  the  Nawab. 
On  the  9th  of  December,  I  received  the  following 
instructions  from  the  Govemor-Generars  agent  for 
my  guidance,  on  which  I  prepared  to  start. 


^  In  my  letter  of  the  21st  instant,  to  your  address,  I  informed 
you  that,  on  your  arriyal  at  Bahawalpur,  you  would  be  furnished 
with  instructions  for  your  future  guidance  by  Major  Mackeson. 

^  2nd.  After  the  receipt  of  this  letter,  and  of  any  instructions 
in  addition  to  those  contained  in  it  which  may  be  delivered  to  you 
by  that  officer,  you  will  proceed,  with  his  leave,  to  Multan,  and 
remain  there  fifteen  days,  for  the  purpose  of  preparing  and  trans- 
mitting a  journal  of  your  route,  and  making  yourself  acquainted 
with  the  commercial  resources  of  that  place. 

**  3rd.  There  is  no  occasion  for  me  to  point  out  to  yon  in  what 
manner  your  journal  ought  to  be  kept,  as  the  instructions  which 
yon  received  from  Mr.  Rowe  in  Calcutta,  and  lately,  while  here, 
from  Mr.  Hodges,  as  well  as  the  experience  which  you  have 
acquired  during  your  journey  with  Sir  Alexander  Bumes  to 
Bokhara,  of  the  kind  of  information,  both  statistical  and  geo- 
graphical, expected  from  you,  ought  to  have  given  you  every 
insight  into  that  subject.  I  shall  merely  observe,  that  you  are 
reqnired  to  protract  your  route  in  a  field-book,  to  be  regularly 


kept  for  that  purpose,  and  to  insert  in  jour  jonnial  whaterer 
information  jou  maj  be  able  to  collect  regarding  the  statistics  of 
the  country  you  traverse. 

^^  4th.  In  respect  to  your  inquiries  of  a  commercial  nature,  you 
will  attend  to  the  following  points,  yiz. :  the  productions  of  the 
country,  its  principal  marts,  the  different  routes  of  trade,  exports 
and  imports  to  and  from  places  with  which  it  has  a  commercial 
intercourse,  their  probable  annual  amount,  prices  of  both,  usoal 
means  of  transport,  the  system  and  rate  of  duties,  the  merchants 
by  whom  the  trade  is  principally  conducted,  the  names  of  the 
places  where  their  agents  are  established,  and  general  rates  of 

^*  5th.  When  yon  hare  completed  the  term  of  your  visit  to 
Multan,  you  will  proceed  to  Dera  Ghaii  Khan,  and  remain 
there  ten  days ;  after  which  you  will  proceed  by  the  route  of 
Dajal,  Harrand,  Asni,  and  Bojanpur,  to  Mitankot 

^^  6th.  In  the  course  of  this  part  of  your  journey,  besides  the 
inquiries  to  which  I  have  drawn  your  attention  above,  von  will 
make  a  special  report  on  the  routes  which  lead  from  the  banks  of 
the  Indus  between  Dera  Ohazi  Khan  and  Shikarpur  to  Can- 
dahar,  including  every  information  rekiting  to  them. 

^^7th.  After  remaining  at  Mitankot  five  days,  to  despatch 
your  second  report,  you  will  proceed  by  any  route  that  may 
appear  to  you  most  safe  and  convenient  to  Shikarpur,  where  yon 
will  remain  fifteen  days,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  same 
information  which  you  have  been  ordered  to  collect  at  Mul- 
tan, &c. 

^^  8th.  In  making  these  inquiries,  and  generally  in  every  other 
respect,  you  will  be  particularly  careful  so  to  regulate  your  con- 
duct as  to  avoid  exciting  the  least  jealousy  or  suspicion  on  the 
part  of  the  authorities  of  the  places  and  you  will  endeavour  at 
the  same  time  to  give  the  merchants,  and  any  one  else  who  may 
evince  curiosity  on  the  subject,  the  knowledge  which  you  possess 
of  the  measures  taken  by  the  British  €K>vemment  to  open  the 


naTigation  of  the  Indus,  the  tenns  on  which  it  is  to  be  condacted, 
and  the  oommercial  adyantages  which  are  held  ont  to  those  who 
may  be  disposed  to  engage  in  trade  by  that  channel. 

*^  9th.  From  Shikarpnr  yon  will  retnm  to  Bahawalpnr,  where 
farther  instructions  will  await  yon. 

'^  10th.  As  it  is  not  intended  that  yon  should  proceed  at  pre- 
sent to  yonr  ultimate  destination,  you  will  retain  the  letters  and 
presents  which  you  haye  received  from  Goyemment  for  the 
chiefs  and  others  in  Afghanistan,  by  yonr  leaving  the  presents  in 
charge  of  Major  Maokeson,  or  any  one  whom  he  may  be  pleased 
to  i^point,  at  Bahawalpnr,  which  will  tend  both  to  lessen 
your  baggage,  and  enable  you  to  perform  the  journey  lightly 

^'1 1th.  You  will  forward  your  reports  through  Major  Mackeson. 

"  I  have,  &c., 

(Signed)    "  C.  M.  Wade, 
**  LoDiANA,  "  Political  Agent. 

"1st  Nov.,  1835." 

Dec.  10. — At  sunrise  we  left  Bahawalpur^  The 
thermometer  was  at  32^.  Our  route  for  a  mile  was 
shaded  by  high  mangoe-trees.  A  garden  on  our 
right  hand  had  many  apple-trees,  covered  with  mats 
as  a  protection  against  the  cold.  We  travelled  over 
the  slime  deposited  by  the  river,  which  caused  some 
trouble  to  our  horses.  As  far  as  the  eye  reaches 
were  seen  tamarisk-trees  extending  along  the  banks. 
They  are  described  by  Mr.  Elphinstone. 

We  crossed  the  river  Ghara,  as  it  is  here  called, 
which  is  formed  by  the  united  streams  of  the  Hy- 
phasis,  or  Bias,  and  the  Hesudrus,  or  Satlej.  The 
water  is  muddy,  which  surprised  my  companion, 


Jugal  Kishor,  who  said  that  the  waters  of  these  two 
rivers  were  quite  clear  when  he  crossed  them  sepa- 
rately, on  his  way  to  the  court  of  Lahor.  He 
observed  that  the  Ghara  is  as  muddy  as  the  Jumna 
in  the  rainy  season.  The  temperature  of  the  vrater 
was  54**.  The  river  was  about  three  hundred  yards 
wide,  and  twelve  fathoms  deep.  The  people  of  this 
country  call  any  thing  muddy  Ghara^  and  hence  the 
name  given  to  this  stream. 

On  the  right  bank  of  the  river  I  was  joined  by 
Qazi  Gul  Mohammed,  at  the  head  of  a  small  escort. 
He  conducted  me  to  Adamawhan,  formerly  a  well- 
peopled  village,  where  are  about  forty  houses  and 
twelve  shops  of  grocers,  which  had  a  very  poor  supply. 
The  whole  distance  of  our  journey  was  five  miles 
and  a  quarter. 

Dec,  11. —  A  march  of  seventeen  miles  and  a 
quarter  brought  us  to  Mianpur,  which  is  the  head  of 
fifteen  hamlets.  Land  here  and  there  sprinkled  with 
the  wild  berry,  and  every  well  surrounded  by  two  or 
three  huts,  take  the  name  of  a  baste,  or  village,  in 
this  part  of  the  country.  The  turnip  is  abundantly 
cultivated  here,  as  well  as  the  indigo  plant,  and 
Mianpur  is  celebrated  for  its  cotton.  The  husband- 
men are  of  all  tribes,  and  praise  the  government  of 
their  ruler,  Diwan  Sawan  Mai.  Mianpur  has  fifty 
houses,  and  fifteen  shops.  The  thermometer  stood 
at  45""  in  the  morning. 

Dec.  12. — Our  route  was  intersected  by  number- 
less water-courses,  some  of  which  were  dry,  and  others 


had  deep  water.  These  are  all  cut  out  from  the 
Ghara,  to  irrigate  the  lands.  The  whole  country 
is  covered  with  tamarisk  and  jal  trees ;  the  latter 
produces  a  finit  called  pilin  in  this  country.  We 
observed  various  sorts  of  game,  especially  deer.  Mr. 
Elphinstone  remarks  that  this  country  abounds  with 
deer,  in  consequence  of  the  forests.  I  mounted  on 
the  camel  to  take  observations  of  the  villages  lying 
on  each  side  of  the  road.  The  husbandmen  gene- 
rally live  on  boiled,  turnips,  which  they  call  gonglo. 
The  thermometer  was  48°  after  sunrise.  We  halted 
at  Shijra,  twelve  miles  and  a  half  distant,  and  were 
scarcely  provided  even  with  fuel.  This  is  a  very 
poor  village,  having  only  one  shop. 

Dec.  13. — We  reached  Shujabad,  after  a  tedious 
journey  of  nearly  ten  miles  and  three-quarters,  and 
put  up  at  Shalbagh,  out  of  the  town.  Our  route  was 
through  fields  of  cotton  and  indigo,  which  grow 
here  abundantly.  Hindus  of  the  Khatri  caste  are 
cultivators  in  this  country ;  their  brethren  carry  on 
a  considerable  trade  in  Khorasan  and  Turkistan. 
On  our  right  hand  was  the  direct  road  to  Multan, 
which  is  frequented  by  merchants. 

Dec.  14. — All  the  people  of  our  party  were  seized 
with  a  violent  fever  and  dysentery,  which  obliged 
me  to  halt.  My  companion,  Jugal  Kishor,  was 
the  only  man  in  good  health,  and  he  was  of 
great  assistance  to  me  in  this  cheerless  day,  having 
half  a  dozen  sick.  He  attended  every  patient,  and 
provided  such  medicines  as  my  Persian  cook,  Mo- 



hammed  Taher,  prescribed.  He  is  a  sensible  man, 
and  I  had  employed  him  during  mj  late  journey 
to  Candahar. 

Shujabad  is  surrounded  with  a  high  wall  of  brick  ; 
the  ditch  is  dry,  and  in  some  places  filled  up  with 
dung,  &c,  &c.  Huts,  inhabited  by  people  of  low 
class,  skirt  the  walls  of  Shujabad.  It  was  built  by 
Shuja-uddin  Khan,  the  Mher  of  Muzaffiu:  Khan,  the 
late  ruler  of  Multan*  The  people  praise  him  much 
for  his  justice,  and  his  taste  for  building. 

In  company  with  one  of  my  servants,  I  wished 
to  go  inside  the  town,  but  was  prevented  by  the 
Sikh  soldiers,  stationed  at  the  gate.  The  Sikhs 
are  very  suspicious  of  Company's  servants,  and  treat 
us  as  spies.  My  curiosity  to  see  the  town  was 
stimulated  by  a  traveller,  who  said  there  were 
beautifiil  buildings  in  it.  So  in  the  evening  I 
put  on  poor  clothes,  and,  as  if  I  was  one  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  country,  I  entered  the  gate, 
though  trembling,  without  exciting  the  suspicion 
of  the  guards.  The  bazars  are  made  in  the  Asiatic 
fashion,  and  intersect  each  other  in  the  centre. 
They  look  like  the  Char  Suq  of  Herat,  excepting 
only  in  the  cover.  Thei-e  are  360  shops,  richly 
provided  with  articles  for  sale.  The  houses  are  of 
three  or  four  stories.  Amongst  the  edifices  of  the 
town  is  the  celebrated  Mahal,  or  palace  of  the  late 
Nawab,  which  is  known  by  a  lofty  cupola,  called 
Samman  Burj.  On  the  whole,  Shujabad  surpasses 
the  city  of  Bahawalpur,  not  only  in  beauty,  but  ia 


its  cleanliness.  There  are  three  guns  on  the  bul- 
wark, opening  their  mouths  towards  the  west.  I 
came  out  of  the  town  by  another  gate,  and  thanked 
God  for  not  being  discovered.  The  Hindus  at  the 
sarae  form  the  chief  part  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  place. 

When  I  was  going  out  upon  the  town  wall,  with 
a  determination  to  examine  the  bastions,  I  was 
called  to  by  a  soldier.  He  was  about  sixty  years  of 
age,  and  conmianded  the  artillery  of  the  Maharaja, 
at  Shujabad.  He  was  formerly  in  the  service  of 
Vazir  Alee,  at  Lucknow,  whose  accomplice  he 
was  in  the  murder  of  the  English  at  Benaras. 
When  Vazir  Alee  was  imprisoned,  he  ran  away 
from  India,  and  since  that  period  he  has  been  in 
the  Panjab.  His  name  is  Hindu  Singh,  and  he  was 
an  inhabitant  of  Daghabad,  near  Lucknow.  He  is 
a  Rajput  by  birth,  and  passes  a  very  pleasant 

Dec.  15. — Having  hired  two  camels,  each  of 
which  bore  a  couple  of  baskets,  we  made  our  sick 
men  sit  in  them,  and  thxLS  proceeded  to  Adhi  Bagh. 
This  is  a  village  consisting  of  a  few  huts,  situated 
halfway  to  Multan.  Our  route  thence  was  through 
forests,  and  therefore  I  could  not  take  any  observa- 
tions without  climbing  the  gate  of  Sikandarabad. 
I  should  have  been  prevented  by  the  Sikh  soldiers 
from  obtaining  my  object  had  I  not  personated  the 
Baba  Nanak,  and  drawn  their  favour  by  uttering 
the   following    speech:     '^ Khdsajee  wah  gurujiki 



Faidh^*  which  is  a  religious  compliment  amongst 
the  Sikhs.  The  whole  distance  was  about  eleven 
miles  and  a  quarter. 

Jannat,  the  mother-in-law  of  Baihram  Khan, 
Beloch,  the  head  of  the  Mazari  tribe,  was  brought 
a  prisoner  by  the  Maharaja's  army,  who  plundered 
many  Tillages  of  the  Mazaris,  and  massacred  a  great 
number  of  them.  This  combat  happened  about 
five  months  ago.  The  Mazaris  are  of  the  Beloch 
family.  They  inhabit  the  country  which  lies  be- 
tween Mitankot  and  Shikarpur,  and  are  such 
notorious  banditti,  that  neither  caravans  nor  travel- 
lers dare  pass  through  their  region.  They  have  pil- 
laged numerous  villages  under  the  Government  of 
Multan,  and  do  not  fear  the  Amirs  of  Sindh,  whose 
subjects  they  are  called.  The  embassy  of  Shah  Kam- 
Tan  of  Herat,  in  charge  of  Ibrahim  Khan  Hubshe, 
received  ill  treatment  from  these  Mazaris,  when  he 
was  returning  from  Lodiana  to  his  master  with 
presents  from  our  Government.  Jannat  was  a 
woman  whose  locks  proclaimed  that  she  was  not 
under  the  age  of  fifty.  With  the  permission  of 
her  guard,  I  conversed  with  her  for  a  long  time, 
and  obtained  some  information  of  the  danger  of 
the  country  of  her  son-in-law  Baihram  Khan.  As 
my  object  from  Mitankot  was  to  go  to  Shikarpur, 
through  the  country  which  borders  the  right  bank 
of  the  Indus,  and  which  is  ruled  by  her  son-in-law, 
I  allowed  her  to  partake  of  my  dinner,  and  learning 
her  distress  in  prison,  I  presented  her  with  four 


TupeeB,  and  a  silk  waistcoat,  as  she  felt  the  cold 
very  keenly.  She  revealed  to  me  all  her  misfor- 
tunes and  the  troubles  which  she  had  met  with 
since  she  was  captured  by  the  Sikh  army.  Baihram 
had  sent  twenty  camels  as  a  ransom  for  her,  and  the 
Sikh  guards  were  conducting  her  down  to  Mitan* 
kot,  where  she  was  ordered  to  stay  until  Baihram 
Khan  shoidd  send  five  camels  more  to  the  agent 
of  the  Maharaja  at  Multan. 

Dec.  16. — A  march  of  11^  miles  led  us  to  Mul- 
tan ;  but  my  conductor  provided  me  with  a  house 
situated  in  a  garden,  nearly  two  miles  from  the  city. 
He  informed  Diwan  Sawan  Mai  of  my  arrival,  and 
told  him,  that  the  authorities  of  the  place  would  not 
allow  us  to  have  a  house  inside  the  city  wall,  until 
the  orders  of  Sawan  Mai  should  reach  them  on 
that  subject.  Sawan  Mai  was  in  his  camp,  about 
ten  miles  o%  across  the  river  Chenab. 

We  found  no  village  on  the  road,  except  a  few  huts 
here  and  there,  each  occupied  by  a  couple  of  men, 
and  provided  with  a  well.  Everywhere  the  people 
inquired  concerning  Sliah  Shuja,  and  appeared  dis- 
contented under  the  Sikh  government. 

Dec.  n  to  19. — We  continued  in  the  garden, 
and  heard  nothing  from  Sawan  Mai.  I  was  quite 
vexed  to  remain  in  such  a  solitary  place,  which, 
being  far  from  the  city,  prevented  me  from  meeting 
with  the  merchants,  and  obtaining  information  of 
tbe  commerce,  which  was  my  principal  object  in 
coming  to  Multan.     I  urged  tbe  vakeel,  or  my  con- 


factor,  to  send  Major  Miackeson's  letter  to  his 
master  in  the  camp. 

Dec.  20. — On  the  arrival  of  orders  from  Divan 
Sawan  Mai,  his  agent,  Dja  Ram,  at  Multan,  sent  me 
twenty-one  rupees,  as  a  zeafaiy  and  provided  me 
with  a  house,  situated  bj  the  gate  of  the  city,  called 
Daulat  Darwazah.  Ram  Dass,  a  Sbikarpuri  mer^* 
chant,  paid  me  a  visit,  and  promised  to  come  to  me 
next  day,  accompanied  by  the  Lohanis,  for  the 
purpose  of  giving  me  some  information  respecting 
the  trade  of  Multan. 

Radha  Kishan,  the  son  of  my  late  uncle,  had 
accompanied  me  from  Delhi,  out  of  a  desire  to  see 
foreign  countries.  He  had  the  advantage  of  know- 
ing the  English  and  Persian  languages,  and  had 
affectionate  feelings  towards  me.  I  also  loved  him 
deeply.  He  was  of  great  assistance  to  me,  in  copy-< 
ing  letters,  and  keeping  my  papers.  He  had  begun 
to  write  his  journal  in  English,  which  he  had 
resolved  to  present  to  Major  Mackeson,  on  his 
return  to  Bahawalpur,  and  by  such  means  to  serve 
under  him.  Mankind  seldom  realize  those  objects 
with  the  anticipation  of  which  they  indulge  their 
mind.  He  was  attacked  with  sickness,  as  well  as 
others  of  my  party,  and,  on  reaching  Multan,  died, 
not  only  from  the  effects  of  that  disease,  but  also  of 
cholera.  He  was  quite  sensible  a  minute  before  he 
died,  and  was  speaking  with  me  very  affectionately. 
Suddenly  he  shut  his  eyes,  and,  with  the  name  of 
God  on  his  tongue,  his  soul  fled   to  the  eternal 


world.  I  had  never  before  seen  a  man  die,  and  I 
was  quite  overwhelmed  at  the  loss  of  one  whom  I 
loved  so  much,  and  I  laid  myself  beside  his  dead 
body  in  a  state  of  torpor,  until  the  sun  shone  strongly 
upon  my  weary  eyelids^  and  brought  me  to  a  sense  of 
my  situation. 

I  was  myself  attacked  by  the  fever,  under  which 
we  all  lingered  some  time  at  Multan. 

Before  my  arrival  at  Multan,  Diwan  Sawan  Mai, 
the  governor,  was  on  his  way  to  the  camp  of  Shah- 
sadah  Nau  Nehal  Singh,  and  therefore  the  letter  of 
introduction  from  the  British  Agent,  in  charge  of 
his  agent,  Qazi  Gul  Mohammed,  was  sent  to  him 
by  a  messenger. 

During  my  stay  at  Multan,  I  had  frequent  con- 
versations with  the  merchants  of  Shikarpur,  and 
especially  with  the  Lohanis.  The  latter,  who  carry 
on  a  prosperous  trade  in  Central  Asia,  were  highly  de- 
lighted at  the  prospect  of  the  time  when  there  would 
be  a  market  established  at  Mitankot,  which,  they 
said,  will  be  a  good  place  for  exchange  on  their 
frontier,  and  save  them  the  trouble  of  going  to 

On  learning  the  advantages  which  the  opening  of 
the  navigation  of  the  Indus  warrants  them  to  expect, 
and  the  interest  which  the  British  Government  takes 
in  this  affidr,  the  merchants  became  desirous  to  know 
how  they  were  to  be  protected  against  the  robbers 


when  they  sail  up  and  down  the  river.  I  read  to 
them  from  Mr.  Prinsep's  "  Life  of  Ranjit  Singh,**  the 
contents  of  the  treaty  concluded  between  our  Go- 
yernment  and  that  of  Sindh,  on  the  20th  and  the 
22nd  of  April,  1832 ;  and  assured  them  that  the 
object  of  the  British  Government  was  merely  to  pro- 
cure a  free  passage  for  vessels,  and  for  trade,  through 
the  mouths  and  delta  of  this  navigable  river.  I  told 
them  that  the  Governments  and  chiefe  who  occupy 
its  banks  are  bound  by  the  treaty  to  give  protection 
to  the  merchants,  and  to  diminish  the  irregular  and 
heavy  duties.  When  the  merchants  became  satisfied 
that  neither  delay  nor  obstructions  of  any  kind  will 
be  allowed  to  prevent  their  ready  passage,  and  con- 
sidered the  advantages  of  conveying  merchandise 
down  to  Haidarabad  and  Shikarpur,  &c.  by  the  Indus, 
two  of  them,  namely,  Ram  Dass  Shikarpuri  and 
Darya  Khan  Lohani,  asked  me  to  give  them  a 
statement  of  the  duties  which  the  Government  of 
Haidarabad  had  agreed  to.  The  merchants  intended, 
as  soon  as  they  were  furnished  with  the  statement  of 
the  duties  at  Haidarabad,  &c.  &c.,  to  send  two  boats 
with  articles  of  trade  down  the  Indus  to  Shikarpur 
and  Lama,  or  Sindh. 

The  country  of  Multan  produces  com,  oranges, 
palms,  sugar,  cotton,  and  indigo.  Turkistan,  and 
especially  the  city  of  Bokhara,  supplies  Multan  with 
silk  of  three  kinds,  namely,  Labeabi,  Charkhi,  and 
Hoshkari.  These  silks,  according  to  their  above 
names,  are  purchased  in  Bokhara  from  7,  9,  to  12 
rupees  per  seer,  and  sold  in  Multan  from  10,  12,  to 


15  rupees.  One  camel-load  of  the  first  kind  of  silk, 
which  is  equal  to  6^  maunds  in  weight,  costs  at 
Bokhara  440  tilas,  or  2837  rupees,  8  annas.  Each 
tila  makes  6  rupees  and  6  or  7  annas  Nanakshai. 

The  trade  of  Bokhara  to  Multan  is  generally  con- 
ducted by  Lohanis  and  Shikarpuris.  They  load 
their  goods  on  camels  at  Bokhara,  and  after  a  jour- 
ney of  fifteen  days,  reach  Kholum.  No  duties  are 
paid  on  the  road.  In  Kholum  they  generally  change 
the  camels  for  ponies,  and  for  each  load  they  pay  1^ 
tila,  or  9  rupees,  10  annas,  and  6  pice.  On  the  second 
day  the  caravan  arrives  at  Haibak,  where  the  duty  of 
1  rupee,  6  annas  per  load  is  taken.  From  Haibak 
they  leave  Khurram,  Saighan,  and  Bamian,  on  their 
right  hand,  and  take  their  route  to  the  left.  In 
the  village  of  Ghur  they  pay  duties  agreeably  to  the 
Shariat,  called  Chehal  Yak,  or  upon  40  rupees'  worth 
of  goods,  1  rupee.  From  hence  the  river  Surkhab 
flows  on  the  right,  and  the  kafila,  passing  through 
Dashi,  crosses  the  river  Andarab  for  Khinjan.  They 
then  pass  the  range  of  the  Hindu  Kush,  get  into 
Eanshan  and  Sokhtah  Chinar.  These  are  under  the 
government  of  Kabul.  In  the  former  place  the 
traders  pay  2  rupees  per  load,  and  in  the  latter,  4 
annas  for  a  guard.  After  passing  through  Chankur^ 
where  2  rupees  are  taken  on  a  load,  the  caravan 
enters  the  city  of  Kabul.  Here  they  sell  Russian 
sugar-loaves,  lace,  tea,  nankin,  fir,  &c.  &c. 

From  Kabul,  after  paying  the  town  duty,  and 
that  of  Ghazni,  which  amounts  to  260  rupees  on  a 


camel-load  of  silk,  and  11  rapees  on  one  of  fruitB,  the 
Lohanis  come  to  Daud,  where  tliey  halt  until  the 
whole  of  them  are  assembled.  Thence,  passing  by 
Kotawaz  or  Naddi,  where  a  duty  of  1  rupee,  4  annas 
on  a  load  of  commercial  articles  is  given  to  Sulaiman 
Khail,  the  caravan  arrives  at  Kharoti.  Now  the  road 
penetrates  into  the  Sulaiman  mountains,  and  the 
river  Tamak  runs  on  the  right.  The  kafila,  following 
the  bank  of  the  Gomal,  reaches  Kotki,  and  here  they 
are  supplied  with  provisions  by  the  mountaineers. 
After  crossing  the  range  of  mountains  called  Ghoe- 
lara,  they  enter  Majingrah.  This  place  is  ruled  by 
Surwar  Khan  Lohani,  to  whom  2  rupees,  8  annas 
are  paid  on  each  of  the  loads,  and  sometimes  he  ex- 
torts large  sums  of  money  from  the  merchants.  In 
Majingrah  they  buy  provisions,  and  passing  through 
Zaikhani  come  to  Darband,  where  their  families 
remain  under  the  protection  of  Donaz  Khan  until 
the  merchants  return.  From  Darband  the  Lohanis 
divide  into  three  companies:  those  who  wish  to  go  to 
Hindusthan  pursue  their  route  through  Dera  Ghazi 
Khan,  Khaugar,  Bahawalpur,  Bhatner,  Hisar,  &c. 
&c.  To  Multan  they  come  through  Kohari  and 
Laya ;  and  to  Amritsar,  by  the  way  of  Dera  Ismail 
Khan,  Darya  Khan,  and  Asipur. 

If  no  conflicts  occur  on  the  road  with  the  Vaziri 
tribes,  twenty  marches  from  Ghazni  bring  the 
caravan  to  Deraband,  and  ten  to  Multan.  Between 
Deraband  and  Multan  the  kafila  pay  9  rupees  on  a 
camel-load,  but  when  they  go  to  Bahawalpur,  leaving 



the  route  to  Multan  on  the  left,  the  whole  duty  paid 
on  the  road  amounts  to  2  rupees,  8  annas. 

If  the  city  of  Multan  were  not  supplied  with  silk 
by  Central  Asia,  it  would  not  become  the  rival  of 
the  markets  of  Hindusthan,  the  Panjab,  and  Khora- 
san.  The  whole  of  the  Panjab,  and  even  the 
country  of  Sindh,  wear  cloths  of  silk  and  thread, 
which  are  fabricated  only  there.  The  undermen- 
tioned are  the  names  of  the  kinds  of  cloth,  which, 
with  their  length,  breadth,  and  price,  I  obtained 
from  a  person  dealing  in  those  articles. 


Tardt.    Ghir. 

Klies     .. 


Darai,  five  different 

Do.  of  small  breadth 


Lnngi  of  various  colours 



Band  for  swords 
Taimur  Shahi   . . 






•  {: ::} 

Length.       Price. 
Tarda.    Ghir.       Ba. 




1     5  to  12 
1      6  to  15 

per  yard     1 

4     3  to    4 



0     6  to  12 




Name.  Breadth.  Length.         Price. 

Tnds.    Ghir.  Yarda.  GUr.       lU. 

f  0       101 
ShujaKhani     ..  'lo       121  ^         06tol2 

Palang  Posh     . ,  •      /  ^       ^^1  ^        0     3  to  10 

1 0     12J 

Chintzes  called  NasirKhani^f  0         8  7         OI 

of  many  colours      . .       L  0       12  8         Oj 

Ditto  Badal  Khani      ..      (^         ^  '^        ^1  ^  *^  ^^ 

L  0       12  8         Oj 

Ditto  Lai  gull  ..  0         8  5        0     6  to    7 

Jagam 1  to  20 

Shalrangi  1  to  60 

Lungi    ..  ..  ..3to8 

Sangha  or  Gori  ..  ,.      2tod 

Qalin  differs  much  in  price. 

The  principal  marts  of  the  country  of  Mnltan  are 
Amritsar,  Bahawalpur,  Khairpur,  Dera  Ghazi 
Khan,  Dera  Ismail  Khan,  Laiya,  Shujabad,  Mitan- 
kot,  &C.9  which  have  a  commercial  communication 
with  the  merchants  of  Shikarpur,  Candahar,  Herat, 
Bokhara,  Kabul,  Peshawer,  Sindh,  Hindusthan,  &c. 
The  commerce  of  Multan  is  really  carried  on  by 
Lohanis  or  Shikarpuris.  The  latter  have  their 
agents  in  the  above  places,  and  alsojn  the  towns 
which  are  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mouths  of  the  river 

The  trade  of  Multan  to  Amritsar,  which  consists 
chiefly  of  Sikh  articles,  goes  through  Talamba ;  to 
Shikarpur  and  Sindh,  through  Shujabad,  JaJalpur, 


and  Khanpur;  toBahawalpnr  and  Hindusthan,  tid 
Sialkot,  Tagar,  Buhar,  KalamuUa,  &c.;  and  to 
Bokhara  by  the  route  before  described.  Taimur 
shahi,  shuja  khani,  chintzes,  and  indigo,  are  an* 
nually  exported  from  Multan  to  Khorasan  and 
Turkistan  to  the  value  of  5,50,000  rupees.  To 
Lama  or  Sindh  it  sends  many  loads  yearly  of 
carpets,  silks,  &c.,  to  the  amount  of  20,000  rupees  ; 
to  Amritsar  silk  articles,  as  khes,  lungis,  &c.,  of 
30,000  rupees'  value ;  and  to  Hindusthan  chintzes 
are  transported  worth  50,000  rupees.  The  im- 
ports of  Multan,  from  and  through  Afghanistan, 
are  silk,  ishang,  majit,  buz,  ghunj,  qirmiz,  Gulghuri 
fruits,  assafoetida,  zera,  mastage,  khazaban,  and 
vinegar;  from  Amritsar,  English  cloth,  huldi, 
ginger,  khenid,  and  copper  ware ;  from  Hindusthan, 
English  and  Indian  cloths,  lakh,  jast  qalai,  copper, 
brass  pots,  and  kinari;  from  Shikarpur,  pearls; 
frt)m  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  opium,  chaes,  snuff,  hangu, 
butter;  and  from  Dajal,  oil.  The  value  of  the 
above  imports  is  not  more  than  15,000  rupees  in  a 

There  is  no  limit  to  the  charges  and  exorbitant 
duties  taken  in  the  custom-houses  of  the  Panjab : 
all  the  merchants  are  displeased,  and  no  encourage- 
ment for  commerce  is  given  to  them.  In  the 
custom-house  of  Multan,  whenever  the  merchants 
send  the  silk  abroad,  they  pay  8  annas  per  seer,  and 
12  annas  when  sold  in  the  city;  on  indigo,  6  rupees. 


8  annas  per  maund ;  on  English  cloth,  7  rupees  per 
cent. ;  on  broad  cloth,  10  annas  per  yard ;  on  spices, 
8  rupees  per  cent. ;  on  cotton,  1  rupee,  5  annas  per 
maund ;  on  raisins  and  other  fruits  of  Kabul,  &c., 
from  5  to  6  rupees  per  camel-load;  5  rupees  per 
horse,  and  2  rupees  per  camel. 

The  commerce  of  Multan  and  most  of  the  adjar 
cent  countries  is  carried  on  hy  means  of  camels ; 
thej  are  cheaper  than  mules,  &;c.  No  carts  are 
used  in  these  parts.  There  is  no  custom  of  insur- 
ance, called  **6ema/*  amongst  the  merchants  of 
Multan,  but  they  have  another  mode,  not  of  the 
same  kind,  known  by  the  name  of  "  hunda**  It  is 
only  conducted  between  the  traders  of  Multan  and 
Amritsar  on  silk  cloth.  The  hunda  from  the  first 
place  to  the  latter  is  60  rupees  per  maund,  and  on 
silk  17  rupees,  the  owner  paying  the  town  duty  of 
both  places.  The  persons  with  whom  the  merchants 
make  hunda,  or  who  take  the  charge  of  the  goods, 
pay  only  the  expenses  of  the  roads,  and  of  conveying 
the  merchandise,  for  the  sums  above  mentioned. 

Jan.  31,  1836. — Having  recovered  from  fever, 
and  finished  my  public  business  from  the  16th  to 
the  eve  of  the  30th,  I  quitted  Multan,  and  halted  in 
the  garden  of  Lange  Khan,  about  a  mile  from  the 
city.  Before  sunset  the  agent  of  Diwan  Sawan 
Mai  sent  me  a  message  that  there  were  no  horse- 


men  to  escort  me  to  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  but  he. 
would  be  happy  to  order  five  Boldiers  to  accompany 
me  thither. 

During  my  stay  at  Multan,  the  merchant  Ram 
Dbsb  Shikarpuri  made  preparations  for  giving  me 
an  entertainment,  as  well  as  a  dance,  which  I 
observed  viras  quite  different  from  that  of  Delhi. 
The  dancing-girls  of  the  latter  place,  who  possess  an 
extreme  delicacy,  and  adorn  themselves  with  rich 
robes,  cannot  stand  the  toil  which  the  women  of 
Multan  undergo  in  dancing.  It  resembles  the 
wrestling  of  the  Peshaweris,  or  heroes  of  Delhi, 
while  only  a  third  part  of  the  sum  given  at  Delhi  is 
their  reward  for  the  labours  of  the  whole  night. 

Feb.  1, 2. — In  the  morning  of  the  Ist  of  February 
I  felt  a  pain  in  my  chest,  which  grew  severe,  and  I 
was  obliged  to  continue  in  the  garden  for  two  days. 
The  Lohanis  and  other  merchants  of  Multan,  on 
hearing  of  my  illness,  came  to  visit  me,  and  the 
former,  not  less  than  a  dozen,  lifted  their  hands  to 
pray  to  God  (like  the  Uzbegs  of  Bokhara)  to  restore 
me  to  health.  This  indisposition  was  the  same  I 
had  last  year  at  Delhi,  and  I  was  alarmed;  so  I 
made  up  my  mind  to  hire  a  camel  with  panniers 
in  which  I  might  sit,  rather  than  travel  ill  on  horse* 
back.  Ram  Dass  Shikarpuri  got  the  camel  with  a 
litter,  and  we  resolved  to  set  out  in  the  morning. 

F^.  3. — Having  placed  myself  in  the  pannier  on 
the  back  of  the  camel,  I  commenced  my  journey, 
and  reached  Shah  Sher  Alee  in  six  hours,  a  distance 


of  lOf  miles.  Our  road  was  for  some  time  over- 
shadowed with  palm-trees,  and  then  we  entered  into 
a  place  where  the  weeds  rose  over  our  heads. 

Shah  Sher  Alee  was  a  holy  man  in  ancient  days, 
and  his  bones  repose  under  a  magnificent  dome. 
His  grave  is  visited  by  many  pilgrims,  and  his 
descendants  are  highly  respected.  Sher  Shah,  the 
present  heir,  received  me  very  civilly,  and  shewed 
me  the  pictures  of  the  old  kings,  among  which  the 
face  of  Nadir  Shah  was  beautifully  painted;  his 
features  exhibited  somewhat  of  pride,  as  well  as 
a  ferocious  expression. 

Feb.  4. — We  were  travelling  in  a  jangal,  though 
here  and  there  it  was  cultivated.  The  road  was 
intersected  by  many  channels  of  torrents,  which 
swell  in  rains  so  that  travellers  find  it  difficult  to 
cross  them.  We  passed  the  joint  streams  of  the 
Hydraotes,  Acesines,  and  Hydaspes,  called  here 
Chenab,  in  thirteen  minutes.  The  boats  were 
strongly  made,  though  not  large  enough.  The 
water  was  muddy;  the  current  not  rapid.  The 
breadth  of  the  river  was  about  350  yards,  and  the 
depth  nearly  14  fathoms. 

We  reached  Muzaffiunagar  after  a  journey  of  ten 
miles,  and  put  up  for  the  night  in  an  old  hut ;  the 
Sardar  giving  us  no  place  in  the  town.  It  was  built 
of  burnt  bricks  by  the  late  Nawab  of  Multan,  and  I 
heard  that  it  has  a  bazar  like  those  of  Shujabad. 
The  ditch  has  been  spoiled  by  the  inundation  of  the 


Feb.  5. — ^After  a  tiresome  journey  of  fourteen 
miles,  we  reached  the  camp  of  Diwan  Sawan  Mal» 
at  Quraishi.  The  road  was  sandj,  and  covered 
with  thorny  bushes.  This  part  of  the  country  was 
formerly  infested  with  robbers,  but  since  this  person 
has  been  appointed  ruler  of  Multan,  peace  and  tran- 
quillity reign  in  the  neighbouring  districts.  Sawan 
Mai  pitched  a  tent  for  me,  but  being  poorly  fur- 
nished with  requisites,  I  civilly  refused  to  lodge  in 
it,  and  went  into  a  hut  of  the  village. 

Feb.  6. — When  the  sun  rose,  I  paid  a  visit  to 
Diwan  Sawan  Mai.  He  sat  on  a  carpet,  in  a  yellow 
dress,  and  received  me  in  a  very  friendly  manner. 
He  told  me  that  he  was  ardently  desirous  that  the 
merchants  of  Multan  should  be  the  first  to  send 
their  articles  by  the  channel  of  the  Indus,  but  as 
they  are  inexperienced  in  the  nature  of  the  voyage, 
they  fear  to  convey  their  merchandise  by  a  new 
water-course,  until  the  other  traders  shew  them  an 
example,  and  let  them  know  the  benefit  gained  by 
it ;  however,  he  promised  to  use  his  best  endeavours 
to  encourage  the  merchants  of  Multan  to  despatch 
their  boats  down  the  Indus  when  he  returned  to 
that  city,  and  asked  me  for  another  copy  of  the 
price-current  of  Bombay,  which  I  agreed  to  for- 
ward him  from  Dera  Ghazi  Khan.  He  was  very 
much  pleased  when  I  told  him  that  the  tranquillity 
he  had  established  at  Multan  surpassed  that  of  Hin* 
duBthan,  which  is  governed  by  a  body  of  law  (that  is 
Englishmen).     He  applauded  my  policy  of  treating 



well  the  mother  of  Baihram  Khan  Mazari.  He 
told  me  that  the  Beloches  never  forget  their  obli- 
gations to  a  person  till  their  last  breath ;  and  he 
assured  me  that  Baihram  Khan  will  treat  me  kindlj 
if  I  go  through  his  country  to  Shikarpur.  Sawan 
Mai  sent  orders  to  his  Sardars  from  Dera  to  Mit- 
ankot,  to  treat  me  with  consideration,  and  make 
me  pass  safe  from  their  respective  boundaries. 

The  road  from  Quraishi  to  the  stream  called 
Sardar,  was  in  a  jangal  formed  of  weeds,  and  after- 
wards on  the  bed  of  the  river  Sindh.  The  sand 
covered  the  face  of  the  country  as  far  as  the  sight 
could  reach,  looking  like  an  ocean.  M j  companion, 
Jugal  Kishor,  was  struck  at  beholding  the  breadth 
of  that  famous  river ;  though  low  at  this  time,  it 
was  not  less  than  five  miles  across.  On  the  left 
bank  of  the  Indus  you  will  see  nothing  within  the 
reach  of  the  eye  except  sand,  and  in  some  places 
plants  of  tamarisk,  and  on  the  right  bank  palm- 

About  three  miles  above  Quraishi,  and  one  mile 
on  this  side  Gujrat,  is  a  place  called  Zor,  where  a 
canal,  called  Lukh,  is  cut  out  of  the  bed  of  the 
Indus.  It  issues  forth  in  four  streams,  namely, 
Jhakri,  Thalwala,  Sanwah,  and  Sardar.  They  are 
lost  in  the  cultivation  which  extends  plentifully  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Quraishi.  The  Dinga,  which 
we  forded  on  our  way,  was  formerly  the  principal  bed 
of  the  Indus,  but  now  it  is  separated  frt)m  that 
river  near  Dandi,  fifteen  miles  above  Quraishi,  and 


falls  again  into  its  original  source,  four  miles  down, 
at  Siri. 

We  crossed  the  Indus  in  twenty-five  minutes; 
the  boats,  fifteen  in  number,  are  stronger  than  those 
we  observed  before  in  the  ferries  of  the  Panjab. 
On  great  occasions,  an  armj  is  sent  down  to  Mit- 
ankot  by  this  channel,  a  distance  of  seventy  miles. 
The  boats  reach  that  place  in  two  days,  and  in  the 
rains  sooner.  The  water  of  the  Indus  is  not  so 
clear  here  as  I  have  seen  it  above,  by  the  fort 
of  Atak.  This  might  be  in  consequence  of  the 
clayey  plain  over  which  it  flows  down  to  that 
place.  The  current  was  also  slow.  We  reached 
Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  after  a  journey  of  about  ten 
miles.  Here  we  continued  till  the  eve  of  the 

The  commerce  of  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  has  very 
much  decreased  since  it  was  taken  from  the  Afghans. 
The  avidity  and  extortion  of  Bahawal  Khan,  who 
had  monopolized  all  power  in  the  country  from  the 
Sikh  chief,  for  some  time  added  to  the  losses  of  the 
traders ;  Odoh  Dass,  Dwarka  Dass,  and  Sewak  Ram, 
are  the  only  merchants  of  Shirkarpur  in  this  place, 
and  they  communicate  on  matters  of  traffic  with  those 
of  Bahawalpur,Khangar,  Dajal,  Mitankot,Shikarpur, 
Candahar,  Kabul,  Sangar,  and  especially  of  Multan. 
They  have  agents,  or  artiyahs,  in  those  places,  which 
are  all  principal  marts,  or  dissavars.  The  Shikarpur 
merchants  of  Kabul  and  Candahar,  as  well  as  the  few 
Afghans  of  these  places,  who  are  not  so  rich  as  the 



fonner,  provide  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  with  the  pro- 
ductions and  imports  of  the  above  countries. 

The  silver  coin,  or  money,  at  Dera,  is  that  of 
Shah  Shuja,  and  it  is  one  anna  and  four  pice  less 
than  the  Nanuk  Shahee  rupees. 

The  country  of  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  produces  wheat, 
jowar,  bajrah,  nakhud,  moth,  munglartha,  china, 
kangni,  til,  mori,  mata  samak,  rawan,  makai, 
tobacco,  bhang  or  cannabis,  native  cotton  and 
indigo.  The  amount  of  this  latter  article  annually 
collected  is  about  13,000  maunds,  of  which  25  maunds 
are  used  in  the  country.  The  lowest  price  some  years 
ago  was  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  rupees  per  maund, 
and  the  highest  one  hundred  and  fifty  rupees.  In 
the  last  year  the  Lohanis  and  Shikarpuris  sent  to 
Khorasan  fifteen  hundred  loads  of  indigo,  produced 
in  the  country  of  Multan  and  Dera,  which  cost 
them  seventy-five  thousand  rupees.  The  authorities 
of  the  country  take  from  some  cultivators  a  fourth 
part,  and  from  others  a  fifth.  They  also  prevent  the 
husbandmen  from  disposing  of  their  share  until  that 
of  the  Government  is  sold.  The  price  of  indigo  in 
latter  years  has  been  highly  increased  thereby.  It  is 
purchased  at  fifty-five  rupees  per  maund,  and  sold  at 
Bokhara  at  sixty  rupees,  including  expenses  of  the 
road.  All  the  merchants,  and  especially  the  Lohanis, 
speak  loudly  of  the  oppression  of  the  Multan  ruler. 

Shikarpuris  at  Dera  are  better  treated  than  the 
Lohanis.  When  the  former  send  silk  to  any  quarter, 
the  duty  they  pay  is  five  rupees  per  maund,  while  the 


latter  pay  ten  rupees,  ten  annas.  The  impost  levied 
on  the  Hindu  merchants  on  the  same  articles,  when 
sold  in  the  city,  is  four  annas  per  seer,  and  from  the 
Afghans  one  rupee.  The  Lohanis,  on  passing  through 
Dera  on  their  route  to  India,  pay  the  same  tax  on 
silk  as  is  named  above,  and  on  fruits  of  all  descrip- 
tions, ten  annas  per  maund,  besides  three  rupees  and 
three  annas  on  each  camel-load.  This  is  the  duty  of 
the  ferries  which  are  situated  between  Dera  Ghazi 
Khan  and  Bahawalpur.  Five  maunds  khan  of  Kabul 
are  equal  to  6^  maunds  of  India. 

The  commerce  between  Dera  Ghazi  and  Multan 
goes  through  Quraishi  to  Bahawalpur  and  Khangar, 
by  Khangar  and  Shahar  Sutan,  to  Dajal,  through 
Jainpur  or  Khairpur  to  Mitankot,  by  Mohammedpur 
and  Rajanpur  to  Langar,  vid  Puradil  and  Qilai  Ham- 
dani.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  sends  to  Khorasan,  &c., 
coarse  cloths,  chintzes,  bafta,  hindai,  shahe,  rezeh, 
alaichah,  taimur  shahi,  shuja  khani,  darai,  and  gul- 
badan,  and  it  is  noted  for  the  manufacture  of  the 
last  two  articles.  The  annual  value  of  the  above 
exports  is  about  fifteen  thousand  rupees.  English 
cloths,  namely,  cambrics,  chintzes,  long-cloths,  book 
muslins,  and  nainsookh,  of  one  thousand  rupees' 
value,  are  annually  brought  from  Bahawalpur  to 
Dera,  where,  after  paying  the  town  duty  of  four 
rupees,  merchants  sell  them  at  a  profit  of  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  rupees.  If  the  English  cloth,  which  is 
two  rupees  per  yard  at  Delhi,  were  sent  to  Dera 
Ghazi  •  Khan,  it  would  beat  the  silk  pieces  called 
darai  (made  here)  out  of  the  market.     It  is  not  so 


glossy  and  beautiful  as  the  fonner,  though  it  is  sold 
at  three  rapees  per  yard. 

There  are  many  roads  from  the  places  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  Indus  leading  to  Candahar.  After 
a  good  deal  of  search  they  haye  been  reported  to 
me  by  the  merchants  and  travellers  who  frequented 
them.  A  few  months  ago  Jiwan,  a  merchant  of 
Dera,  took  his  departure  from  Dera  Ismail  Khan, 
with  some  merchandise,  and  after  a  journey  of 
eighteen  koss,  he  reached  Deraband ;  here  he  bought 
provisions,  and,  passing  through  the  Zama  valley, 
came  into  Arghasan.  The  road  was  hilly,  and  in- 
habited by  wandering  Afghans.  The  entrance  of 
the  Zama  valley  is  twenty  koss  from  Deraband. 
The  Vaziris,  who  are  notorious  banditti,  fre- 
quently plunder  this  part  of  the  country,  which 
can  be  passed  through  by  mules,  camels,  and 
bullocks.  From  Arghasan  he  arrived  in  eight  days 
at  Candahar.  From  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  they 
generally  reach  Candahar  after  seven  marches. 
Their  route  lay  through  Sakhi  Sarwar,  Jamkato, 
Biri,  Leucha,  Toba,  and  Dehai.  Now  I  was  informed, 
when  Shah  Zaman  was  at  Candahar,  a  pony  loaded 
with  mangoes  was  sent  to  him  from  Dera  Ghazi 
Khan,  and  entered  that  city  after  six  days ;  but  no 
traders  go  by  that  road. 

Roads  to  Candahar. 

1st.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  Yam,  Lund,  Dost 
Mohammed,  Ambar,  Chinau,  Dera  Buzdar,  Ke- 
trini,    Darwazi,    Hurumbur,     Qilai    Rasul    Khan, 


Qilai  Mirza  Khan,  Qilai  Ghaii  Khan,  Orioya^ 
Monara.  The  aforegoing  places  are  inhabited  by 
the  Usman  Khail,  or  Usman  Khail  Lad.  Char 
man :  this  place  is  famous  for  the  abundance  of 
apricots.  Chinae :  here  live  the  Lonalae,  one  of  the 
Afghan  tribes.  Sara  Qilai,  Chal :  here  the  road  to 
Shikaipur  separates  from  the  other.  Takku  Tu, 
Pushen,  Kunum  Zae,  Khujah  Amran,  Darah  Run- 
ghie,  Hauz  Ahmad  Khan,  Tangi,  Candahar.  This 
line  of  road  has  been  described  to  me  by  an  Afghan 
of  the  Kakar  family.  He  came  by  it  to  Dera  when 
Shah  Shuja  was  defeated  at  Candahar.  Many  places 
which  my  informers  describe,  and  «rhich  are  in  these 
routes,  have  not  been  placed  in  the  map  of  Sir 
Alexander  Bumes. 

2nd.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  Yam,  Had-i-Buzdar, 
Bori,  Pushen,  Shirawak,  Candahar.  Musa  Khan 
(now  at  Dera)  went  to  Candahar  in  nine  days  by 
this  route.  He  told  me  to  put  down  the  above 
road  which  he  took  the  second  time,  and  reached 
Candahar  in  nineteen  days.  His  route  was  fre- 
quented by  caravans  before,  and  became  the  haunt 
of  robbers  of  the  Beloch  family. 

3rd.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  Kot  Chutta,  Jam,  Pin, 
Dajal,  Harrand,  Abi  Siah;  hence  the  traveller 
entered  the  hills.  Pir  Chutta,  or  Sang  Surkh ;  this 
place  is  so  narrow,  that  two  loaded  ponies  can 
hardly  pass  abreast.  Lari ;  hence  he  travelled  in  a 
plain.  Dadar,  Darrah  Bolan;  he  here  penetrated 
the  mountains.     Fungi,   Khoga,  Dasht   Bedaulat, 


Shal»    Pushen,    Kotal    Runghie,    Shirawak»   Can- 

The  following  road  has  been  explained  to  me  by 
Gul  Mohammed,  an  Afghan  merchant,  who  came 
with  merchandise  to  Dera  two  months  ago  from 
the  city  of  Candahar. 

4th.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  Yarn,  Anglor, 
Mokhtar,  Bori,  Zop,  Thund,  Gozar,  Hauz  Alia 
Mohammed,  Vahum,  Arghasan,  Tagak,  Momand, 

Sewa  Ram,  a  Shikarpuri  trader,  now  at  Dera, 
went  to  Candahar  with  a  qafila,  by  the  following 
route : — 

5th.  Piradil,  7  koss ;  Alum  Khan,  9  koss ;  Sun- 
gar,  16  koss ;  Bodiki  Ghuk,  10  koss ;  Bahawal,  or 
Vaha,  10  koss;  here  he  crossed  the  river  Kugi. 
Chamdwan,  20  koss ;  Dera  Band,  10  koss ;  here  he 
joined  the  Lohanis.  Zaikari,  6  koss ;  Topi,  3  koss ; 
water  is  brought  four  miles.  Majin  Darah,  5  koss  ; 
here  he  crossed  the  Gomal,  and  bought  provisions. 
Chirg,  5  koss;  the  valley  is  so  narrow,  that  two 
camels  cannot  pass  abreast.  Nili,  5  koss ;  Pass  or 
Kotal  Ghoclara,  6  koss ;  Kotki,  12  koss ;  Kanjin, 
7  koss ;  Husaru  Nika,  8  koss ;  the  river  Hurdun  is 
crossed  here.  Anglesan,  40  koss ;  Maruf,  20  koss ; 
Tugga,  7  koss ;  Tumak,  7  koss ;  Momand,  8  koss ; 
Candahar,  10  koss. 

On  my  arrival  at  Dajal,  which  is  femous  for  its 
trade  in  oil,  I  was  told  by  Kishanand,  a  Shikarpuri, 
of  the  following  route,  which  leads  from  the  atbove 


place  to  Candahar.     The  riyer  Indus  flows  at  a  dis- 
tance of  twenty-five  miles : — 

Harrand,  12  koss ;  Toba,  8  koss ;  Dagajal»  8  koss ; 
Shamma,  10  koss ;  Kunde  de  Talai,  8  koss ;  Maran, 
10  koss  ;  Fir  Chutta,  8  koss ;  Sang  Lila,  10  koss  ; 
Dbangar,  8  koss ;  Ghori,  6  koss ;  Lari,  10  koss ; 
hence  the  other  road  goes  to  Candahar,  vid  Dadar 
and  Darrah  Bolan.  Bhag,  15  koss ;  Ari,  8  koss ; 
Dadar,  10  koss ;  Kirta,  8  koss ;  Bilhu  Nari,  8  koss ; 
Muckho,  10  koss ;  Koh  Dazdar,  6  koss ;  Dasht,  10 
koss ;  Suab,  6  koss ;  Kuch  Lak,  6  koss ;  Pushen,  10 
koss;  Khoge  kaChari,  10  koss ;  Candahar,  15  koss. 

There  is  another  road  from  Asni  to  Candahar, 
which  goes  vid  Kharak,  Chatti,  Beroki  Dera,  Lari, 
Bhag,  Levi,  Kalat,  Mastung,  Shal,  Kondi,  Can- 

I  reached  Dera  Ghazi  on  the  5th  of  February, 
and  left  it  on  the  17th,  for  Mitankot,  where  I 
arrived  on  the  26th  of  that  month. 

Having  mentioned  the  different  routes  which  lead 
from  the  right  bank  of  the  Indus  to  Candahar,  from 
the  cities,  towns,  and  villages  lying  between  Dera 
Ismail  Khan  and  Mitankot,  I  resume  my  narrative. 

My  journey  lay  through  the  countries  of  the 
Mazaris  and  Buldis,  a  part  of  Belochistan,  in 
which  I  travelled  on  foot,  except  twenty-six 
miles,  and  which  enabled  me  to  find  out  the  other 
roads.  On  the  right  bank  of  the  Indus,  there  are 
nineteen  ferries  between  Mitankot  and  Shik- 
arpur,  the    names  of  which  (except  four)   are  as 


follow :  Mori  Dafila,  Ken,  Miani,  Shah  Ali»  Kish- 
mor,  Ghiaspor,  Badhani,  Gubla,  Bait,  Bhotur,  and 

From  Rojhan,  Badhani,  Ghauspur,  and  Shikaipur, 
which  are  not  far  from  the  bank  of  that  river,  six 
roads  go  to  Candahar,  namely : 

1st.  Rojhan,  6  miles  from  the  Indus;  Bibrak 
ka  Dara,  3  days'  journey;  Khav,  2  ditto;  Lang 
Munai,  2  ditto;  Kakar,  4  ditto;  Shal,  4  ditto; 
Pushing,  3  ditto ;  Candahar,  9  ditto. 

2nd.  Rojhan ;  Bibrak  ka  Dara ;  Laimi,  1  day's 
journey ;  Pilau,  1  ditto ;  Kholu,  1  ditto ;  Tal 
Chulali,  1  ditto ;  Candahar,  11  ditto. 

3rd.  Badhani,  6  miles  from  the  Indus;  Thai, 
Pot,  Chtai,  Shahpur,  Pholiji,  Lari,  Baj,  Mashesur, 
Dadar,  Dupasi,  Kirta  ka  Adh,  Kirta,  Bibi  Navi, 
Norati,  Pat,  Mustang,  Sal,  Pushing,  Candahar. 

4th.  Ghauspur,  6  miles  from  the  Indus ;  Thai,  1 
day's  journey ;  Ahriki,  1  ditto ;  Tumba,  2  ditto ; 
Eanda,  1  ditto  ;  Jhal,  1  ditto ;  Kota,  1  ditto ; 
Mura,  1  ditto ;  Candahar,  10  ditto. 

5th.  Ghauspur,  6  miles  from  the  Indus ;  Thai, 
Shahpur,  Lari,  Shiran,  Bhaj,  Dadar,  Dar  Gaudawa, 
Kalat,  Munji  Chan,  Lanin  Guli,  Galistan  Kahrez, 
Kindi,  Chunki,  Candahar. 

6th.  Shikarpur,  14  miles  from  the  Indus;  Jan- 
gan,  8  koss  (tax  per  camel-load,  8  annas) ;  Rojhan, 
12  ditto  ;  Barshori,  20  ditto  (entered  the  Kalat 
country  4  miles)  ;  Sok  Qasim  Shah,  8  ditto  ; 
Ghialpur,  8  ditto ;    Bhag,  4  ditto  ;   Shahanbaj,  8 


ditto;  Dadar,  12  ditto;  Dribi,  4  ditto;  Koh  Dilan, 
4  ditto;  Kirta,  6  ditto;  Bibi  Nari,  6  ditto;  Hali- 
mari,  6  ditto ;  Kok  Daho,  6  ditto ;  Lan  Khajan,  6 
ditto;  Darrah  Duzdan»  6  ditto;  Dasht  Bedaulat 
Eelam,  6  ditto ;  Sarob,  6  ditto ;  Shal,  6  ditto  (tax 
7  nipees  per  camel) ;  Karanga,  6  ditto  (Candahar 
coontry) ;  Qilai  Abdulla  Khan,  6  ditto  (tax  2  rapees 
per  camel) ;  Chuuk,  6  ditto  (tax  2  amuis  per  camel) ; 
Buldak,  6  ditto  (tax  2  amias  per  camel) ;  Qilai 
Tullala,  6  ditto  ;  Takht  Pul,  6  ditto  ;  Nanak,  6 
ditto ;  Candahar,  4  ditto. 

Shikarpur  cannot  rival  Bahawalpur,  Multan,  and 
Dera  Ghazi  Khan  in  commerce,  but  it  is  inhabited 
by  a  race  of  people  who  conduct  a  prosperous 
trade  in  Afghanistan,  Turkistan,  Khorasan,  and  part 
of  Persia.  It  has  no  manufacture  of  any  description, 
but  derives  its  distinction  solely  from  its  situation  in 
the  midst  of  the  commercial  routes ;  Herat,  Canda- 
har, Shal,  and  Kalat,  are  its  western  marts ;  Bombay 
and  Hydrabad  are  its  southern  marts.  Candahar 
supplies  Shikarpur  vrith  the  silk  of  Herat,  Yazd, 
and  Tun,  which  is  sold  at  a  profit  of  from  five  to 
three  and  four  rupees  per  seer.  It  is  only  used  by 
females  in  embroidery,  and  is  not  exported  to  any 
other  quarter.  It  is  called  by  three  different  names, 
chilla,  daryai,  and  tunL  The  following  articles 
are  also  imported  frt>m  that  city,  part  of  which,  as 
fruits  and  asafoetida,  are  sent  to  Hydrabad  and 
Bombay;  namely,  zafran,  salib,  hing,  shirkhisht, 
alajit,  reuseus,  pistah,  misuack,  charmaghz,  qirmiz. 


kalabatun,  and  qana^^uz.  The  merchants,  after 
deducting  all  the  expenses  of  the  road  wid  the 
tax,  gain  a  profit  of  fifty  rupees  per  cent.  A  very 
small  quantity  of  the  Multan  gulbadan,  khes,  and 
chintzes  arrives  at  Shikarpur. 

Opium,  tobacco,  and  post  (poppy)  are  exported 
to  Talpur,  also  shawl  chintzes,  namely,  surmai, 
gulmar,  rahdar,  and  butadar;  long-cloth,  muslin, 
phulcari,  and  naimi,  which  are  brought  from  Bom- 
bay and  sent  to  Candahar,  to  the  value  of  10,000 
rupees  yearly,  besides  what  goes  by  Karachi.  Ban- 
dar, pepper,  ginger,  amaltas,  kumla,  nausader,  sohaga, 
and  sugar,  to  the  value  of  8,000  rupees,  which, 
aft;er  paying  the  whole  expenses,  yield  the  trader 
a  profit  of  25  per  cent. 

The  agents  of  the  Shikarpur  merchants,  as 
Ganga  Ram,  &c.,  are  established  in  Haidarabad, 
Bombay,  Jaipur,  Bahawalpur,  Multan,  Dera  Ghazi 
Khan,  Dera  Ismail  Khan,  Amritsar,  Peshawer, 
Kabul,  Qunduz,  Khulum,  Balk,  Bokhara,  Mashad, 
Herat,  Sistan,  Candahar,  &c.  &c.,  where  they  col- 
lect immense  profits  by  trade,  which  is  conducted 
by  means  of  camels  and  ponies.  There  is  no 
custom  of  insurance,  in  consequence  of  the  un- 
settled condition  of  the  country^ 

The  productions  of  Shikarpur,  besides  com  of  all 
kinds,  are  cotton  and  indigo,  which  are  not  produced 
so  plentifully  as  to  be  sent  to  any  other  country. 
Before  the  rule  of  the  Barakzais,  the  Lohanis 
and  Hindu  merchants,  who  now  go  by  the  road  of 


Dera  Band,  were  supplied  from  Shikarpur  with 
indigo,  which  is  brought  in  abundance  from  Multan, 
Dera,  Shujabad,  Khanpur,  &c. 

Feb.  17. — It  was  nearly  twelve  o*clock  when  we 
left  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  escorted  by  the  servants 
of  Maharaja  Ranjit  Singh.  A  road  shaded  with 
palm-trees,  which  continued  for  about  six  miles, 
brought  us  into  a  thick  jangal.  Fuel  is  plentiful 
in  this  country.  We  had  a  fine  sight  of  the  Sakhi 
Sarwar  hills  on  the  right  hand,  though  situated  at 
the  distance  of  twenty-five  koss.  They  seem  to  be 
commanded  by  a  high  range  of  mountains,  named 
Kala  Koh,  or  *  black  mountain,'  and  they  join  with 
Kara  Bagh.  Beyond  it  live  the  Beloches,  who 
have  their  own  separate  rulers.  We  put  up  in  Kot 
Chutta,  after  a  journey  of  fourteen  miles.  This 
village  has  about  ten  shops  and  seventy  poor 
houses :  200  maunds  of  indigo  are  annually  pro- 
duced here. 

Feb.  18. — We  arrived  at  Janpur,  a  distance  of 
seventeen  miles  ;  it  is  a  large  village,  and  has  about 
200  shops.  The  houses  are  very  high,  and  are 
built  both  of  burnt  and  unbumt  bricks.  The 
bazars,  which  are  covered  with  mats,  &c.,  reminded 
me  of  those  of  the  villages  in  Turkistan.  The 
country  is  covered  with  fields  of  indigo.  General 
Ventura  is  much  remembered  in  these  parts. 
The  roads,  though  in  jangals,  were  intersected 
by  the  hamlets  of  Marsa  and  Kot  Tahan.  They 
bad  high  houses,  upon  which  I  climbed   to  take 


my  obserTatious.  The  country,  in  consequence 
of  the  vicinity  of  the  Indus  and  Sindh,  is  called 
Sindh,  as  well  as  Kohi.  The  inhabitants  are 
Khatri  Jats  and  Beloches.  There  are  many 
tribes  amongst  the  latter,  namely,  Khosa,  Lighari, 
Mazari,  Gurchani,  Lund,  Ruid,  Durkani,  Pilafi, 
Dushak,  Gopagand,  Sangi. 

Belu  Dalanu,  and  Manj  Gar,  which  are  situated 
under  the  Sakhi  Sarwar  hills,  have  mines  of 
Multani  mata.  This  is  a  kind  of  clay,  used  in 
Hindusthan,  &c.  for  washing  the  hair ;  it  is  both 
white  and  yellow,  and  is  purchased  in  the  mines  at 
fifteen  maunds  per  rupee,  and  disposed  of  at  dif- 
ferent markets,  especially  at  Delhi,  at  two  rupees 
per  maund. 

Feb.  19. — After  a  journey  of  three  hours  we 
arrived  at  Dandjal,  or  Dajal,  thirteen  miles  distant. 
The  road  from  our  last  resting-place  to  the  Ghuri, 
or  fort,  of  Sultan  Shah,  in  which  are  about  twenty 
souls,  was  through  a  jangal.  The  earth  looked 
parched,  and  as  if  previously  washed  by  water. 
When  we  had  left  the  Ghuri  a  mile  behind,  the 
road  opened  into  an  extensive  plain.  It  is  bounded 
on  the  west  by  the  range  of  Kala  Koh,  thirty  miles 
distant,  and  on  the  east  by  the  river  Indus,  which 
flows  twenty-five  miles  oif.  Beyond  the  hills  live 
the  Berohi,  &c.,  who,  before  and  after  the  time  of 
Ahmad  Shah  Abdal,  were  the  maaters  of  this  coun- 
try. They  have  heads  or  chiefs  of  their  own 
fisunily,  and  cross  the  hills  here  for  plunder. 


The  original  name  of  Dajal  is  Dandjal ;  it  is  an 
old  town.  Dand  is  a  man's  name,  and  Jal  means 
'  the  place/  The  walls  are  of  mud ;  they  are  ruined 
by  age.  The  houses  are  high,  and  generally  built  of 
unbumt  bricks.  In  passing  through  the  bazar, 
which  has  about  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  shops, 
I  thought  of  Balk :  they  were  covered  with  mats, 
&c.  The  summer  is  intensely  hot  here,  which  obliges 
the  inhabitants  to  follow  the  example  of  the  Khora- 
sanis,  in  thatching  their  bazars.  There  was  no 
water  during  the  whole  of  our  march,  except  the 
wells  in  the  Ghuri.  The  country  round  Dajal  is 
destitute  of  water,  and  the  rains  furnish  the  only 
irrigation  to  the  cultivated  grounds.  Out  of  the  town 
is  the  place  of  a  beggar,  where  a  few  trees  are  to  be 
seen,  and  under  them  he  has  dug  some  holes  equal 
to  his  size.  Their  sides  discharge  the  water,  which 
is  collected  in  a  little  while,  and  is  taken  by  the 
inhabitants  to  drink.  If  the  holes  are  dug  deeper, 
the  water  is  found  to  be  salt.  All  kinds  of  com  are 
cultivated  in  this  country,  but  no  indigo. 

Feb.  20. — Clouds  concealed  the  sun,  and  the  cold 
wind,  which  blew  strongly  against  our  faces,  accom- 
panied with  dust,  teased  us  extremely  in  the  journey. 
The  road  was  in  a  plain,  towards  the  west,  and  from 
the  village  of  Mohammedpur,  turned  south-west. 
This  village  contained  about  ten  poor  creatures,  all 
complaining  of  the  devastation  made  among  them  by 
the  Beloches.  The  country  here  is  dry,  but  about 
two  miles  before  we  reached  Harrand,  a  distance  of 


fourteen  miles,  we  crossed  the  Miankewah.  The 
water  was  pure,  and  is  supposed  to  come  either  from 
the  hills  of  Kabul  or  Candahar.  The  valley,  or 
Darrah  Kalia,  six  miles  from  Harrand,  is  the  place 
whence  this  water  flows  into  the  plains. 

The  only  account  of  Harrand  I  obtained  by  tra- 
dition is,  that  it  was  built  by  Hari,  in  the  days  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  It  was  formerly  a  very  large 
place,  and  visited  by  the  caravan  of  Candahar ;  1^ 
seer  of  gold  was  the  daily  tax  gained  from  the  mer- 
chants. The  Beloches,  who  occupy  the  summits  and 
sides  of  the  neighbouring  hills,  and  live  on  plunder, 
have  been  the  cause  of  the  ruin  of  this  ancient  and 
rich  mart.  It  is  seldom  that  the  traders  pass  by 
this  road,  and  when  they  do,  the  officers  of  the  Maha- 
raja accompany  them  to  the  valley  of  Lami,  where 
they  are  delivered  over  to  the  Mari  tribe  (who  are 
of  the  Beloch  family,  and  number  about  four  thou- 
sand people),  who  convey  the  caravan  safe  to  the 
boundary  of  Candahar,  and  charge  the  merchants  for 
their  services.  These  people,  though  independent, 
acknowledge  subjection  to  the  Maharaja,  which 
created  an  animosity  between  them  and  the  Bugti 
tribe,  which  numbers  two  thousand  men. 

About  ten  months  ago,  the  Gurchanis  and  Be- 
loches of  Fibbi  and  Lalgar  came  to  plunder  Har- 
rand, and  massacred  the  garrison  of  the  Maharaja, 
which  caused  the  Sikh  Government  to  build  a  fort 
on  the  spot  where  the  town  of  Harrand  lately  stood  ; 
it  has  cost  the  Maharaja   1,00,000   rupees,  and  it 


might  be  finished  at  the  expense  of  30,000  rupees. 
There  are  a  very  few  poor  houses  and  shops.  The 
summer  is  very  hot  and  destructive  to  the  people. 

Feb.  21. — We  travelled  in  a  jangal,  crossing 
the  beds  of  the  Dajliwah  and  of  the  Nunrah,  to 
Lalgar.  These  rivers,  though  now  dry,  become  very 
high  in  spring,  and  water  the  whole  country.  We 
stopped  in  a  place  inhabited  by  Beloches.  Neither 
the  men  nor  the  women  are  remarkable  for  beauty  ; 
the  former  have  long  curling  locks,  anointed  with  oil, 
and  paint  their  eyes  with  powder  of  antimony ;  the 
latter  wear  trowsers  tight  at  the  ancle,  and  a  large 
open  gown,  which  covers  the  whole  of  their  body,  and 
even  conceals  their  form.  They  throw  a  piece  of  cloth 
over  their  heads,  and  bring  water  from  long  di9taaces. 
We  journeyed  in  a  plain,  passing  through  Kitatpur 
and  Mianpur,  before  we  arrived  at  Hajipur,  where 
we  put  up  for  the  night.  The  distance  of  our 
march  was  sixteen  miles  and  a  half.  Hajipur  has 
about  fifty  shops ;  it  was  given  by  the  Mahanya  to 
Shah  Newaz  Khan,  as  a  jagir;  his  predecessors 
were  the  rulers  of  Sindh,  and  respected  by  the 
Mohammedans  for  their  descent  from  Imam 

Fdf.  22. — A  march  of  eleven  miles  brought  us  to 
a  small  village  called  Jahanpur,  belonging  to  the 
same  personage.  Here  was  no  shop,  and  we  sent  a 
horseman  to  Rajanpur  to  buy  provisions  for  us» 
aeeording  to  the  list  I  gave  him.      The  ruler  of  the 

2  £ 


place  sent  every  thing  we  required  by  hiB  vakeel,  and 
desired  me  to  accept  them. 

The  road  was  barren,  and  the  mirage  appeared  on 
every  side.  It  was  twelve  o'clock  when  we  met 
about  fifteen  persons,  all  armed.  They  lighted  their 
matchlocks,  and  desired  us  to  go  off  from  the  road ; 
but  when  they  saw  that  our  escort  outnumbered 
their  whole  body,  they  put  their  guns  on  their 
shoulders,  and  said  they  thought  us,  at  first,  the 
Beloch  plunderers  who  had  passed  yesterday  by  the 
town  of  Rajanpur. 

Feb.  23. — Though  the  town  of  Rajanpur  was  about 
four  miles  from  our  ground,  I  left  it  on  my  left  band, 
and  bent  my  course  towards  Asni,  a  distance  of 
ten  miles.  After  a  journey  of  a  mile  and  a  half,  we 
reached  a  village,  and  thence  penetrated  a  jangal,  or 
venave.  The  road  was  dry,  and  looked  as  if  impass- 
able in  the  rains.  The  sun  was  very  hot,  and  when 
it  reached  the  meridian,  one  of  my  horsemen,  who 
v^as  ordered  by  Shah  Newaz  Khan  to  accompany  me 
to  Rajanpur,  perceived  some  Beloches  of  the  Mazaii 
tribe  following  us  on  the  right  hand,  and  afterwards 
we  also  saw  them.  He  told  m^  to  halt  where  we 
were,  and,  in  company  with  t^o  other  horsemen, 
galloped  to  meet  them  on  the  road.  The  robbers,  as 
well  as  our  people,  dismounted  from  their  horses, 
according  to  their  custom,  and  drew  out  their 
swords  to  fight.  They  were  only  eleven  in  number, 
and  when  they  saw  that  ^  five  Sikh  horsemen  also 


accompanied  me,  they  immediately  mounted  their 
animals,  and  fled  at  full  speed  to  Rojhan.  I  pre- 
Tented  my  horsemen  from  following  them,  for  fear 
of  losing  my  time. 

The  Beloches  generally  fight  with  swords,  and 
cannot  use  the  musket  on  horseback,  as  the  Sikhs 
do.  They  prefer  mares  for  riding  rather  than  horses, 
which  are  sold  very  cheap  among  them..  On  my 
inquiring  the  reason  of  this,  a  person  told  me  that 
the  horse  is  disliked  by  the  Beloches  for  his  neigh- 
ing when  they  go  to  rob,  while  the  mare  remains 
mute,  and  better  bears  the  heat  of  the  plains  in  the 
summer.  They  dismount  when  they  meet  an  enemy, 
and  tying  their  animals'  feet  with  a  rope  or  cord, 
leave  them  about  half  a  mile  behind  from  the  place 
where  they  make  their  attack.  When  either  side  is 
defeated,  the  conquerors  possess  their  horses  and 
property,  and  return  home  enriched  with  the  booty. 

Asni  is  a  small  village,  containing  about  fifteen 
shops,  covered  with  straw.  The  inhabitants  are 
Beloches  and  Hindus ;  the  country  around  is  bushy 
and  dry.  It  is  not  remarkable  for  any  thing 
except  that  it  is  an  ancient  place,  peopled  by  the 
late  Rajah  Ralhaur.  It  was  formerly  a  very  rich 
tract  in  consequence  of  its  being  situated  in  the 
road  of  trade  from  Candahar,  &c.  to  Sindh,  &c. 

Feb.  24. — Firoz  Khan,  the  chief  of  Asni,  met  me 
in  the  Kolta  Graimi,  on  my  way  to  Rajanpur,  and 
desired  me  to  be  his  guest  for  the  night.  I  civilly 
refused,  but  stayed  with  him  half  an  hour.     He  sent 



for  his  wandering  musician,  who  sang  yarious  Mo- 
hammedan psalms,  such  as  **  God  is  one,  and  has  no 
partner :  he  is  powerful,  strong,  and  master  of  the 
sky  and  of  all  things.  Eyery  thing  is  under  the 
command  of  God :  he  is  one  tree,  and  has  number- . 
less  branches." 

We  reached  Rajanpur  after  a  journey  of  seven 
miles.  This  is  a  remarkably  fine  town,  and  has 
about  seventy  shops.  The  bazars  are  covered,  like 
those  of  Dajal.  The  houses  are  of  mud,  but  not 
more  than  two  stories  high.  This  place  is  in  the 
jagir  of  Shah  Newaz  Khan,  with  whose  brother  I 
remained  the  next  day. 

Feb.  26. — A  march  of  about  twelve  miles  brought 
us  to  Mitankot,  and  we  crossed  the  channels  of  many 
streams,  which  were  dry  at  this  season.  When 
we  passed  through  the  Kolta,  Nasir  Khan,  the  head 
man  of  the  village,  stopped  me,  and  desired  me  to 
repose  myself  under  the  shade  of  a  remarkably  fine 
babool-tree,  or  mimosa.  He  is  a  man  of  sense  as 
well  as  of  influence,  and  he  was  accompanied  by 
two  dozen  attendants,  who  sat  with  him  in  a  circle. 
It  is  a  neat  village,  and  has  about  fifty  shops.  The 
Hindus  are  well  treated  here  by  the  Beloches,  and 
possess  great  influence  among  them.  The  road  to 
Mitankot  was  dry  till  we  crossed  the  Qaziwah. 
Nasir  Khan  spoke  for  a  long  time  with  me  both  in 
the  Hindusthani  and  Beloch  languages.  I  inquired 
about  some  Beloch  words  from  him,  which  I  write 
herewith:  —  Phut^  *hair;'  sarai^  'head;'  amshak^ 


^forehead;'  pwmoanj  *  eyebrows;'  chham^  *eyes;' 
phorz,  *  nose ;'  gosh,  '  ear ;'  dun,  *  cheek ;'  bruty  *  mus- 
taches ;'  Jan,  *  lip ;'  daltan,  *  teeth ;'  daf,  '  mouth  ;' 
dyardan,  ^neck;'  kofak,  ^shoulders;'  rait,  ^hand;' 
sinok,  'chest;'  sarau,  'waist;'  rau,  'thigh;'  koud, 
^knee;'  khing,  'leg;'  phazfatt  murdan^  'finger;' 
nakhun,  '  nail.'  The  language  of  the  Beloches  re- 
sembles that  of  Persia,  as  in  the  words  gash,  nakhun, 
&c.  &c. 

March  1  to  3. — We  passed  these  days  at  Mitan- 
kot  in  extreme  alarm,  as  all  the  inhabitants  were 
fearing  an  attack  of  the  Beloches  of  the  Bugti  tribe. 
They  were  15,000  in  number,  all  armed,  as  I  heard. 
They  plundered  the  villages  of  Omarkot,  and 
carried  away  7,000  cows  and  sheep,  and  on  hearing 
this  intelligence,  the  Sardar  followed  them  with  an 
army.  The  Sikhs  were  defeated,  and  lost  about 
fifty  men,  while  only  two  of  the  plunderers  died  in 
the  field.  They  had  brought  with  them  about  forty 
camels  with  panniers,  according  to  their  custom,  in 
which  they  placed  their  plunder,  as  well  as  their 
dead  companions.  The  Sardar  was  besieged  in  the 
fort  of  Omarkot,  and  the  whole  population  of  Kot 
Mitan  passed  sleepless  nights  watching.  The  Sardar 
of  this  place  was  absent  with  the  army,  except 
about  ten  Sikh  soldiers ;  all  the  citizens  sat  on  the 
rooft,  their  eyes  directed  towards  Omarkot,  and  we 
did  the  same,  bearing  muskets  in  our  hands. 

March  4. — In  consequence  of  the  dangers  of  the 
road,   and  the  cruelties   of  the  Beloches  of   the 


Mazari  tribe  towards  trayellers,  we  did  not  think 
it  adviBable  to  take  any  kind  of  baggage  with  us, 
and  we  left  Mitankot  in  the  dress  of  common 
beggars.  I  had  first  resolved  to  leave  my  horses, 
&c.  in  charge  of  the  Maharaja's  officers  in  that 
place,  but,  considering  the  unsettled  condition  of 
the  country,  I  sent  them  to  Amadpur,  in  charge  of 
my  servant,  whom  I  authorized  to  put  up  in  the 
residence  of  Lieat.  (now  Major)  Mackeson,  the 
British  Agent  in  that  quarter. 

The  route  from  our  ground  to  Omarkot  was  in 
the  direction  of  south-west,  and  continued  along  the 
right  bank  of  a  branch  of  the  river  Sindh,  or  Indus. 
We  passed  through  the  villages  named  Bangali, 
Bhai  ka  Dera,  and  Bhagsar,  before  we  got  to  Omar- 
kot, a  distance  of  18^  miles.  Each  of  these  places 
has  a  small  bazar,  and  a  numerous  population.  The 
country  is  covered  with  tamarisk,  or  gaz-trees. 
When  we  quitted  Bhagsar,  we  were  joined  by  a 
dozen  Hindus,  mounted  on  asses.  They  stayed 
beside  the  well,  until  they  hired  some  matchlock- 
men,  to  accompany  them  to  Omarkot.  We  were 
also  with  them.  All  the  country  lying  between 
Bhagsar  and  Omarkot  is  dangerous.  The  Mazaris 
often  conceal  themselves  in  the  jangals  to  plunder 
passengers.  Our  party  here  loaded  their  guns,  and 
looked  as  if  about  to  receive  an  attack. 

When  we  reached  Omarkot,  the  sun  was  nearly 
set,  and,  on  account  of  the  absence  of  the  Sardars, 
we  were  not  allowed  to  sleep  inside  the  town.    The 


dust  here  concealed  the  ftce  of  the  country,  and  I 
was  uncertain  where  to  put  up,  when  Qadir  Bakhsh, 
najib,  or  soldier,  a  native  of  Jalalabad,  near  Saha- 
ranpur,  happened  to  pass,  and,  after  inquiring  who 
I  was,  and  whence  I  came,  and  learning  that  I  was 
lately  from  Delhi,  took  me  into  his  house,  situated 
in  the  camp,  and  assisted  me  with  every  thing  for 
the  night. 

Omarkot  is  a  small  town,  protected  by  a  thick 
mud  walL  Many  of  the  inhabitants  live  in  huts, 
out  of  the  town,  about  100  in  number,  made  of 
reeds  and  straw.  Bamboos  are  not  used  in  thatch- 
ing in  this  country.  There  are  seven  wells  here, 
two  of  them  saltish,  one  inside,  and  the  other  out- 
side the  town. 

March  5. — Till  noon  we  remained  at  Omarkot, 
in  the  hope  of  being  joined  by  some  other  people. 
At  last  a  body  of  twenty-two  persons  assembled, 
and  we  prosecuted  our  journey  to  Rojhan,  a  distance 
of  eleven  miles.  The  sun  was  extremely  hot,  and 
the  road  continued  over  a  table-land,  full  of  forage. 
The  jangal  was  not  very  thick,  as  it  was  yesterday, 
but  we  had  no  water  all  the  way,  except  in  the  vil- 
lages of  Badli  and  Dera  Dildar.  The  former,  as 
well  as  the  other  places  situated  between  it  and 
the  latter,  have  been  depopulated  since  General 
Ventura's  return  to  Labor.  We  passed  the  place 
of  the  battle,  some  days  ago,  with  the  Sikhs  and 
Bugtis,  when  the  former  were  defeated,  and  more 
than  two  do2sen  of  their  men  were  barbarously  cut 


to  pieces.  Their  blood  ha4  flowed  like  a  stfeam  of 
neater,  and  had  djed  the  earth  red.  Here  and  there 
lay  fingers,  &g.,  and  turbans  hung  in  small  pieces 
on  the  branches  of  the  tamarisks,  which  were  eat 
by  the  swords  of  the  Bogtis.  The  Bngtis  are  one  of 
the  Beloch  tribes,  and  live  on  the  other  side  of  the 
hills  called  Roh,  or  Takkar,  which  were  abont  thirty 
miles  from  our  route,  and  run  from  north  to  south, 
rising  about  2,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
plains.  The  Bugtis  are  a  barbarous  tribe,  devoid  of 
humanity ;  their  rudeness  is  beyond  description.  On 
investigating  the  case,  we  were  informed,  by  one  of 
the  conquerors,  that  after  the  Sikh  soldiers  were 
cruelly  murdered,  the  Bugtis  cut  their  fingers  for  a 
trifling  ring,  and  their  necks  for  a  poor  necklace. 
They  were  all  young,  and  the  followers  of  the  heroes 
of  the  Panjab  and  of  Hindusthan. 

Rojhan  is  the  capital,  or  seat,  of  the  Mazari 
chief.  It  is  larger  than  Asni,  and  its  bazars  are 
broader  than  those  of  Mitankot.  A  weak  and 
thin  wall  surrounds  it,  while  the  gate  is  destroyed. 
There  are  about  100  shops,  occupied  by  Hindu  mer- 
chants. They  trade  under  the  protection  of  the 
ruler.  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  and  Shujabad  are  its 
principal  marts.  The  former  supplies  it  with  com- 
mon cloth,  or  gaze,  and  the  latter  with  sugar,  which 
is  plentifully  consumed  in  this  country.  On  the 
day  of  my  arrival,  there  came  about  twenty  camels, 
loaded  with  the  above-mentioned  goods.  The 
caravan,  leaving   Omarkot   on  the  left  hand,  pro- 


ceeded  straight  to  Rojhon,  passing  through  Qutbah 
Shah,  where  they  are  provided  with  a  guard,  or 
badarqah,  for  the  road.  I  was  quite  surprised  to 
observe  the  brisk  trade  going  on  in  Rojhan.  In 
the  last  year,  the  inoome  of  the  custom-house  was 
2,700  rupees,  notwithstanding  the  duties  are  very 
trifling.  The  tax  is  one  anna  and  one  pice  per 
maund  on  sugar,  and  other  articles,  seven  pice. 

The  country  of  the  Mazaris  lies  S.  W.  of  Mit- 
ankot.  It  is  bounded  by  Badli  on  the  north,  and 
by  Badhani  on  the  south,  making  a  length  of  about 
46  miles.  The  river  Indus  is  its  eastern  boundary, 
and  divides  it  from  the  Bugtis  on  the  west.  This 
latter  portion  of  the  boundary  is  situate  inside  of 
the  hill  called  Roh,  or  Giandri,  which  overlooks 
the  plain  on  the  right  hand.  The  breadth  of  the 
country,  according  to  the  information  I  obtained,  is 
nearly  100  miles. 

The  cultivation  in  this  part,  and  especially  towards 
the  plain  of  Rojhan,  depends  upon  rain.  Wheat, 
jowar,  bajrah,  sarshaf,  mung,  mash,  gram,  barley, 
rice,  bhang,  and  post,  are  annually  reaped  in  abund* 
ance.  One-fourth  part  of  the  com  produced  in  the 
country  is  taken  by  the  chief,  and  the  remainder  is 
left  in  the  hands  of  the  tillers.  The  value  of  the 
former  is  2,000  rupees  per  annum. 

The  present  chief  of  the  Mazaris  is  Mir  Baih- 
ram  Khan,  a  man  noted  for  wisdom  amongst  the 
neighbouring  Beloches ;  he  is  thin,  and  of  moderate 
size ;  he  appears  as  if  deep  in  thought,  and  has  not 


such  a  wicked  and  low  disposition  as  report  attri- 
butes to  him.  He  has  three  sons  and  four  daugh- 
ters ;  he  does  not  dress  like  a  chief,  though  I  heard 
he  has  plentj  of  money. 

Sir  Henry  Pottinger  computes  the  number  of  the 
fighting  men  of  the  Mazaris  at  2,500 ;  but  I  was 
informed  that  there  are  12,000  of  that  family,  a 
third  part  of  which  can  appear  in  the  field  of  action. 
They  are  in&mous  as  robbers  and  murderers  of 
travellers;  but  I  found  them  extremely  civil  and 
hospitable.  Neither  of  the  sexes  is  handsome.  The 
dress  of  the  women  consists  of  trousers  and  a  gown. 
The  latter  is  made  after  the  Kashmirian  fashion, 
embroidered  on  the  chest,  and  a  piece  of  cloth 
covers  the  hand.  The  men  put  on  an  irregularly- 
shaped  turban,  and  a  loose  coat  buttoned  over  the 
front  of  the  body  and  the  neck.  The  turban  is 
loosely  tied,  so  that  it  conceals  the  whole  of  the 
forehead  and  ears,  and  makes  their  countenance 
appear  awful.  They  are  more  dirty  than  the  Af- 
ghans, and  never  change  their  clothes  until  they  are 
worn  to  pieces.  They  have  long  locks,  and  large 
beards.  When  the  hair  becomes  silvered  by  age, 
they  dye  it  blue  with  indigo.  None  of  the  Mazaris 
indulge  in  polygamy,  though  they  can  many  at  the 
expense  of  six  rupees.  Each  family  possesses  a 
good  many  herds  of  cattle.  They  live  in  khirgahs, 
or  small  tents,  made  of  reeds,  and  covered  with 
coarse  blankets.  They  excel  in  the  use  of  the 
sword,  and  always  have  that  instrument  with  them, 


even  when  they  go  to  the  well  for  water.  When 
they  fight,  the  women  run  from  the  distant  hamlets 
with  jars  of  water,  which  they  give  to  the  enemy, 
as  well  as  to  their  own  warriors.  The  Mazaris  are 
yery  neglectful  of  their  religion,  and  drink  much 

When  a  person  arrives,  he  goes  straight  to  the 
Mehman  khanah,  or  guests*  house,  of  which  there 
is  usually  one  or  two  in  every  village.  His  arrival  is 
immediately  announced  to  the  head  of  the  place, 
who  waits  on  the  guest.  They  embrace  each  other, 
and  then,  pressing  their  hands  like  Europeans,  they 
sit  in  a  circle,  keeping  their  knees  up  to  their 
stomach,  sitting  on  a  piece  of  cloth,  or  lungi,  which 
comes  upon  their  backs.  This  custom  prevails 
amongst  the  cultivators  of  Rotas,  &c.  After  a 
minute's  silence,  the  people  gradually  turn  to  the 
guest  and  say  to  him,  *^Durah^  **Mehar^  and 
^Khan^^  successively;  meaning,  "How  do  you 
do?"  They  inquire  after  the  health  of  his  rela- 
tions, servants,  horses,  cows,  &c.,  which  questions 
he  also  puts  to  them  afterwards.  When  these  cere- 
monies are  over,  the  host,  or  any  other  respectable 
man,  asks  the  news  of  his  guest ;  and  the  visitor 
recounts  every  thing  he  has  heard,  done^  and  seen 
on  the  road.  The  news  is  then  circulated  by  the 
hearers  throughout  the  whole  country.  The  guest 
makes  the  same  inquiries  from  his  entertainer^,, 
wherewith  to  amuse  his  friends  at  home.  The 
Beloches  of  the  Drishak,  Mazari,  and  Buldi  tribes 


are  very  simple  in  their  diet.  They  breakfast  on 
large  and  thick  bread,  which  is  dipped  into  butter, 
or  ghee,  mixed  with  raw  sugar.  At  dinner  they 
honour  guests  by  adding  a  cup  of  broth  and  a  few 
bits  of  meat. 

March  6. — We  reached  Ken,  after  a  journey  of 
six  miles  and  a  half  along  a  level  road.  It  is  a  fine 
village,  and  has  about  twenty  shops,  and  a  well.  On 
crossing  a  deep  river,  which  is  also  the  course  of  the 
Gadah  Nalah,  we  passed  by  Shah  Ali,  and  saw 
beautiful  fields  of  wheat.  Hence  we  descended  the 
bed  of  the  Shah  Ali  stream,  and  then  bent  our  way 
to  the  left.  From  the  beginning  of  our  march  to 
the  distance  of  eleven  miles,  the  country  was  green 
with  fields  of  com.  We  put  up  in  Kishmor, 
twenty-five  miles  distant.  The  road  was  remark- 
ably good.  Kishmor  has  a  small  bazar  of  twenty 
shops,  where  the  merchants  of  Rajputana  are  to  be 
seen.  They  come  to  buy  camels  in  this  part  of  the 

March  7. — A  march  of  9^  miles  brought  us  to 
Badhani,  a  large  village  ruled  by  Karam  Khan, 
younger  brother  of  the  Mazari  chief.  There  are 
about  twenty-five  handsome  shops ;  the  people  live 
in  huts.  We  passed  on  our  way  through  the  villages 
named  Ghialpur,  Mirshab,  and  Naurka  Kotela.  The 
latter  was  depopulated. 

March  8,  9. — We  continued  at  Badhani  on  ac* 
count  of  not  getting  any  guides  to  Ghauspur.  My 
feet  were  swollen,  and  this   rest  was  beneficial  to 


me,  as  well  as  to  my  companions.  There  are  eight 
ferries  between  Dera  Dilvar  and  Badhani,  or  the 
country  of  the  Mazaris:  namely,  Mori  Dafila, 
Ken,  Miani,  Shah  Ali,  Kishmor,  Gbialpur,  and 
Badhani,  and  each  of  these  has  one  or  two  boats. 
From  these  ferries  there  are  three  roads  leading  to 
Candahar,  by  which  the  caravans  often  travel  under 
the  protection  of  the  Sayads,  who  appear  to  be  the 
only  people  that  possess  any  influence  among  the 
independent  Beloches. 

March  10. — Under  the  protection  of  Shah  Ba- 
zali  Shah  Sayad,  we  took  leave  of  the  Mazari  coun- 
try, and  ttayelled  into  that  of  the  Buldis.  Sir  H. 
Pottinger,  in  his  Travels  in  Belochistan  (p.  56),  in 
mentioning  this  tribe,  estimates  the  number  of  the 
fighting  men  at  only  900;  but  I  was  informed 
that,  though  they  are  unequal  to  the  Mazaris,  yet 
they  are  not  fewer  than  3,000.  They  are  under 
two  persons,  Khaira  Khan,  and  Shari  Mohammed 
Khan.  The  former  was  taken  by  Mir  Rustum 
Khan,  of  Khairpur,  for  his  encouragement  of  rob- 

The  whole  of  our  route,  though  level,  was 
dreadfully  tiresome,  in  consequence  of  the  closeness 
of  the  wild  bushes  and  tamarisk-trees,  which  inter- 
cepted the  view  in  every  direction.  In  many 
places  we  traversed  spots  covered  vdth  red  grass, 
which  is  only  grazed  by  deer.  We  passed  on  our 
way  through  these  villages,  namely,  Khai,  Gubla, 
Port  Bhanai,  Rosulpur,  Dreho,  and  Fir  ka  Dera ; 


except  the  last  three,  each  had  about  500  houses, 
and  the  others  from  100  to  50.  Thej  were  of 
mud,  but  the  greater  part  of  the  people  live  in 
huts,  rising  about  ten  feet  from  the  ground.  They 
are  supported  by  long  thick  pieces  of  wood,  pur- 
posely made  high,  on  account  of  the  moistness  of 
the  country.  The  walls  of  Bhanai  are  washed  by 
the  Indus,  which  was  here  less  in  breadth  than  the 
Ganges  at  Calcutta.  The  water  was  extremely 

We  reached  Ghauspur  after  a  journey  of  26^ 
miles ;  it  is  smaller  than  Rojhan,  and  only  deserres 
notice  for  having  a  population  who  are  attached  to 
their  religion.  They  are  Beloches,  and  are  cleaner 
than  the  Mazaris,  whom  I  never  saw  performing 
either  prayers  or  ablutions.  This  was  the  first  day 
we  heard  the  azan  (or  call  to  prayer)  since  we  left 
the  territory  of  Bahawalpur.  The  Khatris  in  Ghaus- 
pur worship  the  well,  as  the  water-bearers,  or  Saq- 
qatis,  of  Hindusthan  do.  Here  we  observed  the 
Sindhians,  with  long  hat«  and  rough  features. 
The  people  speak  in  Ghauspur  the  language  of 
Sindh,  which  we  could  hardly  understand. 

March  11. — A  march  of  about  21^  miles  brought 
us  to  Khyrpur,  a  large  village  belonging  to  the 
Mirs  of  Khyrpur  and  of  Haidarabad,  twelve  miles 
west  of  the  Indus.  Before  we  reached  Sherpur, 
we  forded  a  rivulet,  called  Sindh ;  it  is  a  branch  of 
the  river  Indus,  and  abounds  with  fish,  from  the 
tax  of  which  the  Government  derives  great  profit. 


It  separates  from  the  Indus  a  little  above  Kishmor, 
or  Ghauspur,  and  falls  into  it  again  near  Larkana, 
forty  miles  lower  than  the  city  of  Shikarpur.  It  is 
not  fordable  in  many  places,  and  when  its  source 
swells,  small  boats  are  stationed  on  its  bed,  which, 
where  we  forded  it,  was  not  more  than  ten  yards 
across.  The  water  was  clear.  Our  road  was  much 
better  than  yesterday,  though  not  intersected  by 
large  villages.  The  country  is  fertile,  and,  if  rob- 
bery were  to  cease,  and  a  little  encouragement  were 
given  to  the  inhabitants  to  till  the  land,  would 
yield  immense  returns.  For  miles  we  passed 
through  fields  of  wheat. 

March  12. — Having  left  our  ground  by  8  a.m., 
we  proceeded  to  Shikarpur,  which  we  reached  after 
a  journey  of  5^  miles.  The  road  was  level  and 
green,  in  consequence  of  the  wild  bushes.  The 
country  we  travelled  through  is  peopled  by  Buldis ; 
it  extends  from  Khabi  to  Shikarpur,  and  from  the 
river  Indus  to  the  hills  called  Takkar.  The  Buldis 
are  handsomer  than  the  Mazaris,  and  dress  cleaner. 
They  attend  to  religion,  and  encourage  their 
children  to  study  the  Koran,  which  I  did  not  observe 
in  the  countries  previously  visited. 

At  Mitankot,  all  the  people  told  me  of  the 
dangers  which  beset  the  road  through  the  country 
of  the  Mazaris.  They  persuaded  me  strongly 
not  to  proceed  from  the  right  bank  of  the  Indus ; 
bat  the  desire  of  examining  the  manners,  as  well  as 
the  cruelties,  of  that  tribe  towards  travellers,  had 


excited  so  much  curiosity  in  me,  that  I  paid  no 
regard  to  their  statements. 

I  wrote  to  Mir  Baihram  Khan,  the  Mazari  chief, 
that  I  was  a  native  of  Kashmir,  and  wished  to 
proceed  to  Shikarpur,  to  bring  mj  uncle's  fiimilj 
through  his  country.  This  letter  was  despatched 
to  him  by  a  qasid,  with  whom  I  also  sent  one 
of  my  faithful  servants,  Qurban  Ali,  to  find  out 
the  feelings  of  the  chief.  This  man  was  deprived 
of  his  clothes  by  the  Mazaris,  on  his  way  to  Roj- 
han,  and  went  entirely  naked  before  the  chief,  Baih- 
ram Khan,  who  gave  him  some  of  his  own  dress 
to  put  on,  and  said  to  my  servant  that  his  country 
was  occupied  by  dogs  and  not  by  men.  The  diief 
was  highly  pleased  with  the  contents  of  my  letter, 
and  sent  me  a  favourable  answer,  saying,  that  his 
house  would  be  ever  ready  to  receive  me,  and  that 
he  would  do  his  best  to  serve  me  on  my  way  to 
Shikarpur,  and  also  on  returning. 

At  first  I  had  intended  to  leave  my  reduced 
baggage  at  Mitankot,  but,  on  second  thoughts, 
J  sent  it  to  Ahmadpur,  in  charge  of  one  of  my 
servants,  named  Shah  Vali.  I  had  nothing  with 
me  except  the  clothes  I  wore,  and  cooking^pots, 
which  my  servant  bore  on  his  back.  I  wrapped  up 
some  paper,  a  few  pens,  and  an  inkstand  round  my 
waist,  and  thus,  in  a  beggarly  guise,  proceeded  to 
the  house  of  Husain  Shah  Sayad,  who  is  highly 
respected  by  the  Mazaris.  Though  I  had  full 
confidence  in  the  promise  of  Baihram  Khan,  the 


Mazari  chief,  still  the  reputed  treachery  of  that 
nation  induced  me  to  ask  the  Sajad  to  accompany 
me  to  Shikarpur.  I  presented  him  with  a  piece  of 
muslin,  and  gave  him  some  part  of  the  money  which 
I  had  promised  to  give  him  in  that  city.  He  came 
to  Omarkot,  where  Hari  Singh,  officer  of  Sawan 
Mai,  though  he  had  orders  to  serve  me  in  every  way, 
told  the  Sayad,  that  I  was  the  vakil  of  the  English 
Government,  which  would  pay  10,000  rupees  to  any 
person  I  should  name.  This  speech,  with  other 
foolish  words,  made  the  Sayad  so  avaricious,  that, 
after  a  good  many  false  excuses,  he  asked  me  200 
rupees  more  than  what  was  previously  settled.  I 
told  him  that  I  was  a  poor  man,  going  to  Shikarpur 
to  bring  my  relations,  and  could  not  give  him  such  a 
large  sum  of  money,  which  was  my  twenty  months' 
salary.  I  wished  him  to  return  my  money,  which 
he  did,  but  not  the  piece  of  muslin.  I  cannot  say 
how  much  trouble  I  experienced  through  the  ill* 
will  of  Hari  Singh,  who  is  as  bigoted  a  Sikh  as  I 
ever  saw  in  the  Panjab. 

From  Omarkot,  trusting  to  the  protection  of 
Almighty  God,  we  came  to  Rojhan.  It  will  be 
needless  for  me  to  treat  in  detail  of  the  consi- 
deration and  favour  I  experienced  from  the  old 
lady,  Bebee  Jannat,  of  whom  I  have  already 
spoken.  Mir  Baihram  Khan  came  to  pay  me  a 
visit,  accompanied  by  nearly  a  hundred  men,  and 
assured  me  that  I  should  not,  at  least,  fear  any 

thing   as   long   as    I    was   in   his   country,  where 



I  might  consider  myself  as  safe  as  the  tongae 
in  his  month.  This  conversation  was  extremely 
pleasing,  and  here  I  once  more  felt  that  I  was  a 
British  servant.  He  sat  with  me  for  a  long  time, 
and  inquired  how  the  English  ruled  Hindusthan — 
how  they  married — how  they  buried — ^and  how  they 
received  strangers  ?  The  answers  which  I  gave  him 
briefly  in  return  highly  satisfied  the  chief.  He  said 
that  the  wonders,  arts,  generosity,  and  civility  of 
Englishmen  in  favour  of  travellers  had  excited  so 
much  desire  in  his  heart,  that  he  was  sure  to  visit 
Hindusthan,  if  circumstances  allowed  him.  I  had 
a  letter  from  Sawan  Mai  for  him,  which  I  did  not 
think  proper  to  offer  the  chief,  as  he  appeared  ill- 
disposed  towards  him.  Baihram  Khan  asked  me  if 
I  knew  Sir  C.  Wade,  and  why  I  did  not  procure 
through  him  a  letter  from  General  Ventura  in  his 
name,  which  would  remove  all  suspicions  on  his  part 
against  me.  I  had  many  letters  of  introduction  from 
the  people  of  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  to  his  address, 
one  of  which,  I  was  obliged  to  say,  was  sent  to  him 
from  that  officer.  The  contents  of  all  the  letters 
Were,  that  I  was  going  to  bring  my  uncle's  family. 

In  company  With  the  son  of  Baihram  Khan's 
brother-in-law,  we  came  to  Badhani,  where  we  were 
delivered  to  Karam  Khan,  the  younger  brother  of 
that  chief.  I  gave  him  a  piece  of  cambric,  but  he 
was  not  gratified  with  it.  He  said  that  the  country 
of  the  Buldis  begins  from  here,  and  he  cannot  escort 
me,  as  his  brother  wrote ;  therefore  I  should  pay 


something  to  a  Sayad  of  reputation,  and  go  with  him 
to  Shikarpur.  I  told  him  that  I  had  nothing  at 
present  to  give,  but,  on  my  return  from  that  city,  I 
would  not  forget  the  obligations  I  should  receive. 
Instantly  I  sold  one  of  my  two  cooking-pots  to  a 
shopkeeper,  and  the  other,  not  worth  four  rupees^ 
I  left  in  the  house  of  a  Hindu.  This  plan  succeeded 
remarkably  well  in  convincing  the  whole  family 
present  there  of  my  want  of  money,  and  of  my 
intention  to  return  to  Badhani.  He  then  told  me 
that  he  neither  wanted  any  thing  from  me,  nor 
could  he  escort  me  to  the  country  of  the  Buldis. 
At  last  I  was  pressed  to  apply  to  the  Sayad  of  Chak 
for  assistance,  and,  after  a  long  discussion,  I  agreed 
to  give  him  a  present,  and  the  avaricious  Karam 
Khan  gave  me  a  memorandum  of  the  articles  which 
he  told  me  to  buy  for  him  at  Shikarpur.  Amongst 
them  were  400  ferozahs,  or  turquoises,  which  struck 
me  with  surprise.  I  sent  him  part  of  the  things, 
merely  not  to  break  my  promise. 

Our  guide,  Mir  Shah  Bazalli  Shah,  a  youth  of 
good  disposition,  is  the  son  of  Lai  Shah,  son  of 
Mir  Shah,  son  of  Dir  Shah,  who  derives  his  origin 
from  Hazrat  Ali,  the  son-in-law  of  Mohammed. 
The  family  of  this  young  man  is  highly  respected  in 
this  part  of  the  country.  They  live  in  Chak,  a 
village  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Indus.  He  was 
accompanied  by  five  followers  of  his  house,  four  of 
whom  rode  on  two  camels,  the  fifth  on  horseback ; 
and  on  the  approach  to  any  village  or  town,  the 



eamel-men  sung  the  praises  of  Mohammed,  called 
Maulud.  When  the  song  was  heard  by  the  villagers, 
they  ran  to  receive  us,  instead  of  robbing  us,  as  they 
do  strangers.  They  kissed  the  feet  and  stirrups  of 
my  guide,  the  Sayad,  and  those  who  were  old,  and 
could  not  get  to  him  in  consequence  of  the  mob 
which  surrounded  us,  bowed  to  him  to  the  ground, 
and  invoked  blessings  upon  him.  Such  was  the 
respect  paid  to  our  guide  by  the  Buldis  when  we 
reached  Shikarpur.  They,  as  well  as  the  Mazaris, 
often  told  us  at  the  villages  that  we  were  under  the 
protection  of  a  zoravar,  or  powerful  man,  or  else  we 
should  feel  what  it  was  to  pass  through  the  country 
of  Shers  (or  tigers). 

When  we  reached  Shikarpur,  I  sent  the  letter  of 
Khub  Chand  to  his  brother,  Dharam  Dass,  and 
desired  him  to  hire  a  house  for  me ;  but  he  was  so 
much  afraid  of  the  authorities,  that  he  immediately 
went  to  the  hakim  or  agha,  and  informed  him  of 
my  real  character,  though  it  was  against  my  wishes. 
He  then  returned  to  me,  and  said  he  would  seek  a 
house  for  me  in  a  day  or  two,  but  at  present  it 
would  be  better  if  I  would  lodge  out  of  the  city. 
In  the  mean  time  Vali  Shah,  who  had  heard  of  me 
from  the  people  of  Dera,  came  to  me,  and  placed 
me  in  his  Mehman  khanah,  which  was  a  miserable 
cottage,  exposed  to  the  sun  in  the  day  and  dew  in 
the  night.  However,  they  treated  me  kindly,  and 
provided  me  with  clothes,  bed,  &c.  &c.  On  the 
second  day  I  found  myself  feverish,  and  my  feet  were 


swollen,  though  I  had  travelled  the  last  twentj-sis: 
miles  ou  an  ass.  Vali  Shah  is  a  very  good  man, 
and  has  great  power  amongst  the  Beloches.  He 
once  brought  Shah  Shuja  through  the  Mazari 
countiy  to  Shikarpur,  and  served  him  in  the  most 
dangerous  circumstances.  He  also  accompanied  Sir 
Alexander  Bumes  up  the  Indus,  until  he  reached 
the  Bahawalpur  territory. 

Mardi  13  to  25. — We  continued  in  the  house  of 
Vali  Shah,  without  the  walls  of  Shikarpur.  I  had 
great  difficulty  in  investigating  the  nature  and 
extent  of  the  commerce  of  this  place,  as  the  mer- 
chants were  so  jealous  that  none  of  them  answered 
my  questions  on  that  subject.  They  were  displeased 
by  the  opening  of  the  navigation  of  the  Indus,  and 
had  unanimously  prevented  their  agents  at  Bombay 
from  purchasing  any  of  the  English  cloth.  They  do 
not  like  the  cheapness  of  the  things,  and  therefore 
they  are  ill-disposed  towards  the  agents  of  Agha 
Ismail  and  Mirza  Mai,  who,  on  this  account,  have 
not  been  yet  made  acquainted  with  the  rates,  im- 
ports, and  exports  of  the  neighbouring  markets  of 

March  25. — The  sun  was  intensely  hot  when  we 
set  out  from  Shikarpur,  and  we  were  obliged  to  ask 
Vali  Shah  to  accompany  us  as  far  as  the  ferry  of 
Bhatar,  through  fear  of  robbers,  who  spoil  the  coun- 
try to  the  very  gates  of  the  city.  Our  fears  were 
not  groundless,  since  one  Hindu  merchant,  coming 
from  Rohri,  was  shot  two  days  ago  by  a  Beloch 


robber,  within  two  koss  £roni  Shikarpur.  The  rob* 
ber  was  taken,  and  proved  to  be  of  a  Sajad  family. 
He  was  released  immediately  after  his  &ce  had 
been  blackened,  and  he  was  conducted  through  the 
bttzar,  on  an  ass.  This  was  the  only  punishment  he 

Before  I  quitted  my  ground,  I  feasted  my  eyes 
with  the  beauty  of  the  bazar  at  Shikarpur.     After 
passing  through  lanes  closely  peopled,  I  stepped 
into   the  large  bazar,   and  found  it  fiiU.      There 
was  no  shop  in  which  I  did  not  observe  half  a 
dozen  Kbatri  merchants,  who  appeared  to  me  to 
have  no   time  to  speak  to  the  purchasers.     Such 
was  the  briskness  of  trade  going  on  in  the  bazar. 
It  is  not  broader  than  the  Candahar  bazar,  but  it  is 
longer  and  handsomer.     It  is  shaded  with  bamboos 
and  grass.      The  shopkeepers  wore  white  dresses, 
and  looked  happy.      It  occurred  to  me  that  the 
reason  why  Shikarpur  surpasses  Amritsar  in  wealth 
is,  that  its  inhabitants,  who  are  for  the  most  part 
Khatris,  have  spread  themselves  in  almost  all  the 
regions  of  Central  Asia,  whence  they  return  loaded 
with  gains  to  their  families  at  Shikarpur.     There  is 
not  so  much  commerce  carried  on  at  Shikarpur,  I 
believe,  as  in  Multan  and  Amritsar,  but  you  will 
see  all  the  shopkeepers  writing  hoondees,  or  bills  of 
exchange,  which  you  can  take  in  the  name  of  their 
agents  at  Bombay,  Sindh,  the  Panjab,  Khorasan, 
Afghanistan,  part  of  Persia,  and  Russia. 

The  road  from  Shikarpur,  as  far  as  Pirka  Dera, 


continued  towards  the  south-east,  and  then  it  turned 
to  the  north-east,  till  we  halted  at  Khai,  a  distance 
of  ten  miles.  The  country  is  fertile,  but  in  some 
places  so  dry,  that  the  easy  pace  of  the  horses 
we  rode  sent  up  heaps  of  salt  earth  to  our  &ces. 
In  the  first  few  miles  we  journeyed  in  a  jangal  of 
gaz,  which  hid  objects  from  our  eyes,  and  at  last 
we  came  into  an  open  country,  where  we  discerned 
wheat-fields  waving  like  the  ocean. 

Khai  is  a  large  village,  and  has  about  600  houses. 
The  people  are  handsome,  though  not  fair.  There 
are  about  fifteen  shops  of  Khatris,  who  have  also 
their  families  with  them. 

March  26. — As  we  had  to  cross  the  Indus,  we 
rose  early.  Before  we  came  to  the  ferry  of  Bha- 
tar,  we  passed  two  dry  rivulets,  called  Dangas. 
The  road  was  better,  though  in  some  places  it  had 
still  parched  features.  Bhatar  is  a  very  small 
hamlet,  where  an  ofiScer  of  the  custom-house  re- 
sides. The  bank  of  the  Indus  stands  nearly  ten 
feet  from  the  surface  of  the  water,  which  looked  ex- 
tremely muddy.  The  breadth  and  noise  of  the  river 
terrified  my  Delhi  companions,  who  had  supposed 
that  no  river  in  the  world  could  be  compared  vrith 
their  river,  the  Jamna.  While  the  ponies  went  into 
the  boat,  I  took  the  bearing  of  Sakhar,  Bakar, 
and  Rohri ;  all  these  places  were  on  my  right  hand, 
about  three  miles  down  the  Indus;  the  second, 
which  is  encircled  by  the  river,  has  a  beautiful  ap- 
pearance from  a  distance.      The  walls  looked  as  if 

440        PROM  CALCUTTA  TO  KABUL. 

plastered  with  red,  and  the  minarets  of  a  mosque^ 
erected  bj  Mir  Masum  Shah,  inside  of  the  walls, 
attract  observation.  We  crossed  the  Indus  in  fifteen 
minutes,  in  a  small  and  light  boat,  of  which  there 
are  here  about  six. 

After  swallowing  a  hasty  breakfast  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Indus,  we  journeyed  in  the  country  of 
Sindh,  and  were  not  a  mile  from  the  ferry,  when  we 
came  into  a  jangal  of  gaz,  so  thick,  that  we  could 
hardly  make  our  way  through  it.  We  had  no  guide, 
and  were  afraid  of  losing  the  road.  I  took  my  com- 
pass in  hand,  and  observed  that  we  were  not  out  of 
the  line  of  the  bearing,  which  I  had  taken  from  the 
other  side  of  the  river,  to  the  village  of  Machhi ; 
and  it  proved  to  be  so,  when  we  got  out  of  the 
bushes,  and  saw  the  place  standing  very  near  before 
us.  The  country  was  here  open  on  all  sides,  and 
richly  cultivated.  At  Machhi  I  turned  back,  and 
saw  above  Rohri  something  like  a  range  of  hills 
running  from  east  to  south.  Our  route  continued 
by  the  bank  till  we  put  up  for  the  night  at  Kot 
Sberal,  nearly  fourteen  miles  distant.  It  is  not  a 
very  large  village,  but  the  Khatri  residents  have 
built  a  Dharam  Sala,  in  which  strangers  lodge,  as 
we  did. 

March  27. — Before  the  sun  rose,  we  commenced 
our  march,  and  at  two  p.m.,  we  reached  Grotki, 
nearly  twenty-one  miles.  Our  route  to  Nauraja 
continued  by  the  bank  of  the  Indiis.  We  passed 
through  thickly-peopled  villages,  twelve  in  number. 


imd  in  each  of  them  there  were  from  200  to  300 
houses.  Dming  the  whole  of  our  march,  I  did  not 
discover  a  piece  of  land  bearing  a  parched  appear- 
ance. All  the  country  is  rich,  covered  with  fields 
of  com,  which  stretch  to  the  limit  of  the  sight ; 
poppy,  indigo,  and  cotton  are  abundantly  produced 
in  this  part,  which,  as  far  as  I  can  judge,  surpasses 
the  districts  of  India  in  fertility. 

Grotki  is  much  larger  than  Mitankot ;  it  has  a 
beautiful  bazar,  and  the  shops,  which  are  covered 
with  paintings,  are  well  supplied  with  merchandise. 
In  one  of.  them  I  saw  about  four  or  five  bundles  of 
English  cloth,  and  especially  red  broad  cloth,  six 
yards  of  which  were  sold  while  I  stood  there.  You 
can  buy  the  same  kind  of  stuff  at  one  rupee  per 
yard  at  Calcutta;  but  here  it  was  sold  at  five 

The  greater  part  of  the  population  of  Gotki  con- 
sist of  Hindu  Khatris ;  they  plough,  trade,  and  carry 
on  eveiy  kind  of  business.  Their  females  rove 
about  unveiled,  and  have  handsome  features;  but 
they  want  that  delicacy  which  is  common  in  the 
women  of  India.  They  smoke  and  drink  bhang,  like 
their  husbands ;  their  smoking-pipe  is  not  less  than 
two  yards  in  length,  fixed  in  an  earthen  jar,  which 
was  new  to  me.  Marriage  is  veiy  cheap  at  Gotki ; 
you  can  get  a  wife  for  100  rupees.  Fish  is  the 
favourite  meal  of  the  people  here. 

March  28. — We  left  our  ground  the  same  time 
as  yesterday,  and  reached  Khairpur,  known  by  the 


name  of  Dabar  Wall.  The  whole  distance  of  our 
inarch  was  about  twenty-five  miles,  through  conti- 
nued cultivation,  consisting  of  wheat  and  poppy; 
and  here  and  there  were  high  tamarisk-trees.  Cattle 
were  seen  in  all  directions.  We  passed  on  our  way 
through  the  villages  named  Mahula  and  Mirpur. 
The  former  stapds  on  a  steep  hill  of  clay,  and  was 
in  a  dilapidated  state;  the  latter  is  a  handsome 
village,  and  has  a  small  bazar. 

Yesterday,  before  we  arrived  at  a  place  called 
Malik,  we  beheld  the  husbandmen  assembled  in  a 
green  spot,  which  surrounded  their  hut.  On  ap- 
proaching them,  we  found  that  there  was  a  marriage 
of  some  cultivators,  and  the  guests  were  dancing  to 
the  beat  of  a  drum.  The  women,  who  were  not  so 
particular  in  concealing  themselves  as  the  Mazaris, 
danced,  and  received  the  plaudits  of  the  standers-by. 
The  dance  was  exactly  in  the  form  used  by  Euro- 
peans, only  differing  in  one  thing,  that  the  men  did 
not  help  the  women  when  they  were  making  the 
circle  in  the  dance,  as  I  had  observed  they  did  in 
the  Governor-General's  house  at  Calcutta.^ 

Khairpur  is  larger  and  broader  than  Gotki,  and 
some  of  the  houses,  constructed  of  burnt  bricks,  are 
two  or  three  stories  high.  The  shops  exceeded  one 
hundred,  and  the  appearance  of  the  bazar,  as  well  as 
the  number  of  the  people,  shewed  that  a  brisk  trade 
is  carried  on  at  this  place.  There  are  about  seven 
hundred  houses  in  Khairpur,  which  is  unwalled,  and 
stands  nine  miles  from  the  left  bank  of  the  Indus. 


March  29. — Previouslj  to  sunrise,  we  started  from 
our  halting-place,  and  kept  moving  for  9f  hours. 
The  morning  was  extremely  pleasant,  and  the  breezes 
were  refreshing.  We  came  to  Miani,  after  traversing 
a  cultivated  country.  Miani  has  no  mud  houses. 
At  noon  we  arrived  at  Kot  Sahzal,  and  saw  a  con- 
course of  individuals  moving  here  and  there.  This 
excited  our  surprise,  and  we  wished  to  pass  through 
the  town.  The  people  of  the  Musalman  iaith  had 
come  from  the  neighbouring  villages  to  oifer  prayers 
in  the  mosque,  in  consequence  of  the  festival  day,  or 
Id  Qurban,  which  is  looked  on  as  very  holy.  They 
were  embracing  and  congratulating  each  other,  and 
my  companion,  Jugal  Kishor,  and  other  people  who 
were  with  me,  recollected  with  a  sigh  the  civilized 
people  of  Delhi.  Indeed  I  have  seen,  neither  at 
Bokhara  nor  in  Persia,  those  symptoms  of  solemnity 
which  attend  the  equipage  of  the  Delhi  King,  Akbar 
Shah,  the  shadow  of  the  great  Taimur. 

Kot  Sabzal  is  larger  than  either  Gotki  or  Khairpur, 
and  it  is  surrounded  by  a  thin  wall,  which,  however, 
in  some  places  is  levelled  to  the  ground.  There  are 
four  bazars  facing  each  other  in  the  centre.  The 
shops,  which  are  high  and  neatly  made,  contain  every 
kind  of  commodities.  The  houses  are  both  of  burnt 
and  unbumt  bricks,  and  do  not  exceed  two  stories  in 
height.  The  gates,  four  in  number  (as  I  heard),  have 
perished  through  want  of  repair.  The  gate  through 
which  I  came  out  was  hastening  to  decay,  but  it  has  a 
gun,  which  is  kept  towards  the  Bahawalpur  country. 


It  was  about  seyen  spans  in  length,  and  half  of  that 
in  diameter. 

On  quitting  Kot  Sabzal  we  bid  adieu  to  the  fertile 
country  of  Sindh,  and  entered  into  that  of  Bahawal- 
pur.  We  had  not  proceeded  half  a  mile  when  every 
thing  changed.  Since  we  had  crossed  the  Indus 
at  Bhatar,  our  route  had  continued  among  fields 
of  wheat,  which  did  not  cease  for  sixty  miles ;  but  in 
the  country  of  the  Daud  Putra,  the  road  was  among 
barren  lands,  and  the  villages  were  in  a  miserable 
state,  the  people  being  poor.  From  Kot  to  Ahmad- 
pur,  where  we  put  up  for  the  night,  afker  travelling 
nearly  twenty-nine  miles,  the  road  all  the  way  was 
dry  and  parched.  The  villages  which  we  passed 
through  cannot  vie  with  the  Sindhian  hamlets,  in 
respect  to  the  houses  or  the  population.  Ahmad- 
pur,  though  a  large  village,  has  about  two  hundred 
shops,  but  deserves  no  mention  when  compared  with 
those  which  we  left  behind  us. 

March  30. — A  march  of  nearly  sixteen  miles 
brought  us  to  Naushaira,  which  is  unwalled,  and 
extremely  poor.  The  bazar,  containing  about  ten 
shops,  has  a  miserable  appearance.  There  is  not 
much  trade  here.  The  road  was  parched,  and  inter- 
sected by  small  bastis,  or  hamlets,  with  only  half  a 
dozen  cottages. 

Whilst  I  was  writing  my  journal,  a  soldier,  in  the 
service  of  the  Nawab  of  Bahawalpur,  came  and 
informed  me  that  there  had  lately  arrived  a  Sayad, 
who,  by  the  power  of  his  piety,  could  provide  me 


^th  fresh  grapes,  raisins,  figs,  &c.  &c.,  of  Kabul, 
besides  whatever  I  wanted  from  any  quarter  of  the 
globe.  I  had  previously  heard  of  such  people  in 
India,  and,  to  satisfy  my  curiosity,  I  paid  him  a  visit. 
He  received  me  kindly,  and  talked  much  of  Ranjit 
Singh,  who,  he  said,  had  great  confidence  in  him. 
At  our  request  he  read  some  words,  and  immedi^ 
ately  there  came  into  his  hands  fine  grapes,  which 
were  as  fresh  as  if  just  from  the  tree.  We  ate  them, 
and  found  them  very  delicious. 

March  31. — We  came  to  Khanpur,  after  a 
journey  of  21-j  miles,  in  9^  hours.  Our  road  was 
entirely  barren ;  the  canal  we  crossed  was  dry,  and 
the  hamlets  we  passed  through  contained  a  few 
wretched  huts. 

Khanpur  is  a  small  town,  thirteen  miles  from  the 
left  bank  of  the  Indus.  The  bazar  is  large  and  the 
houses  high,  but  there  is  nothing  to  be  admired  in 
the  bazar,  and  the  people  exhibited  only  filth  and 
misery.  It  is  only  noted  for  being  a  route  for 
trade.  The  banks  of  the  river  are  cultivated, 
but  every  kind  of  necessaries  is  cheaper  in  the 
country  of  the  Daud  Putra  than  in  that  of  Sindh, 
notwithstanding  the  former  is  far  behind  the  latter 
m  fertility.  This  difference  may  be  accounted  for 
by  the  extortions  of  the  oflScers  of  Bahawalpur ;  and 
another  reason  is,  that  so  much  com  is  not  con- 
sumed in  this  country  as  in  Sindh.  No  walls  are 
r9und  the  town  of  Khanpur,  and  you  will  find 
every  thing  in  disorder,  and  every  place  desolated 

446        FROM  CALCUTTA  TO  KABUL. 

in  the  country  of  Bahawal  Khan.  The  servanter 
are  insolent,  and  the  inhabitants  harassed  and 

April  1. — ^At  half-past  four  in  the  morning  we 
continued  our  journey  to  Chaudri,  where  we  ar- 
riyed  at  one  p.m.  ;  the  distance  was  upwards  of 
twenty-one  miles.  The  villages  which  were  my 
stations,  or  from  which  I  took  my  bearing,  were 
thinly  peopled.  Some  of  them  had  two  or  three 
miserable  huts,  and  the  others  not  more  than  fifteen. 
On  our  right  hand  was  an  extensive  desert,  com- 
posed of  sand,  which  joins  the  frontier  of  Jasal- 
mer,  and  on  the  left  we  had  a  striking  view  of 
verdure  and  trees,  which  perhaps  were  situated 
around  some  villages.  They  were  far  from  our 
road,  which  for  the  last  six  miles  had  been  covered 
with  saltpetre 

Chaudri  is  a  poor  place,  and  there  are  only  a  few 
huts  of  husbandmen,  one  well,  and  two  shops,  ill 
supplied  with  necessaries.  We  were  now  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Ghara  river,  which  I  was  informed 
flowed  sixteen  miles  north-west  of  our  road. 

April  2. — We  marched  at  half-past  three  in  the 
morning,  and  reached  Ahmadpur  before  noon,  after 
a  journey  of  nearly  nineteen  miles.  The  road  was 
barren,  and  without  water,  till  we  came  within  sight 
of  the  latter  place.  I  put  up  in  the  residence  of 
Major  Mackeson,  though  at  first  the  persons  in 
waiting  had  refused  to  provide  me  with  a  room,  {is 
my  mode  of  travelling  in  a  poor  dress,  &c.  made 


them  consider  me  not  a  respectable  man,  and  as 
we  had  hired  common  ponies  at  Shirkarpur,  with 
neither  stirrups  nor  proper  saddles. 

Major  Mackeson,  the  British  agent,  having  been 
detained  at  Lodiana,  from  the  3rd  of  April  to  the 
30th  of  November,  in  consequence  of  ill-health,  I 
was  ordered  to  act  in  his  place.  The  first  duty  I 
performed  at  the  court  of  the  Daud  Putra,  was  the 
delivery  of  a  Kharita,  or  letter,  from  the  Supreme 
Grovemment  to  the  Nawab  of  Bahawalpur,  announc- 
ing the  arrival  of  Lord  (now  the  Earl  of)  Auckland, 
as  Governor-General  of  India.  The  ceremony  of 
reception  was  grand.  On  my  entering  the  palace, 
a  salute  was  fired,  and  the  Nawab,  taking  the  Kha- 
rita  from  my  hands,  kissed  it,  and  placed  it  on  his 
eyes  before  he  read  it.  All  the  Daud  Putra  chiefs 
were  summoned  to  witness  the  reception,  and  they 
were  gorgeously  attired. 

Nawab  Mohammed  Bahawal  Khan  is  of  a  dark 
complexion ;  he  is  of  an  amiable  disposition,  though 
not  exempt  from  pride,  and  not  popular.  He  is 
addicted  to  the  excessive  use  of  Asiatic  luxuries. 
He  is  a  most  devoted  and  faithfiil  ally  of  the  British 
Government,  and  was  extremely  kind  to  me  while  I 
acted  for  Major  Mackeson  on  the  Tndus. 

I  left  the  British  residency  soon  after,  for  the 
purpose  of  settling  some  disputes  between  the  sub- 


jects  of  the  Labor  and  Bahawalpar  goyemments, 
and  continued  for  some  time  marching  up  and  down 
along  the  left  bank  of  the  Ghara  river.  The  dis* 
putes  were  mostly  cases  of  theft  of  cattle.  One  case 
was,  indeed,  most  extraordinary.  It  was  a  strict 
rule  of  the  British  agent  not  to  interfere  with 
domestic  quarrels;  however,  the  vakils  insisted 
that  I  should  decide  this  case,  and  I  consented. 
Next  day,  a  widow  with  two  children  under  twenty 
years  of  age,  and  an  old  man,  the  brother  of  her 
deceased  husband,  were  brought  into  my  presence, 
and  the  nature  of  their  disputes  was,  that  the  widow 
with  the  children  wished  to  possess  the  property 
left  by  her  husband,  while  his  brother  would  not 
allow  their  claim.  He  stated  and  proved,  that  his 
late  brother,  before  he  was  the  father  of  these  chil- 
dren, was,  in  consequence  of  the  misconduct  of  his 
wife,  forced  to  repeat  to  her  the  word  "  Talakr  or 
divorce,  which,  according  to  their  religious  law,  dis- 
united them  instantly.  However,  they  both  re- 
mained together  as  before,  and  then  had  these  two 
children,  which,  in  accordance  with  the  law,  were 
not  their  legitimate  issue,  and,  consequently,  had  no 
claim  of  inheritance.  The  woman  stated  that  her 
husband,  although  he  repeated  the  form  of  divorce 
while  in  ill-humour,  sent  for  the  priest  the  same 
evening,  and  performed  the  marriage  ceremony 
anew;  and  she  produced  a  paper  confirming  her 
assertion.  The  brother  of  the  deceased  said  that, 
agreeably  to  the  Mohammedan  law,  if  the  husband 


and  wife  are  once  divorced,  or  if  either  of  them  ever 
utter  the  word  of  divorce  thrice  in  the  presence  of 
the  other,  they  cannot  be  legally  re-married,  unless 
the  divorced  woman  be  married  previously  to  a 
stranger,  and  divorced  from  him.  I  heard  the  argu- 
ments on  both  sides ;  but,  by  the  rules  of  office,  I 
could  not  authoritatively  interfere  and  decide  the 

The  heat  was  so  excessive,  and  the  attacks  of 
fever  were  so  frequent,  that  change  of  air  and  place 
little  availed  me,  and  at  length  I  was  laid  up  for 
nearly  four  months  in  Multan,  and  could  hardly 
move  from  my  bed. 

The  recovery  of  my  health  was  a  good  deal 
owing  to  the  constant  attentions  of  many  natives 
of  Multan,  who  knew  my  father  when  he  was  pro- 
ceeding with  the  Honourable  Mountstuart  Elphin- 
stone,  on  his  mission  to  Afghanistan.  Even  their 
ladies  came  to  see  me,  and  used  various  sorts  of 
whimsical  arts  of  pretended  magic,  in  order  to  re- 
store me  to  health. 

About  the  end  of  November,  I  received  the  follow- 
ing official  letter,  and  in  consequence  I  made  hasty 
preparations  to  join  Sir  A.  Bumes,  in  Sindh  : — 

"  Sir, — I  am  desired  by  Captain  Wade,  in  consequence  of  in- 
strnctions  from  the  Supreme  Government,  to  direct^ you  to 
repair  without  bss  of  time  to  Haidarabad  in  Sindh,  there  to 
place  yourself  under  the  orders  of  Captain  Bumes,*  assistant  to 
the  resident  in  Cutch. 

*  This  will  further  shew  that  I  was  not  the  munshi  employed 



^'  Yoa  will  direct  the  officers  of  the  Nawab  of  Bahawaipor  and 
the  Nazim  of  Multan,  who  hare  been  appointed  to  co-operate 
with  you  in  the  performance  of  your  present  duties,  to  return  to 
their  respectiye  masters,  who  will  be  duly  informed  by  me  of 
the  occasion  of  your  departure,  and  of  the  arrangement  necessary 
for  supplying  your  place. 

'^  I  have  the  honour,  &c., 

^^F.  Mackeson,  British  Agent 
**Camp  on  the  Sutlej,  Nov.  7,  1836." 

When  Sir  A.  Bumes  was  appointed  on  a  mis- 
sion to  Kabul,  the  Governor-General  attached  me 
to  the  mission,  considering  that  my  knowledge  of 
Afghanistan,  in  addition  to  that  of  Mr.  Masson, 
news-writer  at  Kabul,  would  be  of  assistance  to  that 
officer ;  and  Mr.  Treveljan,  deputy  secretary,  autho- 
rized me  to  place  myself  at  the  disposal  of  Sir  A. 

It  was  the  Ist  of  December,  or  earlier,  when  I 
sailed  down  the  Chenab.  In  the  journey  which  I 
made  through  the  district  of  the  Mazari  Beloches 
I  obtained  the  objects  sought  by  my  immediate 
superiors.  Sir  Claude  Wade  expresses  his  opinion 
in  the  following  manner : — 

^^  Continuing  to  fulfil  my  instructions  on  the  occasion  of  your 
deputation  to  the  banks  of  the  Indus  in  1835-6,  to  inquire  into 
the  commercial  state  of  the  principal  places  on  that  riyer,  the 
various  routes  between  the  Dera  jat  and  Candahar,  and  to 
explain^he  object  of  the  British  Government  in  the  treaties  which 
it  had  concluded  with  the  Amirs  of  Sindh,  Maharaja  Ranjit 
Singh,  and  the  Nawab  of  Bahawalpur,  for  opening  the  navigation 

by  the  late  Sir  Alexander  Burnes,  but  I  have  always  been  the 
Company's  servant,  and  attached  to  their  missions. 


of  the  Indus ;  the  reporte  which  yon  forniBhed  in  the  coarse  of 
these  inquiries  were  submitted  by  me  at  the  time  to  Gh>Temment> 
and  bore  highly  creditable  testimony  to  the  ability,  «eal,  and  per- 
severance with  which  you  fulfilled  that  mission,  of  which  some 
idea  may  be  formed  from  the  copy  you  haye  transmitted  of  a 
portion  of  your  reports.  Their  yalue,  as  well  as  the  nature  of 
yoor  exertions,  in  collecting  the  information  required,  was  shewn 
chiefly  in  the  difficulty  of  travelling  through  those  countries  at 
a  time  when  hostile  collisions  between  the  Sikh  authorities  in 
Mitan  and  the  Mazaris,  and  other  predatory  tribes  on  the  Sindh 
frontier,  rendered  the  performance  of  such  a  journey,  without 
exciting  the  jealousy  and  suspicions  of  the  natives,  extremely 

It  will  be  observed  from  the  above  extract  from 
Sir  Claude  Wade's  letter,  that  it  was  not  an  easy  or 
a  safe  task  to  pass  through  the  Mazari  country  dur- 
ing the  continued  skirmishes  between  the  Sikhs  and 
that  tribe.  However,  I  attained  the  objects  in  view, 
without^involving  the  Grovemment  in  any  way  what- 
ever, and  came  down  by  the  river  from  Multan,  into 
a  village  a  little  above  Chachar  on  the  Indus,  under 
the  Bahawalpur  Government  Here  the  Nawab 
expressed  a  wish  that  I  should  visit  him  at  Khan- 
pur,  before  I  passed  down  to  Sindh. 

Having  left  my  baggage  and  servants  in  the 
boat,  I  proceeded  to  the  camp  of  his  highness,  who 
received  and  treated  me  with  much  consideration, 
and  I  passed  many  pleasant  days  with  the  Nawab. 
It  was  at  this  time  that  I  received  the  sad  intelli- 
gence, that  the  boat  in  which  I  had  left  all  my 
private  and  public  property,  consisting  of  valuably 



presents  to  and  from  the  different  chiefs,  had  taken 
fire,  and  every  thing  was  consumed,  and  my  friend 
Jugal  Kishor  lost  his  life.  The  Nawab  heard  this 
news  with  much  concern,  and  sent  me  a  large  sum  of 
money,  to  equip  myself  for  the  voyage  to  Haidarabad. 

After  an  uninterrupted  passage,  I  joined  the  party 
of  Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  consisting  of  Major  Leech, 
Lieut.  Wood,  and  Nourozjee  Furdoonjee.  He  ap- 
peared delighted  to  see  me. 

On  the  1st  of  March,  we  entered  the  territory 
of  our  good  ally  Mir  Rustam  Khan,  of  Khairpur. 
After  visiting  the  town  of  Larkana,  we  were  joined 
at  the  ferry  of  Keri  by  a  deputation  from  Ali 
Morad,  who  had  sent  his  brother-in-law,  and  an 
Armenian  officer,  to  welcome  us.  These  persons, 
as  instructed  by  that  arch  intriguer  their  master, 
Ali  Morad,  urged  us  very  much  to  stay  and  join 
some  hunting  excursions;  but  political  considera- 
tions induced  us  .to  decline  their  invitation.  We 
afterwards  met  the  Khairpur  minister,  Fatah  Mo- 
hammed Ghori,  who  escorted  us  to  that  place  with 
every  possible  show  of  ceremony.  On  the  1 6th  we 
had  an  interview  with  Mir  Rustam  Khan.  His 
reception  of  us,  and  the  cordiality  of  his  conver- 
sation, promised  fair  for  his  being  a  steadfast  friend 
of  the  British  Government,  in  opposition  to  the 
wishes  of  his  brothers,  Mir  Mobarak  Khan  and  Mir 
Ali  Morad  Khan.  Here  we  were  joined  by  Dr. 
Lord,  from  Bombay,  and  we  continued  for  some 
days  in  this  place  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  com- 


mercial  and  geographical  information.  The  son  of 
the  minister  was  ordered  to  accompany  us  up  the 
Indus  as  far  as  the  limits  of  the  Bahawalpur  terri- 
tory. Our  boats  were  now  dragged  against  the 
current  of  the  Indus  and  of  the  Panjab  river. 

On  our  arrival  at  Ahmadpur»  we  were  kindly- 
treated  by  the  Nawab  of  Bahawalpur,  and  thence 
we  proceeded  over-land  to  the  city,  to  inquire  re- 
specting the  trade  of  that  famous  market.  After 
a  sojourn  of  a  few  days,  we  went  over  in  our  boats, 
and  came  down  by  the  Ghara  to  Uch  Sharif,  a  place 
of  great  resort  for  devotion  by  people  of  distant 
parts  of  Sindh  and  of  the  Panjab,  on  account  of  the 
miracles  wrought  by  the  celebrated  saint,  Makhdum 
Jahaniyan  Jahangasht,  who  is  interred  here. 

Uch,  sumamed  Uch  Sharif,  or  *  holy  Uch '  (which, 
being  near  the  junction  of  the  united  streams  of  the 
Hesudrus,  the  Hyphasis,  and  the  Hydraotes,  with 
the  Acesines  and  the  Hydaspes,  attracts  the  notice 
of  geographers),  contains  numerous  sepulchres  of 
Mohammedan  saints.  The  oldest  is  that  of  Shah 
Saif  ul  Haqqani ;  but  a  miserable  wall,  without 
roof,  covers  the  dust  of  the  saint  Shah  Sayad 
Jalal,  another  saint,  died  600  years  ago,  and  is 
said  to  have  lived  to  the  age  of  150.  His  tomb, 
which  is  inside  a  large  gloomy  room,  is  elevated 
about  five  spans  from  the  surface  of  the  ground. 
It  is  a  very  simple  building,  adorned  with  a  frail 
and  old  canopy.  On  each  side  of  the  tomb  are  ten 
graves  of  his  offspring,  one  rising  above  the  other. 


None  of  them  had  any  inscription.  Shah  Sayad  Jakd 
acquired  great  fame  by  defeating  the  Halasso,  and 
converting  his  son,  Bolaqu,  to  Islamism.  He  was 
the  mler  of  Betawahi,  or  Bahawalpur. 

In  company  with  my  countryman  and  school- 
fellow,  Kashinathy  I  proceeded  to  the  town  of  Ueb, 
and  passed  through  a  few  narrow  streets,  on  our 
way  to  the  shrine  of  the  Makbdum.  On  coming 
to  the  door,  which  we  found  in  a  most  ruinous  state, 
we  descended  towards  the  west,  and  turning  to  the 
south,  entered  the  room  where  the  body  of  the  saint 
rests.  The  tomb  is  a  very  poor  structure,  raised 
about  seven  feet  from'  the  ground,  which  is  covered 
with  other  graves.  There  is  nothing  admirable  in 
the  shrine  of  the  Makhdum.  Three  small  openings 
give  light  to  the  apartment. 

The  following  inscription,  in  Persian,  on  the  door, 
contains  the  date  of  the  Makhdum's  death,  namely, 
A.H.  785,  orA.D.  1384:— 

^'When  the  world  was  covered  by  darkness,  without  the 
countenance  of  the  Shah  (or  Makhdum)." 

It  is  remarkable,  that  the  tombs  of  the  saints  of 
holy  Uch,  who  possessed  such  reputation  in  days  of 
old,  should  not  exhibit  any  architectural  beauty, 
except  that  of  Bibi  Jind  Vadi  (or  the  *  Lady  of  Long 
Life '),  which  is  situated  on  the  verge  of  a  preci- 
pice, overlooking  the  old  bed  of  the  Panjab  river. 
The  southern  part  of  this  magnificent  sepulchre  has 
been  swept  away  by  a  late  inundation  of  the  stream. 


Beffldes  this,  it  suffers  bj  the  neglect  of  the  Musal- 
mans,  who  do  not  repair  it.  The  door,  which  is 
completely  worm-eaten,  opens  towards  the  efisU  and 
discloses  a  sight  of  two  other  cupolas,  which  excel, 
in  material  and  workmanship,  all  others  in  Uch, 
except  that  of  Bibi  Jind  Vadi.  The  dome  in  which 
she  lies  is  of  burnt  bricks,  cemented  with  mortar. 
The  whole  of  the  edifice  is  ornamented  with  yarious 
colours,  and  with  lapis  lazuli  from  the  mines  of 
Badakhshan.  The  building  is  about  fifty  feet  high, 
and  twenty-five  in  circumference. 

On  leaTing  Uch  we  regained  the  Indus  a  little 
above  Chachar,  and  came  to  Mitankot,  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  river.  Here  we  were  joined  by  the 
agents  of  Maharaja  Banjit  Singh,  and  passing  by 
the  towns  of  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  and  Dera  Ismail 
Khan,  we  came  to  Kalahbagh.  Dera  Ismail  Khan 
is  a  very  poor  town.  From  Dera  Ghazi  Khan, 
Dr.  Lord,  Major  Leech,  and  myself  went  to  Multan, 
where  we  remained  for  a  few  days,  and  then  joined 
Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  on  the  road  to  Kalahbagh. 
Major  Mackeson  also  came  from  Lodiana,  and  set 
out  with  us  to  Peshawer.  Kalahbagh  is  in  a 
beautiful  situation.  The  streets  are,  however,  small, 
dark,  and  wretched-looking.  We  left  our  boats 
here,  and  crossing  the  river  to  the  left  bank,  set  out 
by  land  to  Atak.  On  this  road  we  passed  through 
the  most  fearful  ravines,  and  the  dry  beds  of  various 
streams.  In  the  rainy  season  it  must  be  impossible 
to  march  an  army  by  this  route,  but  at  this  time,  we 


met  the  Ifahor  forces,  uoder  Raja  Suchait  Singh,^ 
proceeding  to  punish  the  chief  of  the  Esakhail  tribe, 
who  made  frequent  inroads  into  the  Sikh  territory 
west  of  the  Indus. 

At  Atak,  we  put  up  in  the  ruined  sarae  adjoining 
the  fort,  and  next  day  we  went  to  visit  the  interior 
of  that  stronghold.  It  is  extremely  large  and  of 
great  strength,  but  requires  a  greater  number  of 
men  than  we  found  there  for  a  garrison. 

In  three  marches,  we  reached  Peshawer,  where 
General  Avitabili  treated  us  in  a  very  friendly 
manner.  Shahzadah  Kharak  Singh,  and  Jamadar 
Khushal  Singh,f  with  many  other  Sikh  chiefs,  had 
come  to  Peshawer  with  50,000  troops,  to  punish  the 
outrages  of  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan,  who  had 
lately  attacked  the  fort  of  Jamrod,  and  had  fought 
with  Sardar  Hari  Singh,  who  had  fallen..  Our 
mission  to  Kabul,  which  was  commercial,  required 
peace,  and  the  Sikh  authorities  were  advised  to  rest 
quiet,  on  a  promise  that  the  chief  of  Kabul  should 
make  some  sufficient  apology.  We  spent  some 
pleasant  days  here  in  parties,  and  in  reviewing  the 
Sikh  troops. 

On  the  30th  of  August,  we  quitted  Peshawer,  and 
came  to  Jamrod.  Having  waited  a  few  days  in  this 
place  for  the  escort  despatched  by  Amir  Dost 
Mohammed  Khan,  we  entered  the  Kbaibar  pass, 
contrary  to  the  advice  of. our  friends.     However, 

*  Since  killed  by  Heera  Singh's  followrftrs. 
•    t  Both  are  now  dead. 


some  of  the  chiefs  of  that  valley  encouraged  uf>, 
whilst   others   expressed   their   fears    of  offending 
the  Amir,  by  allowing  us  a  passage  through  the 
Khaibar  without  his  permission.     Nevertheless,  we 
insisted  on  going,  and  on  reaching  Ali  Masjid,  we 
were  saluted  by  a  small  party  of  infantry,  under  a 
Captain  Leslie,  alias  Rattray,  who,  having  become 
a  Mohammedan,  was  now  named  Fida  Mohammed 
Khan.     He  assured  us  that  the  people  of  Khaibar 
would  be   very  civil,  and  the  escort  from  Kabul 
would  soon   join   us.      Alah   Dad   Khan,   of    the 
K%>kikhail,    with    his   followers,   shewed  us   every 
respect  and  aided  us.     We  pitched  our  tent  under 
the  fort  of  Ali  Masjid,  and  were  suddenly  overtaken 
by  rain,  which  poured  down  in  torrents  from  the 
surrounding  high  mountains,  and  made  the  valley 
the  bed  of  a  rapid  stream.     Many  of  our  things 
were  swept  away,  and  we  had  no  place  of  shelter 
but  a  small  cave  in  the  rock.     In  this  confusion, 
the  people  in  the  Khaibar  behaved  very  honestly ; 
nothing  was  plundered  or  stolen  by  them.     Next 
day,  Mirza  Aghajan,  governor  of  Jalalabad,  Sadat 
Khan,  the  Momand  Chief  of  Daka,  and  Shahghazi 
Gul  Mohammed,  came  with  500  men  to  escort  us. 
The  party  shewed  us  much  distinction  by  shouts 
expressive  of  their  joy.     At  Daka,  all  the  Khaibar 
chiefe  took  leave  of  us,  and  we  bent  our  course  to- 
wards Kaja,  under  the  snowy  mountains  of  Sufaid 
Koh.     Here  we  saw  a  park  of  artillery  of  the  Amir, 
kept   to   awe   the   restless   spirit  of  the  Afghans. 


On  the  bridge  of  the  Surkhab  riyer,  we  met  another 
deputation  from  Amir  Dost  Mohammed,  headed  by 
Nazir  Ali  Mohammed,  who  had  brought  an  Afghan 
cook  with  him,  and  so  fhmiBhed  U8  with  all  kinds  of 
Asiatic  dishes.  After  passing  through  Jagdalak, 
Tezin,  Sehbaba,  and  the  Khurad  Kabul  pass,  we 
encamped  at  Butkhak.  Here  Mr.  Masson  joined  us, 
and  had  a  long  conyersation  with  Sir  Alexander 
Bumes.  Mirza  Imam  Vardi,  and  other  men  of 
distinction,  came  to  receive  us.  Next  day  we  met 
Sardar  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan,  and  being  seated 
with  him  on  elephants,  we  proceeded  to  the  city  t>f 
Kabul.  Both  sides  of  the  road,  as  we  passed  along, 
were  crowded  with  spectators  of  all  ranks,  who 
testified  universal  joy. 

I  will  say  nothing  here  of  our  negotiations,  and 
the  result  of  the  political  correspondence  which  took 
place  between  us  and  the  Amir.  They  will  be 
minutely  meqtioned  in  another  work.  He  received 
us  very  kindly,  and  shewed  us  every  respect  and 
demonstration  of  civility,  until  the  arrival  of  Captain 
Vicovitch,  the  Russian  agent.  He  accommodated 
us  in  a  new  building  which  he  had  recently  erected 
near  his  palace,  and  the  Russian  agent  was  lodged 
with  Mirza  Sami  Khan,  the  prime  minister. 

The  demands  of  the  Amir,  and  also  of  the 
Candahar  chiefs,  immediately  after  the  arrival  of 
Sardar  Mehar  Dil  Khan,  one  of  these  chiefs, 
were  rendered  exorbitant  by  the  arrival  of  the 
Russian  envoy ;  and  Sir  Alexander  Burnes,  having 


no  prospect  of  succeeding  in  his  mission,  was 
desired  by  the  Indian  Goyemment  to  retire.  In  the 
mean  time  Major  Leech  was  directed  to  fall  back  upon 
Shikarpur  from  Candahar,  where  he  had  also  fidled 
in  his  negotiations,  and  could  not  preyent  the  chiefs 
from  corresponding  with  Count  Simonitch,  the  Rus« 
sian  ambassador,  with  whom  Mohammed  Omar  Khan, 
the  son  of  the  principal  chief,  was  living  in  the  Per- 
sian camp  at  Herat.  Dr.  Lord,  who  had  been  sent  to 
Mir  Morad  Beg,  the  chief  of  Qunduz,  in  Turkistan, 
with  Lieut.  Wood,  was  ordered  to  retire  to  Peshawer. 
It  was  a  curious  change  of  circumstances,  that  the 
chief  of  Qunduz,  who  had  behaved  so  ill  to  the  late 
Mr.  Moorcroft,  and  whom  we  dreaded  so  much  on 
our  recent  journey  to  Bokhara,  should  be  so  very 
friendly  to  us,  that  he  permitted  the  above-mentioned 
officers  to  see  and  survey  all  the  places  of  note  in  his 
country,  and  treated  them  with  great  consideration. 
Dr.  Lord  had  previously  resolved  to  cross  the  Hindu 
Eush  by  Panj  Sher ;  but  the  snow  fell  so  heavily, 
accompanied  with  a  piercing  cold  wind,  that  the  party 
were  in  a  perilous  situation,  and  would  have  been 
frozen  to  death  had  they  not  been  conducted  back  by 
the  Panj-Sheris  down  the  pass. 

Before  the  arrival  of  the  Russian  agent,  we 
went  to  Koh  Daman,  to  see  the  gardens  of  that 
valley.  Passing  through  Kahrez  Mir,  Kahdrah, 
Shakardrah,  and  Farezah,  we  came  to  Istalif,  a 
most  picturesque  place,  in  Koh  Daman,  and  the 
inhabitants  illuminated  the  whole  town  on  account 


of  our  arrival.  The  houses  of  Istalif  are  erected 
along  the  skirt  of  the  mountain.  We  went  from  this 
place  to  a  beautiful  village  called  Istarghich,  on  our 
way  to  Charkar.  This  latter  place  is  larger  than 
any  other  town  in  the  valley,  but  is  not  handsome. 
From  thence  we  went  to  see  the  Reg  Rawan^  or 
moving  sand,  not  far  from  our  camp.  The  Emperor 
Babar,  in  his  Memoirs,  describes  this  place  thus : 
"  Between  the  plains  there  is  a  small  hill,  in  which 
there  is  a  line  of  sandy  ground,  reaching  from  the 
top  to  the  bottom.  They  call  it  Khwajah  Reg 
Rawan  ;  they  say  in  the  summer  season  the  sound 
of  drums  and  nugarets  issues  from  the  sand."  This 
description  is  perfectly  accurate,  though  it  may 
appear  extraordinary.  At  the  junction  of  the  two 
arid  hills,  there  is  a  sheet  of  sand  spread  out,  and 
visible  at  the  slope  of  the  termination  of  the  rock. 
It  is  as  pure  as  I  ever  saw  sand  on  the  seanshore  at 
Fresh-water,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  in  England.  It 
extends  from  the  top  to  the  bottom,  and  has  a 
breadth  of  about  ninety  yards.  We  slided  down, 
and  heard  a  sound  like  drums.  The  natives  of  this 
valley  state  that  the  noise  under  the  sand  is  distinctly 
heard  on  Friday  nights,  and  is  caused  by  the  saint 
Reg  Rawan,  who  is  buried  in  the  adjacent  hamlet. 

Our  mission  being  unsuccessful,  we  quitted  Kabul 
on  the  26th  of  April,  leaving  Captain  Vicovitch,  the 
Russian  agent,  in  that  capital.  The  chiefs  of  Can- 
dahar  had  also  received  a  mission  from  Mohammed 
Shah,  the  king  of  Persia,  headed  by  Qambar  AH 


Khan.  On  the  morning  of  our  departure,  Sardar 
Haidar  Khan  escorted  us  out  of  the  city,  and  the 
minister  passed  a  night  with  me  in  the  camp.  We 
reached  Jalalabad  in  safety,  and  were  treated  with  . 
kindness  by  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan.  A  report 
reached  us,  which  we  subsequently  found  to  be  cor- 
rect, that  some  of  the  chiefs  had  advised  Amir  Dost 
Mohammed  Khan  to  massacre  every  one  of  the 
mission ;  but  he  always  rejected  such  proposals  with 

At  Jalalabad  we  spent  two  days  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  rafts,  and  then  sailed  down  the  Kabul  river 
for  Peshawer.  Between  Lalpura  and  Michni,  the 
passage  of  the  river  was  confined  by  lofty  and  per- 
pendicular mountains,  and  in  many  places  was  very 
dangerous  for  rafts,  having  numerous  vortices,  or 
whirlpools,  caused  by  the  promontories  projecting 
into  the  middle  of  the  stream.  At  Peshawer  we 
took  up  our  residence  in  the  garden  of  the  Vazir, 
and  were  glad  to  meet  General  Avitabili  again. 
After  a  few  days  we  received  instructions  from  the 
Government  to  repair  to  Labor,  and  remain  with 
Sir  William  Macnaghten,*  who  was  on  a  mission  to 
the  court  of  Ranjit  Singh. 

On  the  17th  of  June,  we  joined  the  mission  at 
Shalahmar,  near  Labor,  and  I  was  delighted  to 
meet  my  long  known  patrons  and  friends.  Sir  Wil- 
liam, Sir  Claude  Wade,  Major  Mackeson,  and  Shah- 

*  Murdered  hj  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan. 

462        FBOM  CALCUTTA  TO  KABUL. 

amat  Ali.  We  passed  many  days  in  splendid  fes- 
tivitiea  and  dancing-parties,  given  by  the  Maharaja ; 
and  when  the  objects  of  the  mission  were  completed, 
we  set  out  for  Lodiana,  and  thence  to  wait  upon 
Lord  Auckland,  the  Governor-General  of  India,  at 
Simla,  in  the  Himalaya  mountains. 

An  excellent  and  entertaining  account  of  the 
mission  of  Sir  William  Macnaghten  to  the  Labor 
court,  has  been  published  by  the  Honourable  Cap- 
tain Osborne. 

On  the  20th  of  July  we  arrived  at  Simla,  and 
paid  our  respects  to  the  Governor-General. 




Political  circumstanceB  obliged  the  Goyemment 
of  India,  in  conjunction  with  the  home  authorities, 
to  send  an  anny  across  the  Indus,  and  to  place 
Shah  Shuja-ul-moolk*  on  his  hereditary  throne  of 
Kabul.  The  rendezvous  for  the  British  army  (which 
was  called  the  army  of  the  Indus)  was  fixed  at 
Firozpur,  Here  the  Governor  -  General,  Lord 
Auckland,  and  the  Commander-in-Chief,  the  late 
Sir  Henry  Fane,  had  an  interview  with  Maharaja 
Ranjit  Singh.  In  Simla  his  lordship  invited  me  to 
his  residence,  and,  after  a  long  conversation  regard- 
ing the  affiurs  of  Afghanistan,  and  inquiries  about 
the  supplies  of  cattle  and  grain,  made  me  the  bearer 
of  letters  to  the  Lohani  chiefs.  I  was  directed  to 
proceed  to  Multan,  and  his  lordship  treated  me  with 
kindness,  and  added,  that  my  friend,  Mr.  Trevelyan, 
had  often  mentioned  to  him  my  humble  merits  and 
zeal  in  the  public  service,  and,  consequently,  hoped 
that  I  should  complete  the  object  of  my  deputation 
to  the  satisfaction  of  his  lordship. 

*  Mnrdered  by  Shnja-ul-donlat,  son  of  Nawab  Zaman  Khan, 
ancle  of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan. 


I  came  down  by  post  from  Simla  to  Lodiana, 
where  I  was  joined  by  Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  and 
we  proceeded  down  the  Satlej  and  Ghara  to  Baha- 
walpur.  Here  I  separated  from  that  officer,  and 
after  a  day's  stay  in  Multan,  and  inducing  the 
bankers  to  send  down  money  to  Shikarpur  for  the 
public  use,  and  making  an  agreement  with  the  Lo- 
hanis  to  supply  us  with  camels  for  the  carriage  of 
provisions  for  the  army,  I  sailed  down  the  Chenab 
and  the  Indus,  to  Khairpur,  in  Upper  Sindh,  where 
I  rejoined  Sir  Alexander  Bumes.  He  was  engaged 
in  negotiations  with  the  Mirs,  and  directed  me  to 
proceed  and  facilitate  the  purchase  of  supplies  from 
Captain  Scott,  the  commissariat  officer,  who,  by  his 
energetic  and  able  management,  gained  an  influ- 
ence with  the  dealers  in  Shikarpur  in  a  very  short 

Sir  Alexander  Bumes  failed  in  his  attempt  to 
form  an  offensive  and  defensive  treaty  with  the 
Mirs  of  Khairpur,  in  consequence  of  the  active 
intrigues  of  Mir  Ali  Morad.  He  came  to  Shikarpur, 
and  suggested  to  me  that,  if  I  were  to  go  with  the 
treaty,  and  get  Mir  Rustam  Khan  to  sign  and  seal 
it,  I  should  perform  a  valuable  service  to  the 
Government.  I  agreed,  on  the  condition  that  he 
kept  Fatah  Mohammed  Ghori,  the  minister  of  Kair- 
pur,  with  him,  that  I  should  negotiate  with  the 
Mirs  personally,  and  that  he  wrote  to  Mir  Ali 
Morad  that  his  coming  to  Khairpur  from  his  fort  of 
Deejee,  during  my  visit  to  Mir  Rustam  Khan,  would 


not  be  allowed.  All  this  was  arranged  accordingly, 
and  I  succeeded,  after  a  few  interviews  and  con* 
ferences,  in  getting  the  treaty  sealed  and  signed  by 
the  good  Mir  Rustam,  who  also  gave  up  the  fort  of 
Bakar  for  the  stores  of  the  army.  Mir  Ali  Morad 
appeared  at  our  latter  conferences,  but  too  late  for 
his  intrigues  to  induce  Mir  Rustam  to  reject  the 

After  the  treaty  was  completed,  Sir  Alexander 
Bumes  proceeded  with  me  to  congratulate  the  Mir 
on  his  strengthening  the  bonds  of  friendship  with 
the  British  Government.* 

On  the  arrival  of  Shah  Shuja  and  the  Commander- 
in-Chief  on  the  northern  frontier  of  Sindh,  we  pro- 
ceeded by  rapid  marches,  and  waited  upon  them  at 
Subzalkot.  The  supplies  collected  by  me  met  the 
demands  of  the  commissariat  officers,  and  I  was 
again  sent  to  Khairpur  to  induce  Mir  Rustam  Khan 
to  allow  the  British  engineers  to  throw  a  bridge 
across  the  Indus  at  Rohri.  This  proposal  wsus 
agreed  to  by  Mir  Rustam,  in  spite  of  the  opposition 
of  Ali  Morad,  in  the  presence  of  Major  Leech. 

The  army  of  the  Indus  reached  Rohri;  and  a 
large  brigade,  under  Sir  Willoughby  Cotton,  was 
sent  towards  Haidarabad,  to  awe  the  Mirs  of  that 

*  It  is  most  lamentable  that  this  old  and  faithful  ally  of  the 
British  became  at  last  a  victim  to  the  intrigues  of  his  cunning 
brother,  Mir  Ali  Morad,  who  caused  our  new-appointed  func- 
tionary to  dethrone  the  innocent  Mir  Rustam,  and  give  to  the 
iotrigaer  the  chiefship. 



place.  I  was  attached  to  this  part  of  the  army 
politically,  and  Sir  Alexander  Bumes  remained  with 
the  Commander-in-Chief,  who  preceded  our  column. 
Mir  Ali  Morad  opposed  our  advance  by  Khair- 
pur,  and  did  all  he  could  to  persuade  Mir  Rustam 
to  follow  his  advice ;  but  the  latter  always  shewed 
himself,  in  every  way,  our  iaithfiil  ally.  The  treaty 
at  Haidarabad  was  completed  by  the  able  nego« 
tiations  of  Colonel  (now  Sir  Henry)  Pottinger ;  and 
the  diflSsrent  divisions  of  the  Bengal  and  Bombay 
armies  reached  their  rendezvous  at  Shikarpur. 

Here  Sir  Alexander  Bumes  stated  that  he  could 
not  proceed  with  the  army  to  Kabul,  to  dethrone 
Amir  Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  with  whom  we  had 
dined,  and  who  had  treated  us  as  private  friends. 
He  added,  that  his  presence  in  that  capital,  while 
under  Sir  William  Macnaghten,  would  cause  a  sort 
of  difference  in  the  opinion  of  the  chiefe  in  that 
countiy.  All  these  various  considerations  were 
deliberately  weighed  by  Sir  William,  who  agreed 
that  Sir  Alexander  Bumes  and  myself  should  re- 
main in  Shikarpur,  facilitating  the  progress  of  the 
army.  This  arrangement,  however,  proved  to  be  of 
very  short  duration ;  the  Commander-in-Chief  and 
Sir  Willoughby  Cotton  soon  found  that  the  army 
could  not  spare  our  services  in  a  country  where  our 
names  were  jfamiliar  to  the  inhabitants ;  and  con- 
sequently we  were  expressly  ordered  to  join  the 
camp  forthwith.  At  this  time  the  heat,  even  at 
night,  was  distressing,  and  the  dust,  caused  by  the 


moyement  of  the  forces,  clouded  the  air,  makiDg 
its  way  into  the  mouth,  ears,  and  nose.  Passing 
through  Dadur  and  the  Bolan  pass,  ahead  of  the 
army,  we  came  to  Quetta,  from  whence  we  pro- 
ceeded on  a  mission  to  Kalat,  where,  after  passing 
some  days  in  fruitless  negotiations,  we  returned  to 
Quetta.  The  army  and  Sir  A.  Bumes  were  about 
six  marches  distant  from  us,  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Eojuk  pass.  The  road  between  this  and  the  camp 
was  infested  with  robbers,  who  plundered  and 
murdered  all  whom  they  found  in  the  rear  of  the 
column.  I  hired  an  escort  from  the  Kakrees,  the 
tribe  of  robbers  then  molesting  our  troops,  and  set 
out  from  Quetta.  Captain  Nash,  of  the  Bengal 
infantry,  accompanied  me ;  and  after  three  tiresome 
marches,  we  reached  the  camp  of  Colonel  Herring,* 
at  Kojak,  fighting  with  the  Achakzais.  On  our 
road,  we  saw  some  camp-followers  and  sepoys  lying 
on  the  ground,  murdered  and  stripped  by  the 
Kakrees  and  Achakzais,  as  also  horses  and  camels 
in  hundreds,  starved  to  death.  About  eight  miles 
before  we  reached  the  camp,  a  body  of  robbers  de- 
scended towards  my  party,  and  were  informed  by 
our  escort  that  we  did  not  belong  to  the  Feringees, 
and  that  I  was  one  of  Shah  Shuja's  sons,  who  had 
been  left  behind,  being  unwell.  They  were  satis- 
fied, and  we  were  glad  to  have  escaped  from  the 
clutches  of  these  plunderers. 

*  Afterwards  murdered. 

2  h2 

468  FROM    SINDH   TO   KABUL 

The  Kojak  pass  was  so  much  crowded  with  our 
heavy  park  of  artillery,  that  I  could  not  get  through 
till  the  next  day.  In  two  marches  I  joined  Sir  W. 
Macnaghten  and  Sir  A.  Burnes,  to  whom  I  delivered 
the  letters  of  Mehrab  Khan,  chief  of  Kalat,  and 
introduced  his  agent.  Here  we  suffered  a  good  deal 
from  want  of  water.  The  streams  were  stopped  up 
by  the  Candahar  chiefs,  who  were  reported  to  be 
near,  and  planning  a  night  attack.  The  Commander- 
in-Chief  changed  the  position  of  the  camp  and  of 
some  of  the  regiments,  to  prevent  any  confusion  in 
case  of  a  night  attack. 

On  the  20th  of  April,  1839,  Haji  Khan  Kakur 
deserted  the  enemy  and  came  over  to  us.  I  went 
to  receive  him  beyond  the  lines  of  our  piquets.  The 
Candahar  chiefs  thought  it  best,  for  their  own  safety, 
to  fly  towards  Persia,  and  we  proceeded  with  the  Shah 
to  Candaliar,  where  he  was  placed  on  the  throne. 

We  continued  longer  at  Candahar  than  we  had 
anticipated.  Provisions  were  scarce  there,  and  rose 
very  high  in  price.  Through  the  extraordinary 
exertions  of  Colonel  Parsons,  and  Captain  Watt  of 
the  Commissariat,  a  sufficient  quantity  of  supplies 
was  collected,  and  on  the  1st  of  March,  1839>  the 
Commander-in-Chief  marched  from  Candahar.  The 
army  advanced  without  opposition  to  Ghazni.  Here 
the  British  troops  gained  a  brilliant  victory,  and  took 
that  famous  stronghold.  Sardar  Gholam  Haidar 
was  taken  prisoner,  and  lodged  in  my  tent,  which 
was  between  those  of  Lord  Keane,  the  commander- 


in-chief,  and  Sir  Alexander  Bumes.  Nawab  Jabbar 
Khan  came  from  Kabul  with  some  proposals  from 
Amir  Dost  Mohammed  Khan ;  he,  however,  returned 
dissatisfied  with  his  reception,  though  he  was  ac- 
knowledged as  a  steadfast  adherent  of  the  British 
Government.  I  accompanied  him  beyond  our 
piquets,  and  at  parting  saw  he  was  under  deep 
clouds  of  disappointment. 

On  the  30th  of  July,  1839,  the  army  moved 
towards  Kabul,  and  at  Shekhabad,  on  the  3rd  of 
August,  some  of  the  chiefs  came  to  my  tent  about 
3  A.  H.,  from  the  camp  of  Dost  Mohammed  Khan, 
bringing  the  news  of  the  flight  of  the  Amir,  and  of 
his  leaving  his  artillery  at  Maidan.  My  informant 
was  immediately  introduced  to  Sir  Alexander  Burnes, 
and  thence  conducted  to  the  Envoy  and  the  Shah. 
Afterwards,  my  friend  the  Persian  chief,  Khan  Shi- 
rin  Khan,  arrived  in  our  camp.  We  prepared  next 
day  to  start  for  Kabul,  which  we  reached  on  the  7th, 
with  H.  M.  Shah  Shuja-ul-moolk. 

I  have  avoided  altogether  relating  the  progress 
and  operations  of  the  army,  and  speaking  of  the  line 
of  policy  we  pursued  after  the  expedition  was  re- 
solved upon.  Interesting  accounts  of  the  military 
movements  are  given  in  the  able  works  already 
published,  of  different  officers,*  then  with  the  army. 
As  far  as  my  humble  knowledge  will  qualify  me  to 
say  any  thing  either  on  the  military  operations  or 

*  Colonel  Oatram,  Majors  Harelock  and  Hough,  Drs.  Atkin- 
son and  Kennedy. 


the  political  negotiations  of  that  expedition,  I  shall 
touch  upon  them,  in  their  proper  place,  in  a  future 

I  was  very  glad  to  meet  my  friends.  Sultan  Mo- 
hammed Khan,  and  Khan  Shirin  Khan,  the  Per- 
sian chiefs,  in  their  houses  at  dinner.  Besides  these 
personages,  I  was  always  well  treated  by  many 
other  Persian  and  Afghan  chiefs,  who,  during  the 
disasters  of  1841  and  1842,  were  afraid  to  lend 
me  any  kind  of  assistance.  But  Sultan  Moham- 
med Khan,  Khan  Shirin  Khan,  Nayab  Mohammed 
Sharif  Khan,  and  Mir  Abu  Talib,  remained  un- 
shaken and  resolute  friends,  even  in  the  time  of  my 
adversity,  and  sacrificed  their  own  interests  to  the 
British  cause.  None  of  these  men  ever  received 
any  reward  from  our  Government,  except  the 
Nayab,  who  received  some  trifling  acknowledgment 
through  the  repeated  aud  urgent  applications  of 
that  brave  officer.  Captain  Lawrence. 

The  want  of  money  was  much  felt  on  our  arrival 
at  Kabul.  Major  Macgregor,  secretary  to  the  En- 
voy, had  gained  popularity  by  his  civil  disposition, 
and  when  I  succeeded  on  any  occasion  in  raising 
money  by  order  of  the  Envoy,  and  told  the  bankers 
that  Major  Macgregor  was  to  settle  the  rate  of  ex- 
change and  premium,  all  were  satisfied,  and  added, 
that  if  money  were  wanted,  they  would  ask  their 
wives  to  pledge  their  jewels  to  meet  his  demands. 
Such  was  the  regard  of  the  people  towards  him.  I 
received  great  assistance  from  Mullah  Rahim  Shah, 


Kashmiri,  and  Mohammed  Sadiq,  my  old  com- 
panions, who  procured  money  for  our  expenses, 
and  were  rewarded  with  dresses  of  honour  by  the 

Lord  Eeane,  the  commander-in-chief,  and  Sir 
W.  Macnaghten,  suggested  to  Shah  Shiga,  that 
creating  an  order,  named  **  The  Order  of  the  Durrani 
Empire,"  and  conferring  it  upon  the  military  and 
political  officers  with  his  m^esty,  would  be  highly 
appreciated,  and  the  making  of  the  decorations  was 
intrusted  to  Sir  A.  Bumes,  and  a  part  of  their  cost 
was  paid  by  Shah  Shuja.  Major  Macgregor  stated 
that,  if  the  other  political  assistants  received  that 
distinction,  he  did  not  see  why  I  should  not  get  it 
also ;  and  he  kindly  said  that  he  would  speak  to  the 
Envoy,  which  he  did.  However,  I  did  not  get  the 
order  for  a  long  time.  It  was  when  the  Grovem- 
ment  at  home  made  Sir  William  Macnaghten  a 
baronet»  that  Sir  William  desired  Sir  Alexander 
Bumes  to  confer  upon  me  the  Durrani  order,  as 
well  as  other  political  assistants.  Sir  William 
Macnaghten,  moreover,  pledged  his  word  to  report 
my  services  to  the  home  authorities,  when  he  came 
to  Bombay,  to  induce  them  to  confer  upon  me 
a  mark  of  distinction,  and  to  add  a  permanent  in- 
crease to  my  pay. 

While,  deluded  by  a  false  picture  of  the  af&irs  in 
Kabul,  we  were  all  busy  planning  negotiations, 
Amir  Dost  Mohammed  Khan  disturbed  our  repose 
by  his  appearance  in  the  Kohistan  of  Kabul.     Sir 


Alexander  Burnes  and  myself  proceeded  with  the 
gallant  General  Sale  in  that  direction,  and  on  the 
20th  of  September,  1840,  besieged  Ali  Khan  at 
Tootumdrah,  who  had  embraced  the  cause  of  the 
Dost.  Thence  the  brigade  came  to  Julga,  and 
thence  to  Parwan,  where  our  force  fought  with  him, 
and  suffered  much.  After  three  dajrs,  we  returned 
to  Kabul,  having  heard  the  tidings  of  the  surrender 
of  the  Amir  to  the  Envoy, 

Whatever  duties  I  have  been  performing,  I  have 
been  the  constant  correspondent  of  my  friend,  Mr* 
Trevelyan.  Even  when  he  retired  from  India,  and 
entered  the  service  of  her  Majesty,  I  always  stated 
to  him,  without  hesitation,  my  opinion  of  our  pro- 
ceedings in  Afghanistan,  and  the  calamity  which  I 
thought  would  befal  us  at  last.  I  also  expressed 
my  desire  to  visit  England  repeatedly.  He  kindly 
shewed  my  letters  always  to  the  authorities  in  this 
country,  and,  upon  one  occasion,  he  wrote  to  me  in 
the  following  manner : — 

"  My  dear  Mohun  Lai, — ^The  best  answer  I  can  return  to 
your  interesting  letter  is,  the  over-leaf  note  from  Sir  Richard 
Jenkins,  the  chairman  of  the  Honourable  the  East-India  Com« 
pany.  If  you  can  obtain  leave  of  absence  for  eighteen  months, 
and  come  overland  to  England,  I  shall  make  your  visit  interest- 
ing and  improving.  But  I  have  not  much  time  to  give. 
*'  Yours  very  sincerely, 

"C.  E.  Trevelyan. 

"  *  My  dear  Sir, — I  have  the  pleasure  to  return  the  most  inte- 
resting letter  of  Mohun  Lai.  The  information  it  contains  is 
valuable,  and  highly  creditable  to  him.     I  have  taken  the  liberty 


of  shewing  it  to  Mr.  Bayley,  who  agrees  with  me  in  opinion. 
When  Mohan  Lai  arrives  in  England,  we  shall  be  most  happy 
to  shake  hands  with  him,  and  shew  him  all  the  civility  in  oar 

" « Yours  truly, 

"*R.  Jenkins.'" 

In  the  mean  time,  affairs  in  Kabul  afforded  no 
promise  of  an  undisturbed  peace,  and  this  induced 
Sir  W.  Macnaghten  and  Sir  A.  Bumes  to  reply  to 
my  application  for  leave,  that  I  could  not  be  spared 
tha^year  (1840).  After  the  surrender  of  the  Amir, 
Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  there  was  much  heavy  busi- 
ness on  my  hands  in  translating  the  numerous  docu- 
ments which  we  discovered  relating  to  the  dreadful 
intrigues  of  the  different  chiefe  against  us.  On  the 
2nd  November,  1841,  an  outbreak  took  place  in 
Kabul.  My  house,  Captain  Johnson's,  and  that  of 
Sir  A.  Bumes,  were  attacked  and  plundered  first  of 
all,  and  Sir  Alexander  was  murdered.  I  was  taken 
by  the  rebels,  and  would  have  been  cut  to  pieces, 
had  the  good  Nawab  Mohammed  Zaman  Khan  not 
saved  me,  and  conducted  me  himself  to  the  Per- 
sian quarters,  Cliamdavl,  where  I  remained  unmo- 
lested for  a  long  period.  For  the  safety  of  my  per- 
son, and  the  comforts  I  enjoyed  in  the  house  of  my 
hospitable  friends.  Khan  Shirin  Khan  and  Sultan 
Mohammed  Khan,  I  am  deeply  indebted  to  them, 
as  well  as  to  Nayab  Shereef,  and  Mir  Abu  Talib 
Ali  Reza  Khan,  Captain  Johnson's  gomashtah  in 
the  commissariat,  called  upon  me  several  times,  and 


offered  me  his  services,  while  the  Envoy  was  alive. 
He  lent  me  5,000  rupees,  for  public  expenses,  which 
were  repaid  to  him  hj  Sir  W.  Macnaghten.  While 
under  the  protection  of  mj  host,  I  was  frequently 
in  the  greatest  danger,  when  Aminullah  Khan, 
and  other  rebel  chiefs,  came  with  armed  men,  and 
insisted  upon  the  Persians  delivering  me  to  them ; 
but  as  long  as  the  chiefe  were  divided,  and  each  of 
them  considered  himself  to  be  the  principal,  I  was 
secure,  and  I  contrived  to  negotiate  with  the  chiefs, 
and  to  correspond  with  Sir  George  Pollock. 

On  the  22nd  of  June,  1842,  when  Mohammed 
Akbar  had  subdued  all  the  chiefis,  he  kept  Khan 
Shirin  Khan,  and  sent  Mirza  Imam  Vardi  to 
seize  me  at  his  house.  The  party  rushed  in,  but 
having  been  forewarned  of  their  intention,  I  wrote 
a  line  with  a  pencil  on  a  piece  of  paper  to  convey 
information  to  the  Government  of  my  being  appre^ 
hended,  and  begging  Sir  George  Pollock  to  advance 
upon  Kabul  immediately.  Mohammed  Akbar  tor- 
tured me,  and  extorted  money  from  me,  which 
was  afterwards  repaid  to  me  by  Lord  Ellen- 
borough.  I  suffered  most  dreadfully  while  I  was  in 
the  charge  of  MuUa  Jalal.  However,  encouraged 
by  the  approbation  I  received  from  the  Govemor- 
GeneraFs  letters,  as  well  as  those  of  Sir  George 
Pollock,  Sir  Richmond  Shakespear,  and  Major  Mac- 
gregor,  after  the  assassination  of  the  Envoy,  I 
strove  the  more  to  carry  on  negotiations  vnth  the 
various    chiefs  for   the    release   of  the  prisoners; 


and  for  this  purpose  I  continued  my  correspond- 
ence with  them  secretly.  Through  the  favour  of 
Divine  Providence,  I  was  never  detected,  though 
a  prisoner  and  always  suspected.  While  I  was 
rendering  these  services  to  the  State,  none  of  the 
British  prisoners,  excepting  poor  Captain  John 
Conolly,  Captain  Drummond,  Captain  Mackenzie, 
and  Major  Pottinger,  had  the  slightest  notion  of  my 
proceedings.  In  &ct,  I  never  boasted  of  what  I 
was  doing,  nor  stated  a  word  of  it  to  any  of  them, 
as  it  would  have  availed  me  nothing,  while  great 
secrecy  was  necessary  on  every  point.  My  sole 
object  was  to  render  service  to  the  British  State, 
which  has  acknowledged  and  rewarded  my  services. 

When  I  succeeded  in  my  negotiations  with  Salah 
Mohammed  Khan  for  the  liberation  of  the  English 
prisoners,  I  contrived  my  own  escape  from  the 
prison  of  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan,  and  took  up  my 
quarters  under  the  A&har  fort,  supported  by  a 
large  body  of  Persian  cavalry.  Akbar  was  routed, 
and  compelled  to  fly  into  Turkistan  by  Ghorband. 

On  the  16th  of  September,  1842,  Sir  George 
Pollock  planted  the  British  flag  on  the  top  of  the 
Bala  Hisar,  at  Kabul.  He  was  met  on  the  road  by 
the  Durrani  and  Persian  chiefs,  with  myself.  I  was 
introduced  to  Sir  George  by  Major  Macgregor,  and 
he,  kindly  squeezing  my  hand,  expressed  his  entire 
approbation  of  my  services,  adding,  that  they  had 
been  always  communicated  to,  and  appreciated  by, 
the  Governor-General.     After  I  had  paid  with  my 


own  hands  the  sum  of  money  which  I  had  agreed 
to  pay  to  Salah  Mohammed  Khan,  Sayad  Moortza 
Shah,  and  other  people,  for  the  rescue  of  the  pri- 
soners, I  was  ordered  by  Sir  George  Pollock  to  take 
my  friend,  the  Persian  chief,  with  his  followers, 
along  with  Prince  Shahpur,  to  Kohistan,  and  place 
myself,  with  my  friends,  at  the  disposal  of  Captain 
Colin  Mackenzie,  who  was  directed  to  accompany 
the  brigade  of  General  McCaskill  as  a  political 
officer.  We  destroyed  Istalif  and  Charkar,  and 
returned  to  join  Sir  George  Pollock  in  KabuL  I 
was  very  unwell  during  this  campaign ;  and  having 
been  of  a  different  opinion  from  that  of  several  of 
the  functionaries,  I  should  have  felt  very  uncomfort- 
able but  for  the  civilities  and  attention  of  Captain 

On  my  return  to  Kabul,  I  found  that  Major  Mac- 
gregor  had  succeeded  in  recovering  about  3,000 
rupees  from  the  sellers  of  grain.  The  money  which 
I  had  advanced  for  supplies  was  more  than  a  lac  of 
rupees,  which  was  demanded  of  me  by  those  from 
whom  I  had  borrowed  it,  and  who  had  been  obliged 
to  leave  Kabul  with  us.  I  am  still  responsible  for 
this  debt,  and  cannot  say  when  the  Government 
will  make  up  their  mind  to  pay  it. 

The  ne\?s  of  our  retiring  from  Afghanistan  had 
been  universally  circulated,  and  the  poor  chiefs 
who,  at  my  instigation,  and  under  the  idea  of  en- 
joying our  protection,  had  stood  neutral  during  the 
trontest,  or  supported  our  cause,  and  assisted  in  the 


release  of  the  British  prisoners,  were  thus  left  to 
the  mercy  of  Mohammed  Akbar  Khan.  I  was  so 
much  ashamed  at  the  recollection  of  the  assurances 
I  had  given  them,  by  the  order  of  my  superiors, 
that  I  was  unable  to  shew  my  face  to  them.  This 
was  not  honourable  on  our  part. 

On  the  12th  of  October,  1842,  we  left  Kabul, 
and  I  was  horrified  at  the  dreadful  sight  of  the 
heaps  of  dead  in  the  Khorad  Kabul  pass.  These 
were  the  unfortunate  soldiers,  sepoys,  and  camp- 
followers  of  General  Elphinstone's  force,  all  burnt 
and  frozen.  This  distressing  scene  continued  as  far 
as  Ganda  Mak.  If  these  forces  had  been  taken  to 
the  Bala  Hisar  of  Kabul,  a  distance  of  one  mile, 
instead  of  marching  through  the  narrow  defiles  and 
passes  occupied  by  the  enemy,  and  covered  with 
snow,  the  troops  would  not  have  been  destroyed,  nor 
the  honour  of  the  British  nation  have  suffered. 

We  remained  at  Jalalabad  for  a  few  days,  and 
thence  came  to  Peshawer,  through  the  Khaibar 
pass,  after  seven  marches.  We  were  welcomed  by 
Greneral  Avitabili ;  and  my  old  friend  Chumi  Lai, 
the  Postmaster-general  of  the  Labor  Durbar,  called 
upon  me  and  offered  his  services. 

After  crossing  the  Indus,  the  Jelum,  and  the 
Chenab,  we  came  into  the  vicinity  of  Labor,  where 
Rajah  Suchait  Singh  came  to  congratulate  Sir 
George  Pollock  on  his  victorious  return  from  Af- 
ghanistan, and  presented  the  General  with  Kashmir 
fruits   and   jars  of  sweetmeats.     We    crossed  the 


Ravi  on  the  10th  of  December,  and  came  with 
Major  Macgregor  and  Sir  Robert  Sale,  in  advance 
of  Sir  George  Pollock,  to  Gainda  Singhwala,  opposite 
the  ferry  of  Firozpur,  on  the  15th. 

On  the  17th  of  December,  Sir  Robert  Sale, 
Major  Macgregor,  Captain  Wade,  and  myself,  pro- 
ceeded ahead  of  the  brave  garrison  of  Jalalabad, 
and  crossed  the  Ghara  to  Firozpur  on  a  beautiful 
bridge  thrown  across  by  the  especial  commands  of 
the  Grovemor-Greneral,  to  shew  honour  to  the  heroes 
of  Jalalabad.  Just  at  the  end  of  the  bridge, 
towards  the  Firozpur  side,  Lord  EUenborough, 
with  his  secretaries,  stood,  under  a  magnificent 
canopy,  and  received  the  Jalalabad  garrison  and  its 
brave  leaders  with  marked  distinction.  Major 
Lawrence  introduced  me,  or  rather  pointed  me  out, 
to  the  Governor-General,  who  kindly  bowed  to  me 
in  return.  Hence,  we  passed  amid  a  crowd  of 
spectators,  and  the  British  troops,  who  formed  a 
line  on  our  left,  and  we  encamped  near  the  town 
of  Firozpur. 

Dec.  18  to  31. — I  continued  at  the  camp  of  the 
Governor-General,  and  while  here  I  was  very  kindly 
treated  by  Mr.  Secretary  (now  Sir  Thomas)  Mad- 
dock,  and  I  had  numerous  visits  from  the  officers  of 
the  Labor  court,  who  were  old  acquaintances. 

I  ought  not  to  omit  mentioning,  in  justice  to  a 
friend,  that,  while  I  was  a  prisoner  in  Kabul, 
amongst  all  my  numerous  relations  and  friends, 
Shahamat  Ali  alone  volunteered  to  obtain  my  release 


at  his  own  expense !  Not  being  present  at  Lodiana 
himself,  he  wrote  from  Indore,  and  authorized  Suraj- 
bhan,  a  brave  officer  at  the  Labor  court,  to  expend 
as  far  as  10,000  rupees,  employing  some  influential 
emissary,  to  procure  my  escape  from  Kabul.  This 
was,  indeed,  a  generous  and  noble  act  of  friendship. 
However,  circumstances  would  not  allow  its  suc- 
eessfril  execution :  our  liberation  was  accomplished 
through  the  manifest  interposition  of  Divine  Provi- 
dence, which  made  my  humble  negotiation  success- 
fril,  and  suddenly  changed  the  disposition  of  the 
chief  man  of  our  guard  in  our  favour. 




Jan.  7,  1843. — I  quitted  Firozpur,  and  came  to 
Lodiana.  Before  reaching  the  town,  I  passed  by  the 
camp  of  the  Amir  Dost  Mohammed  Khan,  who  was 
then  crossing  the  Satlej  to  return  to  Afghanistan. 
The  cunning  Amir,  hearing  of  my  departure  from 
Firozpur,  had  sent  one  of  his  companions  to  meet 
me,  and  requested  me  to  see  him  as  an  old  friend.  I 
proceeded  to  his  tent,  and  had  a  most  amusing  con- 
versation with  him  on  our  proceedings  in  Afghanistan, 
which  will  be  described  in  my  other  work.  He  was,  of 
course,  proud  and  happy  at  being  restored  to  his  go- 
vernment ;  but  none  of  his  followers,  nor  any  of  the 
members  of  his  family,  appeared  pleased  at  this  unex- 
pected change  of  affairs,  because  the  high  allowances 
granted  to  the  Amir  by  the  British  Government  had 
secured  a  very  comfortable  maintenance  for  each  of 
them ;  whereas  hereafter  the  Amir  will  never  dream 
of  having  three  lacs  of  rupees  annually  for  his  private 
expenditure,  which  the  British  Government  allowed 
him.  All  the  party  have  gone  back  to  Kabul  loaded 
with  wealth.  In  the  evening  I  had  a  visit  from  my 
old  friend,  Sardar  Haidar  Khan,  son  of  the  Amir. 
We  talked  concerning  the  changes  which  had  made 


him  .formerly  a  state  prisoner,  liying  in  my  tent,  after 
the  capture  of  the  fort  of  Ghazni,  and  had  now 
liberated  him. 

At  Lodiana  I  was  surprised  to  nieet  my  friend, 
Pandat  Gourishankur.  This  young  person  had  the 
good  luck  to  escape  from  the  disasters  of  Kabul, 
having  left. the  city  a  short  time  before  the  out^ 
break.  He  was  the  confidential  writer  and  account- 
ant of  Sir  A.  Bumes,  ssxd  lived  with  him  in  the 
same  house. 

Jan.  18. — I  quitted  Lodiana,  to  join  the  Go- 
vemor-Generars  court  at  Delhi ;  and  in  Panipat  I 
was  delighted  to  meet  and  embrace  my  dearest 
brother,  Kidar  Nath,  after  our  long  separation,  and 
the  fearful  anxiety  under  which  he  laboured  while  I 
was  at  Kabul. 

Previous  to  my.  departure  from  Kamal,  I  had  the 
.honour  of  paying  my  respects  to  Mr.  George  Clerk. 
This  most  shrewd,  just,  arid  kind-hearted  gentle- 
man knew  all  that  I  had  done  and  suffered  for  the 
promotion  of  the  British  interests.  He  spoke  fre- 
quently on  my  behalf  to'the  Government,  and  when 
he  was  made  lieutenant-governor  of  Agra,  he  kindly 
wrote  and  offered  me  a  deputy-coUectorship  in  Roh- 
tuk.  Mr.  Clerk  was  so  good  as  to  introduce  me  to 
Mr.  William  Edwards,  under-secretiary  to  the  Su- 
preme Government  of  India,  with  the  Governor- 
General.  I  have  hardly  words  or  ideas  to  express 
my  gratitude  to  that  kind  and  noble-hearted  gentle- 
man.    While  I  was  in  the  camp  of  the  Govemor- 



Oeneral,  at  Agra»  he  treated  me  with  coortesy,  and 
after  collecting  all  the  public  records  from  the  office 
in  Fort  William,  regarding  my  services,  from  1881 
to  1843,  he  submitted  my  case  for  the  consideration 
of  the  Governor-General,  and  had  me  attached  to 
the  political  agency  on  the  north-western  frontier, 
under  the  Envoy  at  the  court  of  Labor. 

I  remained  about  a  year  at  Lodiana,  doing  no- 
thing, and  therefore  I  applied  for  leave  of  absence 
for  eighteen  months,  on  the  expiration  of  which 
period,  I  got  an  extension  of  leave  from  the  Honour- 
able the  Court  of  Directors. 

I  left  Lodiana  on  the  2nd  of  April,  1844,  and 
visited  on  my  route  Ambala,  Delhi,  Agra,  and  Gwa- 
lior.  The  fort  of  Gwalior,  though  strong,  presents  a 
most  dreary  and  desolate  appearance.  The  town 
is  not  remarkable  for  any  thing,  and  the  heat  was 
killing  when  I  passed  through,  on  the  15th  of  May. 

May  25. — I  arrived  at  Dewas,  where  the  Rav 
(prince)  treated  me  with  kindness,  and  stated  that 
Mr.  Hamilton  had  informed  his  highness  of  my 
coming,  and  that  he  would  be  very  glad  if  I  would 
pass  a  few  days  in  his  company.  The  appearance  of 
his  palace,  and  even  the  mode  of  receiving  visitors 
at  his  court,  were  strange  to  me,  but  very  simple, 
and  ikr  from  displaying  any  grandeur.  There  were 
dancing  and  singing  in  our  presence ;  but  I  was  so 
overpowered  by  the  heat,  that  I  left  the  Rav  very 
soon,  which  disappointed  him  much.  He  has  a 
good  disposition,  and  a  fine  countenance. 


Next  daj  I  oame  to  Indore,  and  on  the  rood  I 
ftmnd  my  friend  the  Persian  seeretarj  to  the  Re- 
sident, Shahamat  Ali,  waiting  to  receive  me.  I 
enjoyed  many  agreeiible  days  in  his  company. 

Mr.  Hamilton,  the  resident,  who  has  been  my 
friend  since  1835,  treated  me  with  great  kind- 
ness. He  gave  me  letters  of  introduction  to  many 
noblemen  in  this  country. 

I  continued  at  Indore  till  the  6th  of  June,  and 
on  the  7th  I  came  to  the  Mhow  cantonment.  Here 
I  experienced  a  very  kind  reception  from  Brigadier 
Hughes,  and  he  &voured  me  by  giving  me  lett^s  of 
introduction  to  his  friends.  The  climate  of  Indore 
and  Mhow  is  delightful.  The  shops  in  the  latter 
place  are  very  amply  supplied  with  commodities. 

June  8.— I  had  the  pleasure  of  again  meeting 
Colonel  Outram,  after  a  pmod  of  nearly  five  years. 
He  kindly  took  me  in  his  small  boat  to  have  an 
evening  airing  on  the  Nurbada  river,  and  we  talked 
together  over  the  changes  which  had  passed  since 
his  quitting  Afghanistan.  It  was  his  activity,  sound 
judgment,  intrepidity,  and  influence  which  kept 
the  Beloches  in  awe  in  Sindh,  while  misfortunes 
were  impending  over  us  in  Kalat,  Shal,  Candabar, 
Ghuzni,  Kabul,  Jalalabad,  and  Khairbar.  He 
obtained  the  objects  of  his  Government,  and  yet  pre^ 
served  the  dignity  of  the  rulers  of  Smdh.  Colonel 
Ontram  was  kind  enoi^  to  give  me  a  letter  for 
Lord  Jocelyn,  and  wrote  to  many  of  his  influential 
friends  regarding  my  humble  services  to  the  British 



State,  which  he  said  were  regularly,  communicated 
to  him  by  Mr.  Clerk,  the  agent  of  the  Governor^ 
General  in  the  Panjab. 

June  16. — I  reached  Nasak,  the  seat  of  the  late 
ex-peshwa.  Here  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Malet  treated  me 
with  the  greatest  kindness  and  hospitality.  I  was 
introduced  here,  by  Major  Fitzgerald,  to  her  high- 
ness the  Baja  Bai  of  Gwalior,  and  received  from  her 
attentions,  when  she  remembered  the  name  of  my 
grand&ther,  the  Rajah  Mani  Ram. 

June  25. — I  arrived  at  Thana  on  the  24th,  and 
after  a  night's  march,  I  came  to  Bombay,  and  put 
up  in  the  house  provided  by  my  friend  Nourozjee 
Furdonjee.  Dr.  James  Bumes,  brother  of  the  late 
Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  asked  me  to  stay  with  him» 
and  I  passed  some  pleasant  days  in  his  beautiful 
house.  The  Honourable  Messrs.  Crawford  and 
Reid,  members  of  t)ie  council,  were  exceedingly 
civil,  and  the  former  was  so  good  as  to  finvour  me 
with  introductory  letters. 

Jtdy  7. — I  went  to  Panwell,  and  thence  to 
Poena,  where  the  Honourable  Sir  George  Arthur, 
governor  of  Bombay,  invited  me  to  breakfiBist,  as  I 
could  not  stay  for  dinner.  He  gave  me  a  letter  of 
introduction  to  Mr.  Baring,  the  secretary  to  the 
Board  of  Control;  and  his  son.  Captain  Arthiuv 
finvoured  me  with  a  similar  one  to  Lord  Altamont» 
afterwards  Marquis  of  Sligo.  His  Excellency  Sir 
T.  Macmahon,  commtmder-in-chief,  was  very  kind, 
and  sent  me  a  letter  to  Sir  P.  Stuart,  governor  of 


Malta.  I  can  hardly  express  my  thankfulness  to 
these  gentlemen  for  their  taking  so  much  interest 
in  my  behalf.  I  stopped  at  Poona  for  four  days. 
The  governor  gave  me  permission  to  see  my  old 
acquaintance,  Mir  Rustum  Khan,  the  ex-chief  of 
Khairpur,  in  Upper  Sindh.  I  felt  so  ashamed  to 
shew  my  face  to  him,  remembering  the  good  services 
which,  as  a  faithful  ally,  he  had  rendered  to  the 
British  Government,  and  the  promises  I  gave  him, 
pledging  the  British  honour  and  name,  to  secure  his 
perpetual  dignity  and  territorial  emoluments,  that 
I  did  not  go  to  see  that  unfortunate  and  unjustly 
ruined  monarch.  The  road  between  Panwell  and 
Poona  is  very  fatiguing,  and  in  the  rainy  season  is 
often  subject  to  inundation. 

Jviy  14. — I  returned  to  Bombay,  where  T  re- 
mained till  the  18th.  I  made  numerous  acquaint- 
fmces  amongst  my  Masonic  brothers,  both  Persians 
and  Parsees,  including  Agha  Jafur  and  Manakjee 

The  climate  and  air  of  Bombay  are  much  better 
than  those  of  Calcutta.  lu  the  evening,  all  the 
white-dressed  and  white-iaced  Parsees,  the  followers 
of  Zurdusht,  or  fire-worshippers,  come  out  of  town, 
riding,  driving,  walking,  and  sitting  on  the  grass 
or  on  the  sea-shore,  and  thus  presented  a  picturesque 
spectacle  to  a  stranger,  accustomed  to  see  only  the 
dark  and  oily  people  of  Bengal.  The  Parsees, 
being  free  from  prejudices,  and  more  iamiliar  with 


and  attached  to  the  English  mode  of  living,  have 
improved  their  polished  old  Persian  habits. 

Jfdy  19. — At  5  p.  M.  I  went  on  board  the 
Semvramis^  a  Steam-frigate  of  the  Honourable  the 
East-India  Company.  The  open  space  of  the  sea, 
extending  as  far  as  the  eyes  could  reach,  was  a  novel, 
strange,  and  wonderful  sight  to  me.  This  was  the 
first  time  I  had  seen  the  ocean,  and  had  been  a  pas- 
senger on  board  a  steamer.  The  winds  this  month 
are  contrary,  and  often  blow  a  regular  hurricane ;  but 
I  was  not  seaHsick  at  all  during  the  whole  of  the 
voyage  to  England.  The  waves  rose  up  sometimes 
so  high,  and  came  down  so  furiously  towards  us,  that 
I  thought  the  vessel  waii  going  to  fill  with  water,  and 
sink.  I  felt  a  little  giddy  at  night  \  but  the  captain 
of  the  vessel,  Captain  Sanders,  prepared  a  glass  of 
water,  in  which  he  mixed  a  little  brandy,  which  I 
drank,  and  found  a  great  relief  from  it.  I  was  the 
only  person  to  breaklast  and  dine  with  the  captain, 
the  rest  being  sick.  On  the  25th  of  July,  after  we 
had  got  rid  of  the  fearful  and  powerful  veinds  and 
waves  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  the  main  shaft  of  the 
engine  of  the  steamer  was  unfortunately  broken.  I 
thought  we  were  all,  myself  and  my  fellow-passen- 
gers, going  to  a  watery  grave,  when  I  saw  the 
captain  with  a  most  melancholy  countenance.  I 
found  that  we  could  not  proceed  any  farther,  and 
we  were  obliged  to  sail  back  to  Bombay.  This  was  a 
great  disappointment  to  me,  on  my  first  sea-voyage. 


July  30. — We  returned  to  Bombay,  and  next  day 
the  Goyemment  ordered  another  steamer,  the^S^o^- 
<m,  under  Captain  Young,  to  start  with  the  mail 
and  passengers  for  Suez. 

After  a  voyage  of  twenty  days  we  reached  Aden 
on  the  19th  of  August,  and  went  on  board  another 
steamer,  called  the  deo/paivd.  Aden  is  rery  irregu- 
larly occupied  by  the  houses  of  the  English  officers. 
The  appearance  of  the  hillocks  over  the  shore  is 
miserable,  and  the  heat  was  unbearable.  Here  I 
saw  the  people  riding  on  asses,  and  heard  them 
speaking  Arabic. 

On  the  20th,  the  steamer  passed  safe  through  the 
straits  of  Babulmandel,  meaning  ^  Grates  of  Sor- 
rows.' Tf  great  precautions  are  not  taken  in  this 
place,  vessels  are  often  lost.  We  ourselves  saw 
three  that  had  been  wrecked,  and  an  English  ship 
had  arrived  to  save  the  passengers.  The  wrecked 
vessels  belonged  to  the  American  Government,  and 
that  of  the  Shereef  of  Mecca. 

On  the  28th  of  August  we  reached  Suez.  This 
is  a  very  miserable  and  hot  place ;  yet  all  the  pas- 
sengers stoppied  here,  thinking  that  the  steamer, 
having  waited  for  the  Bombay  mail,  now  with  us, 
for  two  weeks,  must  have  left  Alexandria,  without 
the  Indian  mail,  for  England.  But  I  resolved  to 
come  on  to  Alexandria,  and  the  Reverend  Mr. 
Mellon  came  with  me.  After  eighteen  hours'  jour- 
ney through  the  desert,  we  readied  Cairo.  Travel- 
ling here  is  not  so  uncomfortable  as  the  people  in 


England  imagine.  Cairo  has  fine  bazars,  and  shops, 
and  roads,  but  the  suburbs  have  a  dry  and  sad 

Attg.  29. — I  went  on  board  a  veiy  small  steamer 
for  Alexandria,  by  the  river  Nile.  Both  banks  are 
covered  with  beatitiful  villages. 
'  Aug.  30. — We  reached  Alexandria.  Before  en- 
tering the  fortified  town,  we  passed  through  a  vast, 
dry,  and  parched  suburb.  In  the  town,  the  houses 
occupied  by  the  European  ambassadors  and  mer- 
chants, and  the  carriages,  were  a  novel  sight  to 
a  native  of  the  East. 

Attg.  31. — Having  joined  the  passengers  from 
Calcutta,  Madras,  and  Ceylon,  who  had  been  delayed 
by  the  late  arrival  of  the  Bombay  mail,  I  went  on 
board  the  Oriental.  We  were  about  100,  consist- 
ing of  ladies,  men,  and  children. 

After  a  voyage  of  five  days  in  the  Mediterranean, 
the  steamer  anchored  at  Malta,  to  take  in  coals  and 
provisions.  Sir  P.  Stuart,  the  governor,  whom  I 
could  not  see,  through  my  being  in  quarantine,  was 
very  kind.  He  desired  me  to  see  him  on  my  return 
from  England.  He  alsd  kindly  sent  me  a  letter 
of  introduction  to  Lord  Fitzroy  Somerset. 

On  the  9th  of  September  we  entered  the  straits 
of  Gibraltar,  a  strong  and  impregnable  militaiy  post. 
The  houses  of  the  English  ofiicers  and  merchants 
are  built  in  most  picturesque  sites.  Some,  being 
placed  on  the  skirt  of  the  rock,  reminded  me  of  the 
houses  in  Simla.     At  night  the  steamer  proceeded 


on  her  voyage,  and  we  met  many  ships  in  the 
Atlantic  Ocean.  We  passed  the  Spanish  coast,  and 
gazed  with  admiration  at  the  place  where  the  im- 
mortal Nelson  gained  his  last  victory. 

Sept.  16,  1844. — After  a  somewhat  rough  pas- 
sage through  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  and  passing  the 
Needles,  we  anchored  near  the  Motherhank,  by  the 
Isle  of  Wight. .  The  morning  was  cloudy  and 
showery.  The  gardens  and  houses  on  the  island, 
and  especially  those  situated  close  by  the  seanshore, 
presented  a  charming  appearance.  When  there 
is  no  plague  or  any  other  kind  of  disease  in  the 
steamer,  it  is  cruel  to  keep  the  passengers  in  qua- 
rantine, after  an  absence  and  separation  of  many 
years  from  their  relations,  and  in  sight  of  their 




Sept.  16,  17. — We  were  released  from  quarantine 
earlier  than  was  anticipated,  through  the  surgeon  of 
the  vessel,  who  produced  a  clean  bill  of  health. 

It  was  veiy  gratifying  to  me,  being  far  from  my 
country,  to  find  friends  in  England,  desirous  to  shew 
me  every  attention,  whose  continued  civilities  and 
interest  in  my  behalf  made  me  feel  as  comfortable 
as  if  I  were  among  my  own  kindred,  and  in  my 
native  land.  Sir  Claude  Wade,  under  whom  I  had 
served  in  1835,  addressed  to  me  the  following  note, 
and  sent  it  by  his  nephew,  Mr.  Singleton,  and  a 
carriage  to  conduct  me  to  his  residence. 

^^  My  dear  Sir, — ^My  nephew  will  tell  you  what  I  haye  before 
written,  that  I  shall  be  yery  happy  to  see  you.  I  hope  the  little 
basket  of  English  fruit  and  a  few  newspapers,  which  he  will  con- 
yey,  will  be  acceptable  to  you.  Let  me  know  on  what  day  your 
quarantine  terminates.  I  saw  Mr.  Trevelyan  when  I  was  in 
London ;  he  has  to  attend  a  very  laborious  office,  but  will,  I  haye 
no  doubt,  be  a  kind  friend  to  you  in  England.  You  haye  had  a 
yery  tedious  and  yexatious  yoyage,  for  which  I  hope  you  may  be 
repaid  by  the  kindness  of  the  people,  and  the  enjoyment  of  the 
wonderful  sights  and  inyentions  of  this  country. 

^*  I  remain  yours,  &c.  &c., 

"C.  M.  Wade." 

ENGLAND,   SCOTLAND,   &C.  491 

At  the  same  time  I  had  the  pleasure  to  receive  a 
note  from  Mr.  Trevelyan,  saying  that  be  hoped  to 
meet  me  at  Southampton  ;  but,  as  I  had  previously 
made  a  promise  to  go  to  Sir  Claude  Wade,  I  left  the 
Oriental  steam-vessel,  and  went  on  shore,  sending 
my  baggage  and  servant  to  Southampton.  The  pier 
at  Ryde  is  a  beautiful  place  to  walk  on  when  one 
seeks  the  6esh  air.  Men  and  women  are  generally 
seen  there  walking ;  and  when  the  steamers  arrive, 
the  multitude  of  spectators  affords  a  picturesque 
sight.  Having  passed  a  fine,  broad  street,  I  reached 
the  house,  and  found  Sir  Claude  Wade  waiting  for 
me.  He  introduced  me  to  his  old,  good  mother, 
and  to  his  amiable  sister,  Mrs.  Singleton.  In  the 
evening  I  was  invited  with  Sir  Claude  to  dinner,  by 
the  Reverend  Mr.  Orde,  who  introduced  me  to 
his  family  and  guests.  It  was  a  very  agreeable 

SepL  18. — I  was  invited  to  dinner  by  Lord  Ashley, 
and  introduced  to  his  lady,  as  well  as  to  his  beau- 
tiful children.  They  are  kind-hearted,  and  have 
always  been  attentive  and  obliging  to  me.  His 
lordship,  being  a  member  of  Parliament,  has  done 
much  good  to  those  who  were  in  want  of  his  assist- 
ance. We  had  a  long  conversation  about  the  trade 
in  opium,  and  the  indigo  plantations  in  India,  as 
well  as  upon  the  sad  affairs  of  Afghanistan. 

I  took  a  great  fancy  to  the  natural  beauties  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  and  I  think  it  is  rightly  called  the 
garden  of  England.      I  made  several  excursions  to 


all  parts  of  the  island,  stopping  at  the  different 
places  which  commanded  an  extensive  view  of  the 
sea,  in  which  I  bathed  every  morning,  and  felt  myself 
refreshed  to  a  degree  quite  impossible  to  express.  I 
genierally  breakfasted  in  one  place,  lunched  in 
another,  and  dined  at  a  third,  and  thus  kept  myself 
moving  sometimes  for  fourteen  hours  every  day.  I 
was  invited  again  by  Sir  Claude  Wade,  after  his 
marriage,  and  introduced  to  his  bride,  whose  conver- 
sation and  courtesy  to  her  guests  and  in  society 
would  make  one  suppose  that  she  had  passed  many 
years  in'  acquiring  those  ornaments  of  the  female  sex, 
and  yet  Lady  Wade  is  under  the  age  of  twenty 

Sept.  19,— =-Sir  Claude  kindly  ordered  his  English 
servant  to  accompany  me  to  Southampton,  and 
thence  see  me  off  to  London ;  and  I  crossed  in  a 
steamer  from  Ryde  to  Portsmouth. 

Here  I  found  the  streets  dirty,  and  the  people  not 
so  neat  as  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  dockyards,  and 
the  constant  activity  there,  strike  a  foreigner  with 
a  kind  of  awfiil  surprise.  As  long  as  Great  Britain 
has  such  resources  in  her  naval  power,  which  is  daily 
increasing,  it  will  be  vain  for  any  nation  to  rival  her. 
I  saw  a  large  block  of  wood  cut,  sawed,  planed,  and 
reduced  to  pieces  to  suit  the  purposes  intended,  and 
likewise  the  iron  melted,  made  into  pegs,  and  used 
instantly.  AH  this  was  done  by  a  steam-machine, 
attended  by  one  man,  in  half  an  hour,  which,  by 
other  means,  would  employ  at  least  a  dozen  men  for  a 


week.  The  uaval  provisions,  are  stored  in  oti6  large 
separate  building,  and  biscuits,  sufficient  for  25,000 
men  for  three  months,  were  packed.up  in  sacks.  In 
my  presence  some  maunds  of  wheat  were  thrown  intQ 
large  basins,  cleaned,  ground,  sifted  into  flour,  made 
into  dough,  cut  into  the  shape  of  cakes,  placed  in  and 
taken  out  of  ovens,  as  finely-baked  biscuits.  This 
was  all  the  wonderful  result  of  st^m-power,  and  I 
was  told  that  they  make  25,000  lbs.  of  these  cakes 
in  the  space  of  one  hour.  1  was  thien  conducted  to 
a  small  room  in  the  galvanic  telegraph  office.  It  is 
a  most  wonderful  thing,  and  no  description  can  con- 
vey a  proper  idea  of  its  extraordinary  effect.  I  am, 
in  fact,  lost  in  wonder,  and  perplexed  how  to  detail 
its  formation.  The  only  thing  I  can  say,  and  it  will 
astonish  every  one,  is  this :  that  Portsmouth  is  about 
one  hundred  miles  from  London ;  I  asked  the  gentle- 
man of  the  office  to  get  for  me  information  firom  Lon- 
don what  kind  of  weather  it  was  there,  or  whether 
the  Indian  mail  had  arrived.  By  moving  the  needle 
gradually  over  the  different  letters,  which  appeared 
exactly  like  a  clock,  the  question  was  made  on  my 
part,  and  the  answer  returned  in  the  same  manner, 
and  all  this  was  completed  in  the  course  of  five 
seconds ! 

At  Portsmouth  I  was  very  kindly  received,  and 
invited  to  dinner,  by  the  governor.  Sir  Hercules,  and 
Lady  Pakenham,  who  has  a  very  obliging  disposi- 
tion. General,  Mrs.  and  the  Misses  Baumgardt,  who 
had  just  returned  from  Bombay,  shewed  me  all  the 


curiosities  of  the  place.  Dr.  Moore  took  me  in  his 
carriage  on  a  steep  hill  at  some  distance,  and  I  had 
a  beautiful  view  of  the  town  and  of  the  sea.  He 
and  Mrs.  Moore  were  also  good  enough  to  inyite  me 
to  dinner^  and  introduce  me  to  some  other  persons. 

From  Portsmouth  I  proceeded  to  the  rsdlroad 
station,  and  after  paying  £1  (or  about  11  rupees),  I 
was  placed  in  a  beautifully  fitted  up  large  carriage, 
and  dragged,  with  many  other  carriages,  by  a  steam- 
engine.  This  was  the  first  time  I  had  trarelled  by 
a  railroad.  I  can  hardly  express  the  astonishment 
which  overpowered  my  senses,  and  especially  when 
I  was  deliberating  how  to  describe  it,  and  make  it 
understood  to  my  friends,  who  have  never  seen  it. 

As  soon  as  I  reached  Southampton,  Mr.  Hill 
delivered  me  another  letter  from  my  friend,  and  the 
deliv^er  of  it  kindly  got  my  baggage  cleared  in  the 
custom-house  immediately. 

I  remained  two  days  in  Southampton,  and  found 
it  a  very  interesting  place.  The  streets  and  people 
appear  neater  than  those  of  Portsmouth.  I  sent  my 
Kabul  servant  to  the  theatre.  He  was  not  the  only 
person  astonished,  seeing  himself  placed  amongst 
elegantly  dressed  persons,  but  everyone  in  the  house 
was  gazing  at  his  dress  and  features,  which  were 
quite  different  from  those  of  the  people  of  Bombay, 
Madras,  Calcutta,  or  of  any  other  place  from  which 
people  come  to  this  country. 

Sept  23. — I  was  again  on  a  railroad,  and  in  three 
hours  arrived  in  Loudon,  a  distance  of  eighty  miles. 


At  the  railroad  station  I  found  a  gentleman  with 
a  message  from  my  kind  friend  Mr.  Trevelyan. 
He  procured  a  carriage,  and  despatched  me  with  my 
servants  and  baggage  to  the  Bedford  Hotel,  Covent 
Garden.  Immediately  afterwards  I  went  to  see 
Mr.  Trevelyan  at  the  Treasury.  The  pleasure  and 
gratification  I  heartily  folt  at  meeting  him,  after  a 
separation  of  ten  years,  combined  with  the  recol- 
lections of  his  unceasing  good  offices,  and  his  deep 
interest  in  my  behalf  from  my  childhood,  over- 
powered my  feelings.  Tears  filled  my  eyes.  I 
therefore  left  him  that  day  very  soon. 

Next  day  the  Chairman  of  the  Honourable  East- 
India  Company  was  informed  of  my  arrival,  and  at 
the  same  time  a  wish  was  expressed  to  know  what 
time  it  would  be  suitable  to  introduce  me  to  him. 
The  following  answer  was  received  from  the  India 
House: — 

"East-India  House, 
«'  2dTd  September,  1844. 
^  My  dear  Sir, — ^We  liare  a  Coart  of  Directors  to-morrow,  and 
a  General  Court  on  Wednesday,  and  will  therefore  postpone  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  Mohan  Lai  till  Thursday,  at  3  p.m.  (three 
o'clock),  when  the  Deputy  and  I  will  have  much  pleajsure  in 
seeing  jrou  and  him  here. 

"  I  shall  be  as  anxious  as  jou  are  to  shew  Mohan  Lai  some 
attention  during  his  sojourn  in  Engknd.'* 

Sept.  26. — In  company  with  my  friend,  I  pro- 
ceeded to  the  India  House  and  was  introduced  to 
the  Chairman,  the  Deputy  Chairman,  and  Mr.  J.  C. 

496  .     ENGLAND,   SCOTLAND, 

Melvill,  Secretary.  -  The  kindness  they  shewed  me 
on  that  occasion  was  a  source  of  pride  and  encou- 
ragement to  me.  They  invited  me  to  dinner 
repeatedly  at  their  houses^  and  I  received  most 
pbliging  attentions  from  their  respective  ladies,  and 
Mr.  Shepherd,  the  Chairman,  after  some  days, 
honoured  me  with  a  visit.  I  was  surprised  to 
hear  from  him  the  detailed  occurrences  and  the 
names  of  the  chiefe  of  Afghanistan,  in  such  a  man- 
ner as  if  he  had. himself  been  present  there.  It 
is  wonderful  to  think  how  this  august  body,  the 
Directors  of  the  Honourable  East-'India  Company, 
manage  so  wisely,  economically,  aQd  honourably 
the  duties  of  their  very  important  office — I  may 
even  say,  the  first  post  in  the  world.  They  rule 
India,  collect  the  revenue,  encourage  trade,  raise 
and  discipline  armies,  preserve  peace  and  admi- 
nister the  laws,  in  the  rich  and  extensive^empire  in 
the  East,  in  Leadenhall-street,  London!  On  my 
part,  I  am  totally  lost,  and  cannot  conceive  how 
the  Chairman  and  Secretary  find  time  and  powers 
t)f  mind  to  learn  and  settle  even  the  minute 
affairs  of  the  three  Presidencies  of  India,  beside 
other  numerous  political,  commercial,  and  colonial 
concerns.  Mr.  Melvill,  the  Secretary,  of  course, 
has  the  most  laborious  office.  His  indefatigable 
exertions  to  discharge  the  fimctions  of  his  post 
are  beyond  conception,  as  well  as  his  kiidd  dis- 
position. My  thanks  are  due  and  most  sincerely 
offe>ed  to  him. 


'  Mr.  Hogg^  M.P.,  th6  Director,  also  called  upon  me. 
He  WM  good  enough  to  ask  me  to  dinner,  and  to 
several  of  his  parties,  where  he  introduced  me  to 
Sir  Walter  James,  the  son  of  the  lady  of  Sir  Henry 
Hardinge,  the  Goremor-General  of  India,  and  many 
other  gentlemen.     I  was  also  introdaced  by  him  to 
Lord  John  Russell,  who  was  very  polite  and  kind 
to  me.     Sir  Walter  and  Lady  James  were  good 
enough  to  ask  me  to  dinner  with  them,  and  after- 
wards I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Major  and  Mrs. 
Cunningham,  the  daughter  of  Sir  Henry  Hardingef. 
Sir  James  Law  Lushington,  the  Director,  met  me 
first  at  the  dinner  of  Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  at  the 
Oriental  Club,  where  he  told  me  that  he  knew  all 
wgaT&ng  my  services  in    Afghanistan.     General 
Gkdloway,    Colonel  Sykes,  and  Mr.  Warden,  the 
Directors,  favoured  me  with  invitations.     Sir  Rich-*- 
and  JenkiBB  was  so  good  as  to  introduce  himself 
to  me  at  her  Mi^esty's  ball,  at  Buckingham  Palace, 
amd  expressed  his  approbation  of  my  conduct  in 
discharging  the  difficult  task  I  had  in  Afghanistan, 
tsad  added,  that  he  always  read  with  deep  interest 
all  my  letters  and  observations  on  the  passing  events 
ia  that  country.     It  was  very  gratifying  to  me  to 
receive  these  private  marks  of  kindness  from  the 
authorities  at  the  East-India  House. 
'  Sir  Charles  Forbes,  from  his  good  and  benevolent 
dbsplisitioii,    was    particularly    interested    in    my 
welfiae,  and  he  invited  many  people  of  influence  to 
meet  me  at  dinner  in  his  house.     He  is  a  real  and 



just  friend  to  all  the  people  of  the  East,  and  his 
loss,  which  I  hope  never  to. see  myself,  will  be 
seriously  injurious  to  them  in  this  country. 

The  day  I  arrived  in  London  I  was  rather  puz- 
zled to  see  the  crowds  of  people,  with  earriagee, 
carts,  and  cabs,  which  cover  the  face  of  the  wide, 
long,  and  clean  streets,  all  illuminated,  and  presenlr 
ing  to  the  spectators  a  rich  exhibition  of  articles  in 
the  shops.  It  is  a  busy  scene,  day  and  nighty  and 
it  is  a  matter  of  great  difficulty  to  find  what  time 
the  tradesmen  have  for  rest.  The  scenes,  and 
the  gaudy  attire  of  the  actors  and  actresses,  in  the 
theatre,  will  at  once  bring  into  the  mind  of  an 
Asiatic  the  fabulous  tales  of  the  gardens  of  the 
fairies.  I  could  not  say  much  in  commendation 
of  the  beauty  or  modesty  of  the  females  who  appear 
on  the  stage.  However,  they  attract  the  attention 
and  respect  of  the  spectators ;  and  some  of  tibem 
have  made  conquests,  and  have  become  wives  of 
noblemen,  and  associate  with  ladies  of  the  highest 
Urth.  The  Diorama,  Polytechnic  Institution,  and 
above  all,  the  Colosseum,  and  the  sudden  changes 
in  the  scenes  by  the  weather,  and  from  day  to 
night,  surpass  all  the  Persian,  Arabian,  and  Indian 
accounts  of  the  ancient  Plato  and  Hatim  Tai.  The 
houses  am  regularly  built,  but  very  small,  and  hot, 
by  keeping  the  windows  always  shut.  I  never 
allowed  the  windows  of  my  bedroom  to  be  altoger 
ther  shut,  and  the  curtains  were  never  drawn. 
England  is  not  so  cold  as  the  people  pretend.     I 


always  wore  a  thin  shirt  and  white  trousers.  Th^ 
rooms  where  dancing  is  kept  up  in  private  balls 
are  awfully  heated^  I  once  fainted  in  one  of  these 
rooms,  in  the  month  of  Febrtiary,  while  I  was 
sitting  and  enjoying  a  dance.  I  like  the  climate 
veiy  much,  and  it  has  improved  my  health.  When  I 
was  in  India,  at  Ambala,  or  Lodiana,  I  had  generally 
attacks  of  fever,  and  was  always  suffering  by  the 
appearance  of  red  large  spots  over  my  body,  causing 
it  to  itch  and  swell,  but  in  England  they  all  dis^ 
appeared,  as  it  was  in  Afghanistan,  &c.  The 
fogs  and  smoke  of  London  are  the  only  things 
which  deserve  to  be  complained  of.  In  the  coun« 
try,  the  air  is  pure  and  always  delightful,  and  I 
prefer  living  there  rather  than  in  the  city,  which, 
by  its  wonderful  extent  and  multitude  of  inhabi- 
tants, may  be  considered  a  collection  of  all  the  cities 
on  the  face  of  the  earth.  The  ships  thickly  cover 
the  river  Thames ;  their  masts  look  like  a  forest. 
Westminster  Abbey,  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  the  new 
Houses  of  Parliament,  and  the  bridges  thrown 
across  the  river,  speak  of  the  wonderful  eflects  of 
English  architecture  and  engineering  talents. 

Oct.  7. — I  was  this  day  honoured  and  delighted  to 
receive  a  very  kind  letter  from  one  whose  talents  and 
benevolence  of  mind  I  had  heard  of  while  an  infant 
fh>m  my  father,  and  subsequently  from  Asiatics,  who 
iMj^Mt  him,  and  call  him  ''  Hatim-i-Angreean  f  * 

*  '  The  Hatim  of  Efif^ithmMi/ 



I  mean  the  Honourable  MoQntstnatt  BTphin- 
stone.  I  feel  overpowered  by  gratitude  for  the 
obliging  and  cordial  reception  he  gave  me^  and 
I  could  not  look  at  his  venerable  and  noble  ooon^ 
tenance  without  sensations  of  astonishment,  when 
I  remembered  his  acquaintance  with  my  father 
before  he  had  married  my  mother.  On  my  arrival 
at  Oakley  I  found  him  waiting  to  welcome  me  at 
the  door  of  his  residence,  and  the  luncheon  ready 
on  the  table.  It  is  impossible  to  describe  how  very 
kindly  and  affectionately  I  was  treated  by  this 
amiaUe  gentleman.  I  also  feel  pride,  as  well  as 
satisfaction,  in  giving  insertion  to  his  letter. 

**  To  Mohan  Lal^  Etq. 

'« Oakley,  by  Dorkii^, 
«  5th  October,  1S44. 
^'  My  dear  Sir, — I  6aye  had  the  pleasure  of  receiving  yonr  let- 
ter, and  regret  that  I  was  not  in  London,  to  answer  it  in  person. 
I  should  be  happy  to  make  your  acquaintance,  on  account  ot 
yonr  father;  but  I  am  entitle  to  i^gafd  it  as  mine  already,  <m 
account  of  our  fdrmer  correspondence.  You  were  so  kind  ae  to 
send  me  a  copy  of  your  journal  to  Kabul,  which  I  read  with  the 
greatest  interest,  and  for  which,  several  years  afterwards,  I  made 
an  inadequate  return,  by  requesting  your  acceptance  of  a  copy  of 
a  book  which  I  had  published  on  the  history  of  India,  which  I  sent 
tiiroagh  poor  Captain  Oonolly.  You  have  since  acted  too  pfo^ 
miQ^t  a  part  not  to  have  attracted  attention  in  all  who  were 
interested  in  the  astonishing  events  at  Kabul.  I  look  with  greai 
pleasure  ^to  meeting  you,  and  hearing  from  yourself  an  account  of 
the  adventures  you  have  gone  through,  and  the  transactions  you 
have  forwarded.  I  shall  be  very  happy  to  see  you,  if  you  take 
the  trouble  of  such  a  joimiey,  and  you  wiU  see  a  good  specimen 


of  Englisli  soeneiy,  both  lierB  and  on  the  way ;  bat  I  must  pre^ 
pare  yon  for  bad  qaarten^  as  this  la  a  siiigle  cotta^  with  no 
decent  inn  for  miles  around.  I  hope,  however,  that  yon  are  too 
old  a  travelier  to  mind  ineonyenienoe,  and  that  yen  will  aeeept  a 
hearty  welcome  in  liea  of  all  other  leqnintes. 

^^  Belieye  me,  yonn  truly, 


On  my  return  to  London,  I  "Wbb  favoured  by  the 
following  letter  from  Mr.  Bumes,  the  &ther  of  the 
late  Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  at  Montrose,  in  Scotland, 
on  which  I  immediately  prepared  to  set  off  to  Edin- 
burgh. It  was  very  disagreeable  that  my  English 
servant  foolishly  stepped  into  the  wrong  carriage  on 
the  railroad,  and  instead  of  accompanying  me  to 
Lancaster,  was  carried  off  to  Birmingham  with  the 
keys  of  my  boxes.  I  had  no  clothes  to  change  till 
I  reached  Edinburgh.  From  Lancaster,  the  journey 
by  the  mail-coach  was  very  tiresome,  and  I  was 
without  a  meal  for  eighteen  hours. 

^  My  dear  Sir, —  I  am  glad  to  find  that  you  hare  arriyed 
safely  in  Brttam,  and  shall  weloome  you  with  all  my  heart  to 
my  humble  dwelling. 

'^  I  trust  your  health  will  soon  enable  you  to  proceed  to  Mont- 
rose, and  I  think  your  best  course  is  to  proceed  by  one  of  the 
Dundee  steam-ships,  which  sail  from  London  every  Monday, 
and  arriye  at  Dundee  on  Friday. 

^  My  son,  Dr.  David  Bumes,  is  not  yet  come  to  Scotland* 
He  is  with  his  father*in-law,  Dr.  Anderson,  near  Hampton 
Court ;  but  if  you  will  inquire  at  Mr.  Alfred  Canton's,  No.  104, 
St  Martin's-lane,  they  will  inform  you  particularly  of  his  move- 

**  As  the  cold  season  of  the  country  is  fast  approaching,  I 


think  the  sooner  you  come  down  the  better,  and  if  you  will 
write  to  me  on  Monday  by  what  yessel  you  are  to  Hiil  on  the 
Wednesday,  I  shall  come  to  Dundee  (which  is  thirty  miles  from 
Montrose)  to  receive  you,  and  bring  yon  to  my  house. 

^'  I  forbear  to  say  any  thing  in  relation  to  my  deaiest  sons ; 
but  we  shall  hare  much  to  communicate  on  that  painful  subject. 

^^  I  shall  do  all  in  my  power  to  shew  you  how  highly  I  priie 
the  convincing  proofs  you  give  me  of  your  devotion  and  attach- 
ment to  Sir  Alexander  while  alive,  and  of  your  veneration  for 
his  memory  now  that  he  Lb  no  more. 

^^  Believe  me,  dear  Sir, 

''  Your  £EUthful  friend, 

''Montrose,  Sept  1844.  ''J.  Burnbs. 

^  Mrs.  Bumes  begs  to  join  me  in  kindest  compliments,  and  in 
assuring  you  of  a  kind  welcome." 

Oct.  23. — After  a  pleasant  joamey,  partly  by  a 
steamer,  partly  by  the  railroad,  and  partly  by  the 
mail-coach,  I  arrived  at  Montrose,  and  found  Messrs. 
Adam  and  David  Bumes  both  waiting  on  the  road 
for  me.  I  had  written  to  the  good  old  gentleman, 
their  father,  not  to  trouble  himself  in  the  cold 
weather  to  meet  me  on  the  way,  as  he  had  kindly 
intended.  However,  I  found  him  at  the  door  of  his 
house.  My  meeting  with  the  fieither  and  mother  of 
one  whom  I  respected,  and  with  whom  I  had  passed 
much  happy  time  while  under  his  orders,  was  very 
exciting  on  both  sides.  The  tears  flowed  from  the 
eyes  of  his  parents  when  they  most  affectionately 
embraced  me,  who  reminded  them  of  their  beloved 
and  highly-promising  sons,  assassinated  at  the  out- 
break at  Kabul.     I  delivered  them  the  papers  and 


private  journal  of  Sir  A.  Bume8»*  written  down  to 
the  evening  preceding  his  murder.  I  was  also  intro- 
duced to  Lord  Panmure.  I  met  the  parents  of  my 
regretted  fiiend,  Sir  Alexander  Bumes,  again  on 
the  22nd  December,  1846,  in  Edinburgh,  whither  I 
was  invited  by  my  kind  masonic  brother,  Mr.  Laurie, 
secretary  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland.  I  re- 
ceived a  most  cordial  and  warm  reception  irom  his 
cheerful  family  and  his  fiiends. 

Oct.  28. — I  started  from  Montrose,  and  on  my 
arrival  at  the  Douglas  Hotel  in  Edinburgh,  I  found 
an  obliging  letter  from  my  old,  kind  and  good- 
hearted  friend.  Sir  John  Macneill,  and  went  next 
morning  to  reside  in  his  house.  I  enjoyed  all  the 
time  of  my  stay  there  with  him  and  Lady  Macneill. 
They  introduced  me  to  many  of  their  friends,  and 
took  me  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Steel,  the  sculptor, 
where  I  saw  some  of  his  elegant  statues.  He  also 
introduced  me  to  his  brother,  the  Lord-Advocate,  to 
whom  I  am  indebted  for  many  letters  of  introduc- 
tion to  his  friends  in  Ireland.  It  was  a  new  sight 
to  me  in  Britain,  to  see  some  of  Sir  John's  rooms 
adorned  after  the  Persian  manner,  and  decorated 
with  a  beautiful  display  of  Persian  rarities,  and  car- 
pets. Sir  John  kindly  gave  me  a  note  to  a  friend 
in  London,  requesting  him  to  point  out  to  me  a 

*  I  was  very  much  anrprised  to  hear  in  England,  thai  somer 
nnjust  and  most  false  stories  were  spread  against  the  private 
character  of  this  officer.  I  wiU  mention,  in  my  succeeding  work, 
how  fkr  he  was  hlameable,  and  how  mnch  his  memory  is  abused. 


jeweller  who  would  repair  my  deoorotion  of  tb^ 
Persian  Order  of  the  Lion  and  Sun,  whieh  was 
granted  to  me  through  his  fieLvonr  in  1832,  whea 
I  was  employed  by  him  to  confer  with  Shah 
Kamran,  of  Herat*  In  the  Kabul  disasters,  ihia 
decoration  was  stolen  from  me,  and  re*purohased  by 
me,  after  being  much  injured.  A  great  many  gen* 
tlemen  in  Edinburgh  shewed  me  much  attention* 
particularly  Dr.  Macwhirther,  who  knew  my  &ther  ; 
Mr.  Alexandw  Ross,  formerly  member  of  Council, 
at  Calcutta ;  Mr.  Greorge  Swinton,  secretary  to  the 
Supreme  Government  of  India,  and  Major  Davidson, 
whom  I  had  seen  with  the  late  General  Adam.  Dr. 
Macwhirther  and  his  amiable  daughter  took  me  to 
hear  a  sermon  by  Dr.  Muir,  which  was  delightful, 
containing  good  advice,  productive  of  everlasting 
happiness.  Captain  Glegg  accompanied  me  to  all 
the  places  of  note  in  the  city.  The  mayor  was 
so  kind  as  to  place  me  by  his  side  to  see  how 
the  business  in  his  court  was  conducted.  I  paid 
a  very  hurried  visit  to  the  college,  the  hospital, 
the  museum,  the  public  library,  and  the  castle. 
Each  presented  to  me  new  cause  for  admiration. 

Edinburgh  is  a  beautifiil  town,  and  commands  a 
charming  view  on  all  sides  from  its  elevated  situa- 
tion. The  streets  are  good,  but  do  not  appear  much 
peopled.  The  inhabitants  shew  a  healthier  com- 
plexion than  those  of  England,  but  cannot  rival 
them  in  beauty  or  dress.  They  are  a  very  hospitable 
and  obliging  nation,  far  from  indulging  in  any  unbe* 


(MHBiog  pTide»  aiid  free  from  canity.  I  regretted 
very  much  that  I  could  not  go  to  the  HigblandSt 
ibough  I  bad  many  invitatioiui  from  the  ohiefs  of 
that  comitry. 

My  feUow^priaoner  at  Kabal»  Captain  Drum- 
niondy  &Youred  me  with  a  visit,  and  the  peruflal  of 
a  yery  able  paper  he  has  written  on  the  mines  and 
productions  of  Afghanistan*  Sir  William  Allan,  the 
&mous  artist,  begged  my  host.  Sir  John  Macneill,  to 
ask  me  to  give  him  a  few  sittings,  and  he  has  drawn 
and  painted  a  very  good  portrait  of  me,  which 
appeared  in  the  exhibition  of  pictures  for  last 

Nov.  11. — I  took  leave  of  my  kind   host  and 
hostess.  Sir  John  and  Lady  Macneill.  Captain  Glegg 
accompanied  me  to  Glasgow,  where  I  received  every 
eivility  from  Sir  James  and  Lady  Campbell.     His 
brother,  Mr.  W.  Campbell,  shewed  me  the  manu- 
factories belonging  to  his  brother,  and  innumerable 
specimens   of  different  sorts  of  cloth.     Here  were 
about  700  girls  doing  work  which  could  not  properly 
be  done  by  the  steam-machine.  In  the  evening  I  was 
invited  to  dinner  at  the  Club  of  Highlanders,  where 
every  member  appeared  in  the  national  costume. 
It  was  a  most  striking  scene,  and  their  manner  of 
living,  their  robes,  their  conversation,  and  their  arms 
altogether,  made  a  fair  shew  of  their  bravery,  their 
hospitality,  and  their  kind  disposition. 

Glasgow  is  not  a  clean  place,  but  the  manufactories 
in  its  neighbourhood  have  made  it  a  rich  town,  t 


Nod.  12  to  Dec.  12. — After  a  calm  passage,  I 
landed  in  Dublin,  the  metropolis  of  Ireland,  and 
took  up:  my  quarters  in  the  Bilton  Hotel,  SackviUei- 
street.    Lady  Jemima  and  Lord  Eliot  (how  Coun- 
tess and  Earl  of  St.  Germans)  inyited  me'  to  their 
dinners,  and  to  their  splendid  balls,  frequently,  and 
have  shewn  me  ever  since  the  most    kind  and 
friendly  attention.     They  introduced  me  to  many 
people  of  distinction  in  Ireland;  and,  whereyer  I 
went,  I  found  these  amiable  personages  respected  and 
beloved  by  all.     Lord  and  Lady  Donoughmore  and 
Lady  Charlotte  Wolff  treated  me  in  a  Yery  friendly 
manner,  as  well  as  Captain  and  Lady  Emily  Seymour, 
whose  lovely  children  were  the  only  ones  who  would 
sit  on  my  knee  without  fear  or  hesitation,  and  they 
still  remember  me  as  '^  the  foreign  gentleman  in  the 
beautiful  dress."     To  these  kind  -friends  I  may  add 
the  names  of  Colonel  and  Mrs.  Browne,  Colonel 
Macgregor,  the  Right  Hon.  T.  B.  Smith,  the  Bight 
Hon.  Frederick  Shaw,  the  Right  Hon.  T.  B.  Ken- 
nedy, and  the  Right  Hon.  T.  B.  Blake.     The  Pro- 
vost accompanied  me,  and  shewed  me  the  college  aind 
library ;  both  are  miagnificent,  and  look  prosperous 
under  his  superintendence.     The  Earl  of  Clare,  to 
whom  I  was  not  personally  known,  having  heard  of 
my  arrival,  honoured  me  with  a  visit.     Mr.  R.  P. 
Williams,  a  wealthy  merchant,   and  his  excellent 
parents,  invited  me  to  their  beautiful  house,  named 
Drumcandra.     From  Dr.  Palmer,  and  his  brother, 
T.  Palmer,  Esq.,  I  roceived  great  attention,  kindness. 


and  courtesy.  The  latter  was  of  much  use  to  me 
in  Dublin  and  London  ;  his  friendly  conduct  to- 
wards me  gave  me  frequent  proofis  of  his  good 
breeding)  sense,  honour,  and  benevolence;  and  I 
feel  oyerpowered  by  a  sense  of  gratitude  for  his 
generous  appreciation  of  my  good  wishes.  He 
mentioned,  one  day,  that  he  had  married  the  sister 
of  a  very  high  person,  a  captain  in  the  army,  who 
was  in  Afghanistan.  I  found  afterwards  that  he 
was  right,  when  that  officer  wrote,  that  while  he 
was  in  India  he  had  in  his  service  many  servants, 
and  one  munshi  (though  I  never  had  that  title  offi- 
cially since  1832)  like  myself ;  meaning,  of  course, 
at  my  salary  of  £80  a  month,  which  no  officer  in  a 
regiment,  but  of  an  independent  and  hereditary  for- 
tune, can  afford  to  pay.  Mr.  Palmer  has  kindly 
given  me  much  friendly  advice,  and  taught  me  how 
to  behave,  and  bow  fiar  to  trust  and  oblige  friends. 
His  letter,  of  date  10th  July,  was  exceedingly 
kind,  and  showed  the  nobleness  of  his  mind.  I 
cannot  find  it  to  insert  here  at  this  time. 

In  company  with  Mr.  Curran  I  paid  a  hurried 
visit  to  the  Model  School  in  Dublin,  and  was  received 
very  kindly  by  Mr.  Macdonald,  the  secretary,  and 
the  young  students,  about  600,  of  both  sexes.  Their 
answers  to  the  numerous  questions  in  the  examina- 
tion were  wonderfully  correct  and  astonishing.  His 
Grace  the  Archbishop  was  present,  and  kindly  sent 
me  a  great  number  of  the  various  books  studied  in 


the  school.  .  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Mr.  Ciu> 
ran  at  dinner  in  the  house  of  my  yeiy  kind  friend, 
Dr.  Fleming,  who  has  ever  since  been  yeiy  obliging 
to  me.  He  is  truly  an  amiable  person,  of  great 
sense  and  integrity.  I  also  reoetved  very  kind 
attention  £rom  Mr.  Brewster,  as  also  from  Mr* 

Before  my  departure  from  London,  Mr.  MelviU, 
secretary  to  the  Honourable  the  East-India  Com* 
pahy,  sent  me  two  letters,  which  I  found  were  from 
Lord  Altamont  (now  Marquis  of  Sligo),  inviting  me 
to  visit  him  at  Westport.  Sir  Greorge  Arthur,  and 
his  son.  Captain  Arthur,  in  Bombay,  had  informed 
his  lordship  of  my  coming  to  England,  and  the  let- 
ters will  shew  that  I  had  never  seen  him  in  India, 
nor  in  the  cantonment  of  Meerut,  as  the  noble 
officer,  the  relative  of  my  friend,  Mr.  T.  Palmer, 
wrote.     The  letters  are  as  follow : 

^^  Lord  Altamont  presents  his  compliments  to  Mohan  Lai,  and 
having  heard  that  Captain  Arthur  had  been  so  kind  as  to  favour 
him  with  an  introduction  by  letter  to  Mohan  Lai,  he  taketf  the 
liberty  of  addressing  him  at  once  to  know  if  he  can  be  of  any 
service  to  him  in  any  way;  Lord  Altamont  regrets  that  his 
absence  from  London  will  prevent  his  calling  in  person,  but  will 
gladly  hear  of  any  opportunity  of  seeing  him.  Should  Mohan 
Lai  visit  Ireland,  he  will  be  most  welcome  at  Westport  House 
(Lord  Altamont's  father  s  house)  for  as  long  as  it  may  suit  him 
to  stay." 

"  Wettport  HousBy  We^tporty 
'' Sli^Oy  Ireland." 


''  Wuijwriy  Ncwmber  IBik^  1844. 
''  My  dear  Sir, 
^'  I  have  this  day  reoeived  your  letter,  and  regret  yeiy 
much  that  yon  should  have  heen  delayed  by  any  mistake  about 
my  not  being  here.  I  am  staying  here,  though  without  the  rest 
of  my  family,  and  shall  be  most  glad  to  reoeire  you  here  as  soon 
as  convenient,  and  hope  at  some  future  period  to  introdoee  yoo 
to  my  family  in  London.  With  best  wishes  for  your  journey 
here,  which  I  am  looking  forward  to  with  much  pleasure, 

"  Yours,  yery  sincerely, 

"  Altamont." 

Accordingly,  I  set  out  by  mail-coach  to  Westport, 
county  of  Sligo,  and  after  a  tedious  journey  of  eigh- 
teen hours,  reached  Westport  House.  The  Marquis 
of  Sligo  was  waiting  on  the  road  in  his  carriage,  and 
my  interview  with  him  was  very  satis&ctory.  He 
drove  me  to  his  princely  residence,  which  is  larger 
than  any  other  house  I  have  seen.  I  passed  a 
very  happy  time  with  his  lordship.  He  and  all  his 
relations  afterwards  behaved  most  kindly  to  me. 

Ireland  is  a  beautiful  country,  and  always  green, 
on  which  account  it  has  received  the  name  of  **  the 
Emerald  Island.''  The  land  and  the  people  towards 
the  county  of  Sligo  are  very  poor ;  and  it  was  heart- 
rending to  see  the  men  and  women,  with  large 
iamilies,  walking  without  shoes  and  sufficient  clothing 
in  the  most  piercing  cold.  The  natives  of  Ireland 
are  hospitable,  and  I  was  welcomed  in  every  cottage, 
ttid  the  &rmers  appeared  delighted  to  present  me 
with  a  piece  of  bread  and  some  porter ;  but  gene- 
rally I  saw  the  poor  inhabitants  living  entirely  on 


potatoes.  Ireland  is  undoubtedly  not  in  better  condi- 
tion, and  is  suffering  under  great  distress ;  therefore, 
the  people  unhappily  but  too  reasonably  complain. 
I  was  told  afterwards  by  the  English  that  the  Irish 
are  neither  constant  nor  judicious  in  their  words  or 
manners ;  it  may  be  so  amongst  the  lowest  class, 
but  for  my  part,  I  found  all  my  friends  and  acquaint- 
ances in  Ireland  kind-hearted  and  hospitable.  The 
English  say  that  the  men  and  women  in  Ireland 
become  familiar  sooner  than  those  of  England,  and 
then,  forgetting  the  obligations  of  intimacy,  sud- 
denly break  the  ties  of  friendship.  They  may  be 
right  in  this  opinion  with  regard  to  some,  but  I 
declare  that  the  families  of  the  noblemen  and  gentle- 
men with  whom  I  am  acquainted  in  Ireland  are 
perfectly  free  from  this  accusation. 

Dublin,  the  pretty  capital  of  Ireland,  contains  a 
most  beautiiul  street,  named  Sackville-atreet.  The 
natives  are  not  so  gaudy  in  their  attire  as  those  of 
England.  The  ladies  have  good  features,  and  amia- 
ble manners,  and  might  be  distinguished  from  crowds 
of  any  other  nation.  Father  Mathew  and  Mr. 
0*Connell  are  men  of  high  principles  in  Ireland. 
The  former  has  recommended  water  in  preference 
to  wine,  and  the  latter  has  devoted  himself  to  the 
welfieire  of  his  distressed  countrymen. 

I  must  not  leave  Dublin  without  recording  the 
unfeigned  sentiment  of  heartfelt  and  everlasting 
thanks  for  the  kindness  and  hospitality  I  expe- 
rienced from  Sir  Hopton  and  Lady  Scott,  and  their 


elieerful  family.  I  often  passed  days  and  nights 
with  this  lovely  circle  in  their  romantic  residence 
named  Woodville.  I  am  deeply. indebted  to  her 
ladyship  for  her  kind  admonitions,  and  her  good 
wishes  for  my  welfare.  There  are  several  other 
gentlemen  and. ladies  to  whom  I  owe  thanks  for 
their  kind  treatment,  but  the  mention  of  their 
names  separately  would  enlarge  the  work  beyond 
due  bounds. 

Dec.  13. — I  embarked  on  board  the  Iron  Duke 
steamer,  and  after  a  rough  passage,  landed  next  day 
in  Liverpool.  Mr.  Lawrence,  the  Mayor,  kindly 
sent  his  carriage  for  me,  and  also  ordered  the  Go- 
vernment steamer  to  take  me  and  shew  me  the 
docks.  He  asked  me  to  stay  another  day  to  meet 
Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  who  has  ever  shewn  me 
every  civility  and  attention,  when  I  happened  to 
see  him  in  different  parties.  At  dinner,  the  speech 
of  Lord  Stanley  was  splendid^  and  the  speeches  of 
Lord  Sandon  and  Sir  Henry,  eloquent.  I  passed  very 
agreeable  nights  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Cropper,  a 
relation  of  Mr.  Trevelyan.  The  whole  family  forms 
a  true  picture  of  the  happiness  and  peace  found  in 
the  Christian  faith,  and  their  n\oming  prayers  be-» 
fore  breakfast,  before  daylight,  with  candles  burning, 
pleased  me  beyond  any  thing,  and  I  always  felt 
myself  happy  to  be  present  at  that  time  with  them. 
They  shewed  me  every  place  worth  seeincr,  and 
above  all,  Mr.  Smith,  their  friend,  conducted  me  to 
a  manu&ctopy,  where  I  was  astonished  to. see  large 

512  ENGLAND,   8D0TLAND, 

mirrors  of  glass  made.     The  process  is  wonderful, 
and  I  cannot  describe  it  well. 

Liverpool  is  a  large  sea -port  and  commereU 
town.  Here  are  ships  of  all  nations,  and  people 
of  different  countries.  The  docks  are  very  large, 
and  some  of  the  streets  well  paved.  I  went  with 
Mrs.  Cropper  to  visit  the  School  of  the  Deaf  and 
Dumb,  and  indeed  I  was  struck  with  wonder  at 
their  progress,  and  the  rapidity  with  which  thej 
replied  to  questions  in  writing,  and  understood  their 
teacher,  and  conversed  with  each  other,  bynumber* 
ing  the  letters  of  the  alphabet  on  the  fingers.  Here 
were  some  very  handsome  girls,  of  high  family, 
placed  separately  from  the  rest ;  one  of  them  wrote 
a  note  to  me  in  a  beautiful  style  and  penmanship. 
The  Mayor  took  me  with  him  to  witness  the  launch 
6f  the  Q96ee9^  a  steanver  just  built.  She  went  down 
the  shore  so  smoothly  that  I  was  astonished  by 
her  rapidity ;  it  was  a  new  sight  to  me. 

Dec.  20. — After  passing  through  several  manu^* 
fkctories  in  Manchester,  where  all  sorts  of  flowered 
and  plain  muslins,  as  well  as  chintzes,  are  made  for 
the  Indian  market,  I  came  to  Birmingham.  I  there 
saw  manufactories  of  guns,  cannon,  and  needles,  all 
done  by  the  steam-machine.  The  towns  of  Man^- 
chester  and  of  Birmingham  are  not  very  dean,  but 
are  marts  of  considerable  trade. 

Jan.  1,  1845.  London. — ^Sir  Robert  and  Lady 
Inglis  possess  really  kind  and  benevolent  hearts^ 
They  invited  me  fiequentiy,  and  I  was  introdaced 


to  some  very  high  men  at  their  table.  The  relations 
of  the  late  Sir  William  Macnaghten  treated  me 
with  great  kindness,  and  I  often  dined  with  his 
good  sister,  Mrs.  Chapman,  and  also  with  Mrs.  F. 
Macnaghten,  the  sister  of  my  most  lamented  friend 
Captain  John  ConoUy,  to  whom  I  was  much 
attached.  It  is  hardly  in  my  power  to  describe 
the  cordial  treatment  I  received  from  Lord  and 
Lady  Palmerston,  Sir  John  Hobhouse,  the  Marquis 
of  Lansdowne,  and  Lord  Auckland.  They  invited 
me  to  their  evening  parties,  and  to  dinners,  and 
shewed  themselves  desirous  to  promote  my  interests. 

March  4. — Mr.  G.  E.  Anson,  secretary  to  his 
Royal  Highness  Prince  Albert,  sent  me  a  note 
desiring  me  to  wait  on  his  Royal  Highness,  at 
Bnckingham  Palace.  The  elegant  and  agreeable 
manners,  mingled  with  kind  and  generous  feelings, 
of  the  Prince,  are  beyond  any  praise.  His  know- 
ledge of  passing  events  in  Asia,  and  the  outbreak  at 
Kabul,  surprised  me.  The  popularity  and  affection 
which  he  has  gained  from  all  parties  in  England 
are  wonderful,  and  shew  very  rare  and  extraordi- 
nary qualities.  He  received  me  very  kindly,  and 
after  a  long  conversation,  I  left  the  palace  with 
sentiments  of  deep  respect  and  grateful  satis&ction. 
I  had  the  honour  of  meeting  the  Prince  at  Lord 
Northampton's  sovrie^  and  other  places,  frequently 
afterwards,  and  the  more  I  saw  of  his  Royal  High- 
ness, the  more  kind  I  found  him. 

March  5, — Mr.  (now  Sir  Emerson)  Tennent 


wrote  a  very  kind  note,  stating  that  the  Earl  of 
Ripon,  president  of  the  India  Board,  had  a  high 
opinion  of  my  humble  services;  but  that  as  the 
result  of  my  claims  was  pending  upon  the  decision 
of  the  Court  of  Directors  and  his  lordship,  it  would 
be  advisable  that  I  should  be  presented  to  her 
Majesty  through  some  channel  independent  of 
Government.  It  was  therefore  that  the  noble  and 
benevolent  Lord  Ashley  took  me  in  his  carriage^ 
and  presented  me  to  her  Most  Gracious  Majesty 
Queen  Victoria.  I  was  also  invited  to  her  Majesty's 
ball  in  Buckingham  Palace.  The  court  was  very 
full,  and  the  rooms  exceedingly  warm.  All  the 
ministers  of  state,  the  foreign  ambassadors,  and  the 
nobility  and  gentry  of  England,  in  their  different 
costumes,  bowing  and  passing  before  her  Majesty, 
exhibited  a  magnificent  sight;  but  the  rooms  are 
not  well  adapted,  nor  sufficiently  spacious.  The 
drawing-rooms  of  her  Majesty,  where  all  the  ladies 
are  presented,  exhibit  a  great  profusion  of  beauty, 
of  rich  dresses  and  jewels.  The  royal  balls  are 
beyond  any  thing  of  the  kind  in  the  world.  One 
who  is  as  fortunate  as  myself  to  be  invited  will  see 
an  assembly  of  noble  ladies  with  charming  counte- 
nances, and  elegant  robes  covered  with  diamonds, 
joining  in  the  dance,  which,  although  dazzling,  yet 
becomes  brighter  and  more  beautiful  when  her 
Majesty  and  her  royal  consort,  Prince  Albert,  take 
part  in  the  dance.  In  so  large  a  company  the 
Queen  appeared  to  me  the  most  graceful  in  the 


daneet  Bmiling  and  looking  now  and  then  graciously 
towiirds  her  royal  hust^nd'  I  kept  my  humble  eyes 
unweariedly  fixed  upon  her  Majesty  and  the  Prince, 
while  they  were  danciiig,  and  I  read  with  inex- 
pressible delight  in  their  countenances  that  they 
have  a  deep  attachpient  to  each  other. 

I  submittied  to  the  Court  of  Directors  a  memorial 
of  my  services  while  employed  by  the  Supreme 
Grovenunent  of  India,  in  Central  Asia,  and  in  yarious 
diplomatic  missions  and  capacities.  The  Chairman 
and  Court,  in  conjunction  with  the  President  of  the 
Board  of  Control,  took  an  impartial  view  of  my 
statement,  and  granted  me  a  reward  for  my  services. 
The  Chairman  added,  that,  as  I  was  yet  a  young 
person,  I  should  have  many  other  opportunities  of 
establishing  further  claims  by  good  services  to  the 
Honourable  Company,  and  ^hen  I  get  old,  or  retire, 
the  Government  would  take  all  my  services  into 
re^consideration,  and  reward  me  accordingly.  All 
the  authorities  at  the  India-House  and  the  Board 
of  Control,  after  a  full  consideration  of  my  case, 
treated  me  with  marked  kindness,  and  admitted  me 
to  an  interview  whenever  I  desired  it.  For  these 
favours  I  beg  to  tender  my  humble  and  grateful 
thanks  to  these  high  authorities.  Mr.  George  Clerk 
honoured  me  with  his  visit,  and  as  he  knew  my 
services,  he  stated  that,  •'  I  fully  deserved  the  re- 
ward Government  gave  me." 

It  would  be  tedious  to  mention  the  names  of 
the  gentlemen  and  ladies  who  have  been  attentive 


to  me,  and  to  describe  the  unceasing  kindness, 
civilities,  and  support  I  received  from  them.  There 
are  many  noblemen,  naval,  military,  and  civil  officers, 
here  and  in  India,  vrho  have  shewn  me  the  highest 
consideration.  Captain  J.  Lewis,  of  Madras,  ne- 
phew to  the  late  Sir  Charles  Wilkins,  the  great 
orientalist,  assisted  me  materially.  We  became 
acquainted  on  board  the  steamer,  and  lived  very 
agreeably  together  for  a  long  time.  He  has  an  ex- 
cellent taste  and  capacity,  and  I  discovered,  on 
many  occasions,  that  his  head  was  always  full  of 
most  amusing  anecdotes.  He  has  a  great  quick- 
ness in  writing  and  fluency  in  speaking,  and  his 
mind  is  stored  with  extensive  knowledge.  These 
talents,  and  his  comely  figure,  make  him  to  be  ad- 
mired and  respected  by  both  sexes.  He  has  been 
already  in  the  service  of  his  country  for  twenty- 
seven  years,  twenty-three  of  which  in  India;  yet  he 
is  regardless  of  the  comforts  of  private  life,  and 
though  he  has  a  private  income,  he  talks  of  serving 
his  country  two  dozen  years  more,  and  then  retura- 
ing  to  marry,  and  live  with  his  family.  He  was  of 
great  service  to  me,  and  I  feel  thankful  to  him, 
while  we  lived  together.  He  held  a  staff  appoint- 
ment at  Vellore,  and  had  charge  of  the  Mysore 
families.  In  returning  thanks,  or  making  a  speech, 
he  is  a  most  eloquent  person,  and  has  a  wonder- 
ful command  and  flow  of  words.  Lord  and  Lady 
Bolton,  and  Mr.  John  Orde  and  his  lady,  have 
shewti  much  civility  to  me.     Mrs.  Orde  has  been 


excessively  kind,  and  treats  me  as  a  son.  She  has 
given  me  much  good  advice*  My  humble  thanks 
are  due  to  the  Oriental,  Carlton,  Travellers',  Junior, 
and  United  Service,  Star,  and  Victoria  Yacht  Clubs, 
for  inviting  me  as  an  honorary  member ;  and  I  have 
enjoyed  a  great  many  advantages  by  the  privilege 
of  that  distinguished  name  which  the  members  have 
bestowed  upon  me. 

The  manners,  customs,  life,  and  modes  of  society 
in  England  are  of  an  elegant  and  refined  style.  No 
country  takes  such  pains  in  cultivating  knowledge, 
and  no  parents  are  so  desirous  of  rendering  their 
children  accomplished,  by  expense  and  anxious  care 
as  those  of  Britain.  They  ask  and  find  out  from  a 
son  his  taste  and  wish,  and  educate  him  to  meet  the 
duties  of  the  profession  he  chooses,  whether  in  civil 
life,  in  the  law,  navy,  army,  or  whatever  it  may  be ; 
and  then  using  their  best  influence,  will  have  him 
launched  into  the  world.  They  never  expect  his 
support  themselves;  the  only  thing  wanted  after- 
wards from  the  son  is,  that  he  should  prosper.  The 
girls  are  brought  up  under  the  careful  eyes  of  their 
mother;  and  when  they  are  accomplished  in  lan- 
guages and  manners,  the  parents  spare  no  expense 
or  fatigue  to  introduce  them  into  society,  where  they 
have  a  difficult  office  to  perform.  The  young  lady 
must  have  agreeable  manners,  and  be  able  to  sing, 
dance,  and  read,  write,  and  speak  French,  if  not 
other  foreign  languages.  The  parents  give  parties, 
and  invite  all  their  fashionable  acquaintance,   and 


feel  proud  if  their  daughter  wins  the  heart  of  a 
respectable  person.  But,  alas !  these  accomplish- 
ments, added  to  miracles  of  beauty,  are  considered 
matters  of  secondary  value;  the  lady  must  have  money 
for  her  husband,  or  have  a  prospect  that  he  will  have 
it  when  the  parents  die !  In  all  the  Asiatic  coun- 
tries, if  a  woman  remains  unmarried  after  her  pro-* 
per  age,  she  is  looked  upon  and  respected  as  a  saint, 
and  this  is  very  rare  too ;  but  England  will  astonish 
Asiatics  by  producing  thousands  of  saints,  or  unmar- 
ried ladies  of  mature  age,  bearing  the  name  of  '"Miss," 
and  wearing  the  dress  and  ornaments  of  a  young 
lady  of  fifteen  years  of  age.  When  I  first  arrived  in 
England,  I  felt  myself  in  an  awkward  position,  when 
addressing  an  old  lady  by  the  name  of  ''  Miss,"  and 
using  the  same  word  to  a  younger  one  who  looked  like 
the  grand-daughter  of  the  older  lady.  When  people 
talk  of  marriage,  the  first  question  is,  *^  Has  she  mo- 
ney?" A  gentleman  will  dance  with  and  flatter  many 
ladies  in  parties,  but  he  will  prefer  and  marry  the  one 
who  has,  or  will  have,  most  money,  even  though  she 
be  ugly  and  not  accomplished.  In  this  case  the  lady 
is  sensible  that  she  has  no  charms  but  those  of  her 
bank-notes ;  and  yet  the  rule  of  society  keeps  all 
these  things  buried  in  the  hearts  of  the  newly  mar- 
ried, and  their  style  of  addressing  and  of  writing 
to  each  other  will  be  just  as  if  mutual  love  had 
wrought  upon  each  other's  mind.  Age,  also,  is  not 
considered  a  matter  of  consequence,  if  he  or  she  be 
rich.     Yet  there  are  many  instances  of  true  affec- 


tion»  and  of  happy  marriages.  There  is  a  place 
named  Gretna  Green,  in  Scotland,  where  a  person, 
not  a  priest,  who  is  called  in  the  newspapers  a  black- 
smith, by  the  law  of  that  country,  has  a  right  to 
marry  parties  under  age,  without  the  sanction  of 
their  parents,  and  without  any  of  the  forms  neces- 
sary in  England.  In  my  sojourn  at  London  a  cir^ 
cumstance  of  true  attachment  happened,  and  a  lady 
of  noble  &mily  was  married  at  Gretna  Green.  The 
ladies  in  England  are  sincere  and  pure-hearted; 
they  are  adorned  with  every  accomplishment,  and 
deserve  the  highest  honour  and  respect  that  is 
paid  to  the  &ir  sex.  No  intrigues  and  false  show 
of  flattery  find  any  place  in  their  mind,  and  if  any 
thing  disreputable  happens,  it  is  g